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Sodium nitrite(CAS No. 7632-00-0)

Sodium nitrite NaNO2 (cas 7632-00-0) Molecular Structure

7632-00-0 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Sodium nitrite
【CAS Registry number】
7632-00-0
【Synonyms】
Sodium nitrite,food grade
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-555-9
【Molecular Formula】
NaNO2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
68.99
【Inchi】
InChI=1/HNO2.Na/c2-1-3;/h(H,2,3);/q;+1/p-1
【InChIKey】
LPXPTNMVRIOKMN-UHFFFAOYSA-M
【Canonical SMILES】
N(=O)[O-].[Na+]
【MOL File】
7632-00-0.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white to off-white powder
【Density】
2.168
【Melting Point】
271℃
【Boiling Point】
320℃
【Flash Point】
无意义
【Water】
820 g/L (20℃)
【Solubilities】
820 g/L (20 oC) in water
【Color/Form】
White, orthorhombic crystals
White or slightly yellow granules, rods, or powder
Slightly yellowish or white crystals, pellets, sticks or powder
【Stability】
Stable. Incompatible with reducing agents, strong oxidizing agents, organics and other flammable materials, finely powdered metals. Contact with combustible material may lead to fire. Hygroscopic.
【HS Code】
28341000
【Storage temp】
2-8°C
【Spectral properties】
Refractive index at 598 nm: alpha=1.35, beta=1.65, gamma=1.65
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:68.99527 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:NNaO2
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:3
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:68.982673
MonoIsotopic Mass:68.982673
Topological Polar Surface Area:52.5
Heavy Atom Count:4
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:13.5
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
T:Toxic
【Risk Statements】
R25;R50;R8
【Safety Statements 】
S45;S61
【HazardClass】
5.1
【Safety】

Hazard Codes:?OxidizingO,ToxicT,DangerousN,HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 8-25-50-22-36/38?
R8 :Contact with combustible material may cause fire.?
R25 :Toxic if swallowed.?
R50:Very toxic to aquatic organisms.?
R22:Harmful if swallowed.?
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin.
Safety Statements: 45-61-36-26?
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)?
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.?
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing.?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
RIDADR: UN 3219 5.1/PG 3
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: RA1225000
F: 10
HazardClass: 5.1
PackingGroup: III
HS Code: 28341000
Human poison by ingestion. Experimental poison by ingestion, inhalation, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: motor activity changes, coma, decreased blood pressure with possible pulse rate increase without fall in blood pressure, arteriolar or venous dilation, nausea or vomiting, and blood methemoglobinemia-carboxyhemoglobinemia. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. An eye irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic and tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. It may react with organic amines in the body to form carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Flammable; a strong oxidizing agent. In contact with organic matter, will ignite by friction. May explode when heated to over 1000°F or on contact with cyanides, NH4+ salts, cellulose, Li, (K + NH3), Na2S2O3. Incompatible with aminoguanidine salts, butadiene, phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, reductants, sodium amide, sodium disulfite, sodium thiocyanate, urea wood. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx and Na2O. See also NITRITES.

