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Naphthalene(CAS No. 91-20-3)

Naphthalene C10H8 (cas 91-20-3) Molecular Structure

91-20-3 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Naphthalene
【CAS Registry number】
91-20-3
【Synonyms】
naphthalene, pure
Melting point standard naphthalene
'LGC' (2402)
'LGC' (2603)
1-NAPHTHALENE
TAR CAMPHOR
NAPTHALENE
NAPTHALIN
NAPHTHENE
【EINECS(EC#)】
202-049-5
【Molecular Formula】
C10H8 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
128.17
【Inchi】
InChI=1/C10H8/c1-2-6-10-8-4-3-7-9(10)5-1/h1-8H
【InChIKey】
UFWIBTONFRDIAS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
C1=CC=C2C=CC=CC2=C1
【MOL File】
91-20-3.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white to almost white crystals, crystalline flakes
【Density】
0.99
【Melting Point】
79-83℃
【Boiling Point】
218℃
【Refractive Index】
1.5821
【Flash Point】
78℃
【Water】
H2O: 30 mg/L (25 °C)
【Solubilities】
H2O: 30 mg/L (25 °C)
【Color/Form】
WHITE, CRYSTALLINE FLAKES OR SOLID
WHITE SCALES, BALLS, POWDER OR CAKES
MONOCLINIC PLATES FROM ALCOHOL
Colorless to brown solid ... [Note: Shipped as a molten solid].
【Stability】
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Volatile in steam.
【HS Code】
29029010
【Storage temp】
APPROX 4°C
【Spectral properties】
MAX ABSORPTION (ALCOHOL): 221 NM (LOG E= 5.04); 275.5 NM (LOG E= 3.76); 286 NM (LOG E= 3.59); 311 NM (LOG E= 2.38)
SADTLER REF NUMBER: 865 (IR, PRISM): 169 (IR, GRATING)
Ultraviolet absorption: several characteristic bands between 217.5 and 320 nm in hexane
Purple fluorescence in Hg light (petroleum ether soln)
Index of refraction: 1.58212 at 100 deg C/D
Index of refraction: 1.4003 @ 24 deg C/D
Intense mass spectral peaks: 128 m/z (100%), 51 m/z (13%), 129 m/z (11%), 64 m/z (11%)
IR: 5547 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 265 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
NMR: 62 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Prism Collection)
MASS: 2250 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:128.17052 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C10H8
XLogP3:3.3
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:0
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:128.0626
MonoIsotopic Mass:128.0626
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:10
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:80.6
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Ring Count:2
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn:Harmful;N:Dangerousfortheenvironment;
【Risk Statements】
R22;R40;R50/53
【Safety Statements 】
S36/37;S46;S60;S61
【HazardClass】
4.1
【Safety】

Hazard Codes: HarmfulXn,DangerousN,FlammableF,ToxicT
Risk Statements: 22-40-50-67-65-38-11-39/23/24/25-52/53
R11: Highly flammable. 
R22: Harmful if swallowed. 
R38: Irritating to skin. 
R40: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. 
R50: Very toxic to aquatic organisms. 
R65: Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.
R67: Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. 
R52/53: Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. 
R39/23/24/25: Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
Safety Statements: 36/37-46-60-61-62-45-16-7
S36/37: Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. 
S46: If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label. 
S60: This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. 
S61: Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets. 
S62: If swallowed, do not induce vomitting; seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label. 
S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.) 
S16: Keep away from sources of ignition. 
S7: Keep container tightly closed.
RIDADR: UN 1334 4.1/PG 3
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: QJ0525000
HazardClass: 4.1
PackingGroup: III
HS Code: 29029010

