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Zinc chloride(CAS No. 7646-85-7)

Zinc chloride ZnCl2 (cas 7646-85-7) Molecular Structure

7646-85-7 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Zinc chloride
【CAS Registry number】
7646-85-7
【Synonyms】
Zinc chloride solution
Zinc chloride, anhydrous
Zinc Chloride, MB Grade (1.08811)
Zincchlorideultradry
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-592-0
【Molecular Formula】
ZnCl2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
136.3
【Inchi】
InChI=1/2ClH.Zn/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2
【InChIKey】
JIAARYAFYJHUJI-UHFFFAOYSA-L
【Canonical SMILES】
Cl[Zn]Cl
【MOL File】
7646-85-7.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
clear to cloudy colorless or faintly yellow
【Density】
2.91g/cm3
【Melting Point】
167-172 °C
【Boiling Point】
219-220 °C at 10 mmHg
【Flash Point】
732℃
【Water】
432 g/100 mL (25℃)
【Solubilities】
Water solubility: 432 g/100 mL (20 °C)
【Color/Form】
white
【Stability】
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
【HS Code】
28273600
【Storage temp】
2-8°C
【Spectral properties】
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.681; 1.713
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:136.315 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:Cl2Zn
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:0
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:133.866852
MonoIsotopic Mass:133.866852
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:3
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:2.8
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
C:Corrosive
【Risk Statements】
36/37/38-50/53-34-22-51/53-67-66-19-12-11
【Safety Statements 】
26-36-61-60-45-36/37/39
【HazardClass】
3
【Safety】

Poison by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by inhalation: pulmonary changes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Exposure to ZnCl2 fumes or dusts can cause dermatitis, boils, conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal tract upsets. The fumes are highly toxic. Incompatible with potassium. Mixtures of the powdered chloride and powdered zinc are flammable. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl and ZnO. See also ZINC COMPOUNDS and CHLORIDES.
Hazard Codes:IrritantXi,Dangerous for the environmentN,CorrosiveC,Highly flammableF+,FlammableF
Risk Statements: 36/37/38-50/53-34-22-51/53-67-66-19-12-11
R11:Highly flammable.
R12:Extremely flammable.
R34:Causes burns.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
R19:May form explosive peroxides.
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R50/53:Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R66:Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
R67:Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
Safety Statements: 26-36-61-60-45-36/37/39
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing.
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
S60:This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.