【PackingGroup 】
III
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
... /Sodium nitrite/ is irritating to the eyes.
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations: water spill: Add soda ash (NaCO3). Add calcium hypochlorite (Ca(CIO)2). Adjust pH to neutral (pH=7).
Environmental considerations: land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water.
Sweep spilled substance into containers. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. (Extra personal protection: P3 filter respirator for toxic particles).
【Transport】
UN 3219
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material on fire or involved in fire: Flood with water. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
【Fire Potential】
Not combustible but enhances combustion of other substances ... /Sodium nitrite/ is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials causing fire and explosion hazard.
MODERATE; A strong oxicizint agent. In contact with organic matter will ignite by friction.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Grade: Reagent; Technical; USP; FCC.
Sodium nitrite is sold as the salt and in solution. The finely crystalline, slightly yellowish salt is marketed in untreated form and also after treatment with aryl alkyl sulfonates. The salt contains ca. 99.0 % sodium nitrite, 0.6 % sodium nitrate,
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire or Explosion: These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Health: Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire: Small fires: Use water. Do not use dry chemicals or foams. CO2, or Halon may provide limited control. Large fires: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Spill or Leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers. Small dry spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Small liquid spills: Use a non-combustible material like vermiculite or sand to soak up the product and place into a container for later disposal. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Following product recovery, flush area with water.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Contaminated clothing may be a fire risk when dry. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in the finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of sodium nitrate to not more than 500 parts per million in the finished meat product.
The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in combination with salt (NaCl) to aid in inhibiting the outgrowth and toxin formation from Clostridium botulinum type E in the commercial processing of smoked chub in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) All fish in smoking establishments shall be clean and wholesome and shall be expeditiously processed, packed, and stored under adequate sanitary conditions in accordance with good manufacturing practice. (b) The brining procedure is controlled in such a manner that the water phase portion of the edible portion of the finished smoked product has a salt (NaCl) content of not less than 3.5 percent, as measured in the loin muscle, and the sodium nitrite content of the edible portion of the finished smoked product is not less than 100 parts per million and not greater than 200 parts per million, as measured in the loin muscle. (c) Smoked chub shall be heated by a controlled heat process which provides a monitoring system positioned in as many strategic locations in the smokehouse as necessary to assure a continuous temperature throughout each fish of at least 160 ?F for a minimum of 30 minutes. (d) The finished product shall be cooled to a temperature of 50 ?F or below within 3 hours after smoking and further cooled to a temperature of 38 ?F or below within 12 hours after smoking. A temperature of 38 ?F or below shall be maintained during all subsequent storage and distribution. All shipping containers, retail packages, and shipping records shall indicate with appropriate notice the perishable nature of the product and specify that the product shall be held under refrigeration (38 ?F or below) until consumed.
Sodium nitrite is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as color fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products.
Sodium nitrite is a food additive permitted in feed and drinking water of animals.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
... /They/ can react vigorously with reducing materials. /Nitrites/
Accidental mixing of /sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium sulfide/ caused a violent explosion.
Interaction, without addition of acid, produces tetrazolyguanidine ('tetrazene'), a primary explosive of equal sensitivity to mercury(II) azide, but more readily initiated.
Heating a mixture of an ammonium salt with a nitrite salt causes a violent explosion on melting, owing to formation and decomposition of ammonium nitrite. Salts of other nitrogenous bases behave similarly. Mixtures of ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite are used as commercial explosives. Accidental contact of traces of ammonium nitrate with sodium nitrite residues caused wooden decking on a truck to ignite.
Wooden staging, which had become impregnated over a number of years with sodium nitrite, became accidentally ignited and burned as fiercely as if impregnated with potassium chlorate. Although the effect of impregnating cellulosic material with sodium nitrate is well known, that due to sodium nitrite was unexpected.
Empty paper sacks, some of which had contained sulfur or inorganic salts but mostly sodium nitrite, were dumped (with general rubbish) into a skip located inside by windows in direct sunlight. The fire which resulted was probably caused by exothermic interaction of the sodium nitrite with sulfur and damp paper, with further self heating aided by the generally insulating nature of the mound of paper sacks in the draught-free skip warmed by sunlight.