【PackingGroup 】
III
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Irritating to skin ... does occur. Vapors can cause eye irritation at concn of 15 ppm in air. ...
Continuous handling of naphthalene may produce a dermatitis characterized by itching, redness, scaling, weeping and crusting of the skin.
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill booms to limit spill travel. Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom. Remove trapped material with suction hoses. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Remove trapped material with suction hoses. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Naphthalene, crude or refined/
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. /Naphthalene, crude or refined/
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. /Naphthalene, molten/
If naphthalene is spilled, the following steps should be taken: 1) Ventilate area of spill. 2) For small quantities, sweep onto paper or other suitable material, place in an appropriate container and burn in a safe place (such as a fume hood).
Data on the solubilization of p-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, and biphenyl in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecylsulfate (0-100 nM concentration) indicate increases in effective solubilities of these hydrophobic compounds by factors of roughly 20 to 100. p-Dichlorobenzene is effectively removed from spiked clay-sand mixtures by leaching with sodium dodecylsulfate solutions in laboratory columns. Surfactant solutions loaded with p-dichlorobenzene are satisfactorily treated by gentle extraction with hexane, and the recovered surfactant solution satisfactorily solubilizes biphenyl. A simple model for predicting the solubilization behavior of surfactants is developed and tested experimentally.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Transport】
UN 1334 4.1/PG 3
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. /Naphthalene, crude or refined/
If material on fire or involved in fire: Solid streams of water may spread fire. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use dry chemical, graphite or dry earth. /Naphthalene, molten/
If material is on fire or involved in fire: Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Trade Names: Naphthalin, Tar Camphor
Available as flakes, cubes, spheres and powder.
Trade names: Tar camphor; moth balls; moth flakes; white tar; NCI-C52904; Mighty 150; camphor tar; mighty RDI; RCRA waste number U165; UN 1334; UN 2304.
DEZODORATOR
ALBOCARBON
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ Fire or Explosion: Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form at a temperature that may be above its flash point. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ Health: Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 25 meters (75 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ Protection Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, sand, earth, water spray or regular foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Small dry spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Large spills: Wet down with water and dike for later disposal. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
/GUIDE 133: FLAMMABLE SOLIDS/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Removal of solidified molten material from skin requires medical assistance. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Naphthalene, crude; Naphthalene, molten; Naphthalene, refined/
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Naphthalene ...will react violently with chromic anhydride.
Strong oxidizers, chromic anhydride.
Reacts violently with aluminum chloride and benzoyl chloride.
Naphthalene explodes... with the powerful oxidant /dinitrogen pentaoxide/.
This compound in a petroleum ether solution will give off purple fluorescence under a mercury light.
The molten form of this compound (>110 deg C) in contact with water, may result in violent foaming or the formation of highly reactive mixtures. When melted, it will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.
【Other Preventative Measures】
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing dusts, and fumes from burning material. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Naphthalene, molten/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Naphthalene, crude or refined/
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. /Naphthalene, crude or refined/
If material not on fire and not involved in a fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. /Naphthalene, molten/
Personnel protection: Keep upwind. Avoid breathing vapors. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Heat only in specifically-designed lamps. /Moth repellents/
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
Skin that becomes contaminated with liquid naphthalene should be immediately washed or showered with soap or mild detergent and water to remove any naphthalene.
Eating and smoking should not be permitted in areas where liquid naphthalene is handled, processed, or stored.
If an employees' clothing becomes contaminated with solid naphthalene, employees should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work area. Clothing contaminated with naphthalene should be placed into closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of the naphthalene from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or cleaned to remove the naphthalene, the person performing the operation should be informed of naphthalene's hazardous properties. Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated with naphthalene should be removed promptly and not reworn until the naphthalene is removed from the clothing.
If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (formerly Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) or by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation.
If material is not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard.
Molten naphthalene tank vents must be adequately heated and insulated to prevent the accumulation of sublimed and solidified naphthalene. A collapsed tank can result easily from pumping from a tank with a plugged vent.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
In case of aquatic contamination notify local health and wildlife officials and operators of nearby water intakes.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... Clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
USA BUREAU OF MINES APPROVED ORGANIC VAPOR CANISTER UNIT (USBM TYPE B), RUBBER GLOVES, CHEMICAL SAFETY GOGGLES; FACE SHIELD, COVERALLS &/OR RUBBER APRON, RUBBER SHOES OR BOOTS.
Respiratory protection for napthalene: Minimum respiratory protection required above 10 ppm: Particulate and vapor concentration: 500 ppm or less: Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a dust filter, or gas mask with an organic vapor canister (chin-style front- or back-mounted canister) with a dust filter, or any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece, helmet, or hood, or any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Greater than 500 ppm or entry and escape from unknown concentrations: Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode, or a combination respirator which includes a Type C supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode and an auxillary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode; Escape: Any gas mask providing protection against organic vapors and particulates, or any escape self-contained breathing apparatus.
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face-shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possibility of skin contact with naphthalene.
/IN/ EXPOSURE OF WORKMEN TO HIGH NAPHTHALENE CONCN, THE USE OF RESP PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT & CHEM-TYPE PLASTIC GOGGLES IS ESSENTIAL. PLASTIC FOOTWEAR & HANDWEAR MAY BE REQUIRED TO PROTECT SKIN. EMERGENCY SHOWERS & EYE FOUNTAINS SHOULD BE INSTALLED AT WORKPLACES WHERE THERE IS A DANGER OF EYE OR SKIN CONTAMINATION. SAFETY CLOTHING INCL APRONS & FACE SHIELDS ARE A NECESSARY PRECAUTION FOR PERSONS HANDLING LIQUID NAPHTHALENE THAT MAY COME IN CONTACT WITH WATER.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 100 ppm: (Assigned protection factor = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a dust and mist filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned protection factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 250 ppm: (Assigned protection factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a high-efficiency particulate filter/(Assigned protection factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a dust and mist filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode/(Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... Gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Specification】