【PackingGroup 】
I
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Corrosivity and irritation to the lungs.
Can irritate the eyes.
Zinc chloride causes burns. Data on skin sensitization are not available for zinc chloride. However, based on the accepted derogation and the fact that zinc sulphate is not a skin sensitizer, it is consequently concluded that zinc chloride is not likely to be skin sensitizing.
Skin exposure causes skin burns, pain, and redness.
Zinc salts of strong mineral acids are astringent, corrosive to skin. /Zinc salts/
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be contained with a flexible impermeable membrane liner./ Cover solid with plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water /Zinc chloride, solid/
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (slaked lime), crushed limestone, or sodium bicarbonate. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. Adjust pH to neutral (pH 7). /Zinc chloride solid/
Personal protection: P3 filter respirator for toxic particles. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Sweep spilled substance into containers. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place.
【Transport】
UN 2331
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material on fire or involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty. /Zinc chloride, solid/
【Fire Potential】
Not flammable
Mixtures of the powdered chloride and powdered zinc are flammable.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Grades: CP, Technical. fused; crystal; granulated; 62.5% solution; 50% solution; USP.
8 mesh, 99.5% purity grade, 250- 1000-, and 2500 g lots /available/
99.999% pure, ultradry /available/
Trade Names: Tinning Flux (U.S. Dept. Transportation); A13-04470; Zinctrace (U.S.)
Technical grade is at least 95% pure, the remainder being mostly water and oxychloride.
Soluble concentrate - 6.2% zinc chloride; Ready to use liquid - 26% zinc chloride /Pesticides/
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Zinc chloride, anhydrous; Zinc chloride, solution/
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: zinc chloride is included in astringent drug products.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
A mixture of potassium and zinc chloride produces a strong explosion on impact.
Potassium. /Zinc chloride fume/
Flammability of some commercial zinc dusts or powders is attributed to presence of zinc chloride. /Zinc: zinc chloride/
【Other Preventative Measures】
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Keep upwind. Avoid breathing vapors or dusts Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Zinc chloride, solid/
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime. Avoid breathing vapors Avoid bodily contact with the material. Do not handle broken packages without protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. If contact with the material anticipated, wear full protective clothing. /Zinc chloride solution and chemical plant waste/
Prevention of ingestion: do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating.
Prevention of metal fume fever is a matter of keeping exposure of workers below level of concn currently accepted as satisfactory for working with the metal in industry, preferably by employment of proper local exhaust ventilation to collect fumes at their source. Acceptable respirators are avail commercially but should be used only under suitable conditions. /Zinc/
In all cases where zinc is heated to the point where fume is produced, it is most important to ensure that adequate ventilation is provided. Individual protection is best ensured by education of the worker concerning metal-fume fever & the provision of local exhaust ventilation, or, in some situations by wearing of supplied-air hood or mask.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Employees exposed to zinc chloride should be given instruction in personal hygiene, and in the use of personal protective equipment. Goggles should be provided in areas where danger of spills or splashes exists, skin protection should be provided with rubber gloves, face shields, rubber aprons, gauntlets, suits and rubber boots.
Wear appropriate chemical protective gloves, boots and goggles. Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material. /Zinc chloride solid/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 10 mg/cu m. (Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any particulate respirator equipped with an N95, R95, or P95 filter (including N95, R95, and P95 filtering facepieces) except quarter-mask respirators. The following filters may be used: N99, R99, P99, N100, P100. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection. /Zinc chloride fume/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 25 mg/cu m. (Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any powered air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection. /Zinc chloride fume/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 50 mg/cu m. (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and a high-efficiency particulate filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. /Zinc chloride fume/
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus. /Zinc chloride fume/
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter./Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus. /Zinc chloride fume/
Prevent eye exposure: safety goggles or eye protection in combination with breathing protection if powder.
Recommended appropriate protective equipment including protective eyewear, long-sleeved shirts and long-legged pants, rubber gloves, and boots. /zinc salts/
【Specification】

Zinc chloride , its cas register number is 7646-85-7. It also can be called Chlorure de zinc ; Butter of zinc ; and Zinc chloride in plastic container . It is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. The pure anhydrous orthorhombic form rapidly changes to one of the other forms on exposure to the atmosphere and a possible explanation is that the presence of OH facilitates the rearrangement. Molten anhydrous ZnCl2 at 500 - 700 °C dissolves zinc metal and on rapid cooling of the melt a yellow diamagnetic glass is formed which Raman studies indicate contain the Zn2+
2 ion. It is hazardous, so the first aid measures and others should be known. Such as: When on the skin: first, should flush skin with plenty of water immediately for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing. Secondly, get medical aid. Or in the eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Then get medical aid soon. While, it's inhaled: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. Give artificial respiration while not breathing. When breathing is difficult, give oxygen. And as soon as to get medical aid. Then you have the ingesting of the product: Wash mouth out with water, and get medical aid immediately. Notes to physician: Treat supportively and symptomatically.
In addition, Zinc chloride (CAS NO.7646-85-7) absorbs moisture or water from the air. It is not compatible with strong oxidizing agents, oxidizing agents, bases, aluminum, brass, copper, and you must not take it with incompatible materials. And also prevent it to broken down into hazardous decomposition products: Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

【Report】

Zinc and its compounds are on the Community Right-To-Know List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