Sodium nitrite soln is used to inhibit 'popcorn' polymerization of butadiene in processing plants. If concn nitrite soln (5%) are used, a black sludge is produced, which when dry, will ignite and burn when heated to 150 deg C, even in absence of air. The sludge produced from used of nitrite soln to scavenge oxygen in butadiene distillation systems contained 80% of organic polymer and a nitrate:nitrite ratio of 2:1. Use of dilute nitrite soln (0.5%) or pH above 8 prevents sludge formation.
Unusual conditions in the main fractionation column separating product butadiene from by-product butenyne (vinylacetylene, thought to be safe at below 50 mol% concn) caused the concn of the latter to approach 60% in part of the column as fractionation proceeded. Explosive decomposition, possibly initiated by an overheated instable organic material derived from sodium nitrite, destroyed the column and adjacent plant ...
A rotary drum had been used previously to dry metal components which had been heat-treated in /sodium/ nitrate-/sodium/ nitrite molten salt baths, washed, then tumble dried with ground maize husks to absorb adhering water. When the drum was taken out of service, it was not cleaned out. After some 10 mo it was recommissioned, but while being heated up to operating temp, an explosion occurred which ejected flame jets for several meters. This was attributed to presence of considerable contamination of the maize husks by metal nitrate-nitrite residues, and ignition on heating of such material was confirmed experimentally.
Interaction of nitrites when heated with metal amidosulfates (sulfamates) may become explosively violent owing to liberation of nitrogen and steam. Mixtures with ammonium sulfamate form ammonium nitrite which decomposes violently around 80 deg C.
Mixtures of sodium nitrite and various cyanides explode on heating, including potassium cyanide, potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), sodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(II), potassium hexacyanoferrate(II), or mercury(II) cyanide. Such mixtures have been proposed as explosives, initiable by heat or a detonator.
Lithium reacts with sodium nitrite to form lithium sodium hydronitrite, a cmpd which decomposes violently around 100 to 130 deg C.
Violent explosion occurs if cyanide salt is melted with nitrite salt. The melt explodes if cyanide plus ... nitrite is heated to 450 deg C.
A mixture /of sodium nitrite and phenol/ exploded violently on heating in a test tube.
Mixtures of sodium nitrite and phthalic acid or phthalic anhydride explode violently on heating. A nitrite ester may have been produced.
A mixture /of sodium nitrite and potassium thiocyanate/ explodes on heating. Preparation of a molten salt bath from 0.45 kg of potassium thiocyanate (reducant) and 1.35 kg of sodium nitrite (oxidant) led to a violent explosion on melting, which caused severe structural damage to the lab ... Used of sand baths, rather than salt baths for lab heating purposes is to be preferred. The relative lack of descriptive chemistry in modern curricula is cited as the major contributory factor to the general ignorance which led to the explosion.
Large-scale addition of solid sodium disulfite to an unstirred and too-concentrated soln of sodium nitrite caused a vigorous exothermic reaction.
There is no interaction between /sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate/ soln, but evaporation of the mixture gave a residue which explodes on heating. The mixed solids behave similarly.
Addition of solid sodium nitrite to the molten amide caused immediate gas evolution, followed by a violent explosion.
Fusion of urea (2 mol) with sodium nitrite (or potassium nitrite, 1 mol of either) to give high yields of the cyanate must be carried out exactly as described to avoid the risk of explosion.
Sodium nitrite at 460 deg F in contact with the fiber drums in which it is shipped undergoes a vigorous decomposition reaction producing a propellant-type burning until the carton is consumed.
Soln of potassium and sodium nitrite in liq ammonia form disodium nitrite, which is very reactive and easily explosive.
... /Sodium nitrate/ decomposes on contact with acids producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) ... The solution in water is a weak base. Reacts with aluminium, ammonium compounds, amines.
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing dusts. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers.
NO contact with combustible substances ... PREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST ... Local exhaust or breathing protection ... Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating ... Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available. Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is indicated.
Approximately 14 million households in the United States use private wells to supply their drinking water (Bureau of the Census 1993). In agricultural areas, nitrogen-based fertilizers are a major source of contamination for shallow groundwater aquifers that provide drinking water. A recent United States Geological Survey study showed that >8,200 wells nationwide were contaminated with nitrate levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standard of 10 parts per million (ppm). ... Because of the risks for potential adverse health effects, persons who use drinking water that contains nitrate levels >10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) should have alternative sources of water or appropriate treatment of existing supplies. Information regarding testing of well water can be obtained from city or county health departments. Other sources of nitrate contamination are organic animal wastes and contamination from septic sewer systems, especially in wells
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
... /Sodium nitrite/ is irritating to the eyes.
【Specification】