General Information: As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Dusts at sufficient concentrations can form explosive mixtures with air. Will burn if involved in a fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Combustible solid.
Extinguishing Media: Use carbon dioxide or dry chemical 
Handling: Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Take precautionary measures against static discharges. Do not get on skin or in eyes. Do not ingest or inhale. Use only in a chemical fume hood.
Storage: Keep Naphthalene (CAS NO.91-20-3) away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow= 3.30
【Report】

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Community Right-To-Know List.

【Disposal Methods】
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U165, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
A GOOD CANDIDATE FOR ROTARY KILN INCINERATION AT A TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 820 TO 1,600 DEG C AND RESIDENCE TIMES OF SECONDS FOR LIQUIDS AND GASES, AND HOURS FOR SOLIDS. A GOOD CANDIDATE FOR FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATION AT A TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 450 TO 980 DEG C AND RESIDENCE TIMES OF SECONDS FOR LIQUIDS AND GASES, AND LONGER FOR SOLIDS.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for naphthalene: biological treatment.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for naphthalene: chemical precipitation.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for naphthalene: solvent extraction.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for naphthalene: activated carbon.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

The main feedstock for naphthalene production is coal tar. At an average content of around 10%, naphthalene represents the most important compound in high-temperature coal tar (coke-oven tar) in terms of quantity. It can already be concentrated to over 90% in primary tar distillation, in the naphthalene fraction boiling between 210 and 220 deg C, with a yield in excess of 90%. Further refining requires separation of the co-boiling compounds (phenols, nitrogen bases, benzo(b)thiophene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons.)
PREPN: MOST ABUNDANT SINGLE CONSTITUENT OF COAL TAR. DRY COAL TAR CONTAINS ABOUT 11%. CRYSTALLIZES FROM MIDDLE OR "CARBOLIC OIL" FRACTION OF DISTILLED TAR. PURIFIED BY HOT PRESSING, WHICH MAY BE FOLLOWED BY WASHING WITH SULFURIC ACID, SODIUM HYDROXIDE, & WATER, THEN BY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OR BY SUBLIMATION.
From coal tar oils boiling between 200 and 250 deg C (middle oil) by crystalization and distillation. (2) From petroleum fractions after varion catalytic processing operations
U.S. Exports

(1981) 2.0X10+9 G
(1985) 5.92X10+9 g
U.S. Imports

Naphthalene imports provided about 10-20% of the material consumed in the USA until ca 1963 when that percentage dropped to and leveled at less than 5%.
(1977) 4.1X10+9 G
(1982) 4.7X10+9 G
(1985) 2.22X10+7 g /Naphthalene solidifying under 79 deg C/
(1985) 4.79X10+7 g /Naphthalene solidifying at 79 deg C and over/
U.S. Production