? Sodium Nitrite , its cas register number is 7632-00-0. It also can be called?Anti-rust ; Azotyn sodowy ; Diazotizing salts ;
?Dusitan sodny?; Erinitrit ; Filmerine ; Natrium nitrit ; Nitrite de sodium ; Nitrito sodico .

【Report】

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

By heating sodium nitrate until it fuses ... adding sufficient metallic lead to completely reduce nitrate to nitrite. ... mixt is lixiviated with water, filtered, partially evaporated, & allowed to crystallize.
Synthesized by a number of chemical reactions involving the reduction of sodium nitrate by exposure to heat, light, and ionizing radiation, addition of lead metal to fused sodium nitrate at 400-450 deg C, reaction of the nitrate in the presence of sodium ferrate and nitric oxide at about 400 deg C, contacting molten sodium nitrate with hydrogen, and electrolyte reduction of sodium nitrate in a cell having a cation-exchange membrane, rhodium-plated titanium anode, and lead cathode.
Reaction of nitrogen oxides with sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution.
Large-scale production of sodium nitrite is now based on the reaction of nitrogen oxides with sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution.
U.S. Exports

(1984) 4.03X10+11 g /Sodium compounds, NSPF/
U.S. Imports

(1978) 3.94X10+9 G
(1982) 4.68X10+9 G
(1984) 8.14X10+9 g
U.S. Production

(1977) AT LEAST 5.0X10+9 G
Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule: Reported range in 1986 >500,000 lb - 1 million lb; reported range in 1990 and 1994 10,000-500,000 lb; no reports in 1998; reported range in 2002 10,000-500,000 lb. Year Production Range (pounds) 1986 >500 thousand-1 million 1990 >10 thousand-500 thousand 1994 >10 thousand-500 thousand 1998 No Reports 2002 >10 thousand-500 thousand
【Usage】

Component of heat-transfer salts, chemical in metal treatment & finishing operations, component of detinning solution & multipurpose greases, agent for recovery of tin from scrap.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
- Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
【Therapeutic Uses】
Antidotes ...
Has been used as a vasodilator; as a circulatory (blood pressure) depressant and to relieve smooth muscle spasm.
Antidote for cyanide poisoning.
MEDICATION (VET): In cyanide poisoning.
/Cyanide antidote:/ Adults, oxygen therapy should be initiated and amyl nitrite inhaled from the crushable ampules for 30 seconds of every minute until an intravenous route is established. Amyl nitrite then is discontinued and all of the sodium nitrite (300 mg) in the 10 ml ampule is administered intravenously. The 12.5 g of sodium thiosulfate contained in the 50 ml ampule is then administered intravenously. If symptoms persist, a second dose of sodium nitrite (one-half the amount of the first dose) should be given 30 minutes later. Children, oxygen therapy is initiated; 0.33 ml/kg of sodium nitrite solution is administered, followed immediately by 1.65 ml/kg of sodium thiosulfate solution.
... Sodium nitrite is given to patients poisoned with cyanide to cause formation of methemoglobin, which serves as an alternative binding site for the cyanide ion thereby making it less toxic to the body.
... A human case of 2-methyllactonitrile poisoning, mostly by skin absorption. Nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and tonic-clonic convulsions were evident. Treatment with sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate was effective.
... Nitrite has vasodilating properties, probably through transformation into nitric oxide (NO) or a NO-containing molecule acting as a signal factor for smooth muscle relaxation ... /Nitrite/
/EXPTL THER/ ... /The authors/ hypothesized that nitrite would be reduced to NO in ischemic tissue and exert NO-dependent protective effects. Solutions of sodium nitrite were administered in the setting of hepatic and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. In hepatic I/R, nitrite exerted profound dose-dependent protective effects on cellular necrosis and apoptosis, with highly significant protective effects observed at near-physiological nitrite concentrations. In myocardial I/R injury, nitrite reduced cardiac infarct size by 67%. Consistent with hypoxia-dependent nitrite bioactivation, nitrite was reduced to NO, S-nitrosothiols, N-nitros-amines, and iron-nitrosylated heme proteins within 1-30 minutes of reperfusion. Nitrite-mediated protection of both the liver and the heart was dependent on NO generation and independent of eNOS and heme oxygenase-1 enzyme activities. These results suggest that nitrite is a biological storage reserve of NO subserving a critical function in tissue protection from ischemic injury. These studies reveal an unexpected and novel therapy for diseases such as myocardial infarction, organ preservation and transplantation, and shock states. [Duranski MR et al; J Clin Invest 115 (5): 1232-40 (2005)]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
In mice given 400, 800, or 1200 mg sodium nitrite orally in drinking water 99.1 to 99.5% of the dose was eliminated. The remaining nitrite was transformed into nitrate & recovered from the liver & muscle.
Nitrate and nitrite given orally are absorbed and transferred to the blood in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. Abundant pectin in the food may delay absorption which may then occur lower down in the intestine, with possible increased risk for microbial transformation of nitrate into nitrite. /Nitrate and nitrite/
Regardless of route of exposure, nitrate and nitrite are rapidly transferred into the blood. Nitrite is gradually oxidized to nitrate which is readily distributed into most body fluids (urine, saliva, gastric juice, sweat, ileostomy fluid). Distribution of nitrate into plasma, erythrocytes, saliva and urine following an oral dose of sodium nitrate has been demonstrated ... /Nitrate and nitrite/
... Transplacental passage of nitrite occurred in pregnant rats given doses at 2.5-50 mg/kg orally ...
In rats ... /sodium nitrite/ crosses placental barrier to generate methemoglobin in fetus.
Nitrite rapidly disappeared from a buffered solution at pH
Nitrite is normally absent from the body fluids and tissues of laboratory animals ... The extensive pre-systemic metabolism of nitrite results in an absolute bioavailability (ie the percentage of the dose reaching the systemic circulation) considerably lower than 100%. Intravenous injections and intratracheal instillation of (13)N-labelled nitrite in mice and rabbits resulted in homogenous distribution of radioactivity in the heart, kidneys, liver, stomach, intestines, lungs and bladder (ranging from 4.2 to 10.5%) within 5 minutes. The (13)N was equally distributed in plasma and red blood cells with 15 to 20% of the plasma (13)N bound to proteins ... Thirty minutes after iv injection of nitrite, low levels of nitrite were detected in blood and saliva of dogs ... Nitrite can cross the placenta of rats and guinea-pigs: nitrite injected into pregnant animals appeared after a lag of approximately 20 minutes in fetal blood but at a lower concentration than in maternal blood ... /Nitrite/
Iv injections of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite in dogs, sheep or ponies resulted in nitrate plasma concentrations of 40 to 100 mg/L (0.6 to 1.6 mmol/L) in all three species within minutes.
Urinary and fecal excretion of nitrite are very low since most of the nitrite that enters the bloodstream or passes down the GI tract is rapidly converted to nitrate, bound to the GI contents, or reduced by enteric bacteria. Nitrite is not secreted in significant amounts in saliva or bile ... In a balance study in rats, Na(15)NO2 was administered at a level of 1.6% in the diet, as a single or multiple dose. Within 72 hr after administration of the single dose, 68% and 12% of the (15)N dose was excreted in urine and feces, respectively. After multiple dosing, 59% of the administered (15)N was excreted in urine and 19% in feces. Some 10% of the dose was excreted in urine as (15)N-nitrite ... The rapid decline in blood concentrations of nitrite was attributed to the reactivity of nitrite with haemoglobin and other endogenous compounds, a hypothesis which is supported by the increased nitrate level after intravenous administration of nitrite ... In humans ... nitrite may be absorbed from the GI tract since part of the ingested nitrate is converted to nitrite in the oral cavity and stomach ... and high MetHb levels in young infants ingesting large amounts of nitrate have been reported ... Low levels of nitrite have been detected in the feces of humans ... Ntrite incubated with fresh feces under anaerobic conditions was rapidly converted by the fecal microflora, suggesting that nitrite excretion may well be higher than what is actually detected. /Nitrite/
... Significantly higher amount of nitrate-reducing bacteria, nitrite and nitroso compounds in fasting gastric juice of patients with partial gastrectomy than in normal controls. /Nitrite/

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
The major environmental releases of inorganic sources of nitrates are due to the use of fertilizers. Most nitrogenous materials in natural waters tend to be converted to nitrate, so all sources of combined nitrogen, particularly organic nitrogen and ammonia, should be considered as potential nitrate sources. Primary sources of organic nitrates include human sewage and livestock manure, especially from feedlots. Because it does not volatilize, nitrate/nitrite is likely to remain in water until consumed by plants or other organisms. Excessive levels of nitrate in drinking water have caused serious illness and sometimes death. The serious illness in infants is due to the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by the body, which can interfere with the oxygen-carrying capacity of the child's blood. Symptoms include blueness of the skin. /Nitrate; nitrite/

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