(1974) 2.9X10+11 metric tons.
(1979) 3.24X10+11 g
(1980) 3.16X10+11 g
(1982) 3.17X10+11 g
(1977) 2.27X10+11 G
(1980) 2.04X10+11 G
Naphthalene production will grow at about GNP rate over the next five years. Coal-tar naphthalene production remained static from 1973-1977 at about 1.36X10+11 g. Little change is seen.
The total naphthalene capacity for all USA producers in 1979 was 324,000 metric tons with 206,000+ produced from coal tar and 118,000+ from petroleum.
(1984) 1.27X10+11 g
(1985) 107X10+3 metric tons (84X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 23X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1986) 110X10+3 metric tons (86X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 24X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1987) 109X10+3 metric tons (85X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 24X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1988) 108X10+3 metric tons (84X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 24X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1989) 110X10+3 metric tons (86X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 24X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1990) 105X10+3 metric tons (82X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 23X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1991) 103X10+3 metric tons (80X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 23X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1992) 92X10+3 metric tons (78X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 14X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
(1993) 87X10+3 metric tons (77X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 10X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene), estimated
(1994) 101X10+3 metric tons (90X10+3 metric tons coal-tar naphthalene and 11X10+3 metric tons petroleum naphthalene)
Consumption Patterns

CHEM INT FOR PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE, 58%; CHEM INT FOR 1-NAPHTHYL-N-METHYLCARBAMATE, 21%; CHEM INT FOR BETA-NAPHTHOL, 8%; CHEM INT FOR SYNTHETIC TANNING AGENTS, 6%; MOTH REPELLANT, 3%; CHEM INT FOR SURFACTANTS, 3%; OTHER, 1% (1980 EST)
Chem intermediate for phthalic anhydride, 50%; chem intermediate for carbamate insecticides, 20%; chemical intermediate for naphthalene sulfonic acids, 20%; miscellaneous, 10% (1984)
Phthalic anhydride, 60%; exports, 15%; 1-naphthol, tetralin, 1-naphthyl methyl carbamate insecticide, 10%; tanning agents, 8%; surfactants and other uses, 7% (1985)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Naphthalene. Phthalic anhydride, 60%; 1-naphthyl methyl carbamate insecticide and related products (tetralin and 1-naphthol), 10%; dispersant chemicals, 10%; moth repellent, 6%; synthetic tanning agents, 5%; miscellaneous uses, 5%; exports, 4%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Naphthalene. Demand: 1986: 250 million lb; 1987: 255 million lb; 1991 /projected/: 270 million lb (Includes exports, imports are negligible).
【Usage】
Manufacture of phthalic & anthranilic acids, naphthols, naphthylamines, sulfonic acid, synthetic resins, celluloid, lampblack, smokeless powder, hydronaphthalenes, insecticide.
【Sampling Procedures】
Macro-reticular resins. XAD- 2 and XAD- 7.
NIOSH Method 5506. Analyte: Napthalene. Matrix: Air. Sampler. Filter plus sorbent (2 um, 37 mm polytetrafluoroethylene plus washed XAD-2,100 mg/50 mg). Flow Rate: 2 l/min: Sample Size: 400 liter. Shipment: Transfer filters to culture tubes; wrap sorbent and culture tubes in aluminum foil, ship @ 0 deg C. Sample Stability: Unknown; protect from heat and UV radiation.
NIOSH Method 5515. Analyte: Naphthalene. Matrix: Air. Sampler: Filter plus sorbent (2 um, 37 mm PTFE & washed XAD-2, 100 mg/50 mg). Flow Rate: 2 l/min: Sample Size: 400-liters. Shipment: Transfer filters to culture tubes; wrap sorbent and culture tubes in aluminum foil; ship @ 0 deg C. Sample Stability: Unknown, protect from heat and UV radiation.
NIOSH Method S292. Analyte: Naphthalene. Matrix: Air. Procedure: Adsorption on charcoal and description with carbon disulfide. Flow Rate: 1 l/min. Sample Size: 200 liters.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
【Therapeutic Uses】
Medication (Vet): 0.2% ...used in combination-type antiseptic for irrigating wounds and 1% ...on neglected infected wounds.
Medication (Vet): Externally, on livestock and poultry ...to control lice... . Powder usually contains 15-35% concentration although 100% ...occasionally used... . Lower concentration... used with other insecticides.
Has been used as antiseptic (topical and intestinal); anthelmintic (Cestodes).
It has been used as an intestinal antiseptic, vermicide and in the treatment of pediculosis and scabies.
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Cutaneous absorption of naphthalene in infants is increased by baby oil.
When inhaled, naphthalene is rapidly absorbed... .
At 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, 20 to 30% was excreted in the rat urine, and 85 to 90% /of urinary excretion/ was in the form of acid conjugates; 5 to 10% was excreted in the bile and 70 to 80% /of biliary excretion/ was as acid conjugates. The major metabolite was naphthalene-1,2-dihydrodiol.
In small oysters transport of naphthalene between tissues is primarily by diffusion. In intact oysters, accumulation in adductor muscle and body followed accumulation in gills after a large lag-time. In isolated tissues with no shell to impede water, there was no time lag.
The gills of Dolly Varden Char (Salvelinus malma) were the most important pathway for excretion of (14)C from (14)C-labeled naphthalene. In general, fish exposed to toluene excreted more (14)C than fish exposed to naphthalene.
English sole exposed to (3)H-benzo(a)pyrene and (14)C-naphthalene in sediment containing Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Bioconcentration value for (14)C-naphthalene was greater than values for (3)H-benzo(a)pyrene in tissues of fish exposed for 24 hr.
Naphthalene was readily taken up by tissue of laying pullets, swine, and dairy cattle after oral administration of a single dose or on a daily basis for 31 days. Adipose tissue, kidneys, livers, and lungs of pullets had the highest naphthalene levels after acute treatment; kidneys had high levels after chronic treatment. In swine, adipose tissues had high levels of naphthalene after acute treatment; lungs were highest with chronic treatment. In cattle, livers had the highest levels of naphthalene after both treatments. [Eisele GR; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34 (4): 549-56 (1985)] PubMed Abstract
Cutaneous and gastrointestinal absorption are facilitated when naphthalene is administered with oil or fat, respectively.
Humans most absorb naphthalene by the inhalation route.
Naphthalene and its metabolites have been reported to cross the human placenta in amounts sufficient to cause fetal toxicity.
Reactive metabolites bind irreversibly with eye lens proteins and are associated with cataract formation. They also bind covalently with macromolecules in the lungs and may be associated with damage to the bronchiolar epithelium.
Humans absorb naphthalene by pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous routes. Naphthalene is found in the urine within a few days of ingestion. Naphthalene and its metabolites may be retained in adipose tissue.
Ingestion of naphthalene in the form of mothballs ... was eliminated unchanged in the feces. Greater danger exists when it is ingested in combination with fats, which facilitate the absorption of naphthalene.

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 4 or less aromatic rings are degraded by microbes and are readily metabolized by multicellular organisms ... . /Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/
Biodegradation is probably slower in the aquatic system than in the soil, and biodegradation may be much more important in those aquatic systems which are chronically affected by contamination. /Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/
There is a moderate amount of data concerning the biodegradability of naphthalene both in standard biodegradability tests and in natural systems. Although there are some conflicting data, the preponderance of data suggest that naphthalene degrades after a relatively short period of acclimation and that degradation can be rapid in oil polluted water, slow in unpolluted water and that the rate of degradation increases with the concentration of naphthalene(5). In laboratory tests with sewage or sludge inoculums, 100% degradation was obtained in 7 days(1,2) while others got 0% BOD in 5 days(3,4). The lag period for naphthalene degradation decreased as groundwater was more polluted with fuel oil; the lag period was 1.2 and 1.9 days in heavily polluted and slightly polluted water, respectively versus 12 days for unpolluted water(8). Approximately 70% was lost in a pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant due to biodegradation(6). In water, bacteria can utilize naphthalene only when it is in the dissolved state(7).
Twenty percent of naphthalene was degraded to CO2 when incubated in water from an oil polluted creek(1) and rapid degradation, sometimes as fast as 95% degradation in 1.5 hr(3), have been reported in other experiments with inoculums from oil contaminated water or sediment(2). In die-away tests, reported half-lives include 70 hr in water with high PAH levels(4); 7, 24, 63, and 1700 days in an oil polluted estuarine stream, clean estuarine stream, coastal waters and in the Gulf Stream respectively(5); 9 days in water near a coal-coking wastewater discharge(6). Highest rates of mineralization in a relatively unpolluted station in Long Island Sound and the Hudson River Estuary, corrected for volatilization, were 118%/day (5.8 ug/L-day) and 172%/day (1.72 ug/L-day), respectively(10). In water from the Alaskan Continental Shelf degradation rates avg 0.5%/week; however, when nutrient levels are lower as in late spring-early summer (after algae blooms), the degradation rate is reduced(7). In a mesocosm experiment using Narragansett Bay, RI seawater, the half-life in late summer was 0.8 days and is principally due to biodegradation(8). Biodegradation half-life was 43 days in microbe-supplemented filtered Lake Superior Harbor water and 39 days in nutrient and microbe-supplemented water(9).
Degradation rates in sediment are much higher than in water, being 8-20 times higher than in the water column above the sediment(3). Half-lives in sediment include 4.9 hr and > 88 days in oil contaminated and uncontaminated sediment, respectivelt(3); 9 days in sediment near a coal coaking discharge(2); and 3, 5, and > 2,000 hours in sediments with high, medium and low PAH levels respectively(1). When incubated in a slurry with sediment from an uncontaminated pond, the mineralization rate increases, reaching a peak after 6-12 days corresponding to a half life of 78 days(4). Biodegradation half-lives ranged from 2.4 weeks in sediments chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons to 4.4 weeks in sediment from a pristine environment(5). Naphthalene disappeared rapidly from an unacclimated agricultural soil during a 60 day period(6). Naphthalene (concn 7 mg/L) degradation was studied under various redox conditions in soil-water systems(7). It degraded to undetectable levels in 45 days, 2 wk lag, under denitrifying conditions (anaerobic with 75 mg nitrate/L(7). No significant degradation occurred in 50 days under anaerobic conditions(7).
No degradation under anaerobic conditions was observed in 6 and 11 weeks in a lab reactor with seed from a well near a source of contamination(1), or with sewage seed(2), respectively, but complete degradation occurred in 8 days in gas-oil saturated groundwater which was circulated through aerobic conditions(3). The latter case indicates that some species of ubiquitous microflora present in clean groundwater is capable of degrading naphthalene. Biodegradation occurred in groundwater contaminated with creosote(4).
In a mesocosm experiment using Narragansett Bay, RI seawater, the half-life in late summer was 0.8 days and is principally due to biodegradation(1). A biodegradation half-life of 43 days was observed in microbe-supplemented filtered Lake Superior Harbor water and 39 days in nutrient and microbe-supplemented water(2). The half-life of naphthalene in a river die-away test was 70 hours in a highly PAH contaminated water(3). The half-life of naphthalene was reported as 7, 24, 63, and 1700 days in an oil polluted estuarine stream, clean estuarine stream, coastal waters and a gulf stream near Georgia, respectively(4).
Naphthalene, present at 100 mg/l, reached 2% of its theoretical BOD in 4 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/l and the Japanese MITI test(1). In soils containing 0.2-0.6% organic carbon and 92-94% sand, naphthalene half-lives ranged from 11-18 days(2). In another study, sandy loams with 0.5-l% organic carbon had naphthalene half-lives of 2-3 days(2). Naphthalene at 20 mg/kg was degraded about 90% in 10 days when incubated with soil obtained from an oil refinery plant(3).
The mineralization of (14)C-labelled naphthalene was studied in pristine and oil-contaminated soil slurry (30% solids) under denitryfying conditions using a range of concentrations from below to above the aqueous phase saturation level. Results from sorption-desorption experiments indicated that naphthalene desorption was highly irreversible and decreased with an increase in the soil organic content, thus influencing the availability for microbial consumption. Under denitrifying conditions, the mineralization of naphthalene to CO2 occurred in parallel with the consumption of nitrate and an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.6. When the initial substrate concentration was 50 ppm (ie close to the aqueous phase saturation level), about 90% of the total naphthalene was mineralized within 50 days, and a maximum mineralization rate of 1.3 ppm/day was achieved after a lag period of approx 18 days. When added at concentrations higher than the aqueous phase saturation level (200 and 500 ppm), similar mineralization rates (1.8 ppm/day) occurred until about 50 ppm of the naphthalene was mineralized. After that the mineralization rates decreased logarithmically to a minimum of 0.24 ppm/day for the rest of the 160 days of the experiments. For both of these higher concentrations, the reaction kinetics were independent of the concentration, indicating that desorption of the substrate governs the mineralization rate. Other results indicated that pre-exposure of soil to oil contamination did not improve the degradation rates nor reduce the lag periods. This study clearly shows the potential of denitrifying conditions for the biodegradation of low molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons. [Al-Bashir B et al; Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 34 (3): 414-9 (1990)] PubMed Abstract

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