【Disposal Methods】

SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Ultrafiltration; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Continuous flow, pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial wastewater; Results of Study: 0.38 ppm effluent concentration. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Miscellaneous sorbents; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: Final concentration reduced to 0.1 ppb; SiO2 + CaO slags used. /Zinc/
The proprietary Sulfex process (Permutit Co) has been applied to zinc wastes. The process involves addition of ferrous sulfide, which gradually releases sulfide to precipitate the zinc ... . /Zinc/
In the case where zinc removal is the only consideration and recovery is not warranted, removal by precipitation can be accomplished by standard pH adjustment through lime addition, precipitation and flocculation, and sedimentation, employing standard waste treatment equipment, operating data for existing chemical precipitation units indicate that levels of 1 mg/l or less of zinc are readily obtainable with lime precipitation, although assurance of consistent removal of precipitated zinc to lower levels from the effluent stream may require filtration. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Chemical precipitation; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 10.6% reduction by sedimentation. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Biological Treatment; Chemical Classification: Metals; 1) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 89% reduction; Activated sludge process. 2) Scale of Study: full scale; Type of Wastewater Used: domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 20-91% reduction achieved; Survey of municipal wastewater treatment plants. 3) Scale of Study: Continuous flow and pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 13-14% reduction in primary treatment. 4) Scale of Study: Laboratory scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: Biological growth inhibited; Study of nitrosomas bacteria. 5) Scale of Study: Continuous flow and full scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 60% reduction; Activated sludge process. 6) Scale of Study: Laboratory scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: Oxygen uptake inhibited. 7) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 57% reduction; Activated sludge process. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Chemical precipitation; Chemical Classification: Metals; 1) Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: 1% reduction with alum; 3 coagulants used: 220 ppm of alum at pH= 6.4. 40 ppm of ferric chloride at pH= 6.2; 415 ppm of lime at pH= 11.5; chemical coagulation was followed by dual media filtration. 2) Scale of Study: Laboratory scale, continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: 100% reduction with lime; Lime dose of 50 ppm added. 3) Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater and pure compound (one solute in a solvent) Results of Study: Iron system - 63% reduction, low lime system - 85% reduction; High lime system - 76% reduction; 3 coagulant systems were used: Iron system used 45 ppm as Fe of Fe2(SO4)3 at pH= 6.0. Low lime system used 20 ppm as Fe of Fe2 (SO4)3 and 260 ppm of CaO at pH= 10.0. High lime system used 600 ppm of CaO at pH= 11.5. Chemical coagulation was followed by multimedia filtration. 4) Scale of Study: Full scale, continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 90% reduction with lime (full scale); 37% reduction with lime (continuous flow); Lime dose of 350-400 ppm as calcium oxide at pH= 11.3. 5) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 10.6% reduction by sedimentation. 6) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 91.4% reduction with lime; Lime dose of 400 ppm added. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Reverse osmosis; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Batch flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Pure compound (one solute in a solvent); Results of Study: 1) 96.6% reduction with C/PEI membrane at pH= 8.0 100% reduction with C/PEI membrane at pH= 11.0; CA membrane operated at 400 psig and 16-22 deg C. 2) Results of Study: 96.9%-99.5% reduction with CA membrane; CA membrane operated at 400 psig and 16-22% deg C. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Activated carbon; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Full scale continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: (not stated); 1) Results of Study: 81% reduction; 124 ppb effluent concentration; Carbon used as advanced treatment of biologically and chemically treated wastewater. Plant capacity 0.66 cu m/sec. Data presented for two time periods. 2) Results of Study: 61% reduction; 162 ppb effluent concentration; Carbon used as advanced treatment of biologically and chemically treated wastewater. Plant capacity 0.66 cu m/sec. Data presented for two time periods. /Zinc/
Disposal procedures for spills include ferric hydroxide precipitation and cement-based fixation processes; the latter method is very effective in rendering zinc contaminants insoluble (Dawson and Mercer 1986). Unsalvageable zinc waste may be buried in an approved landfill while salvageable zinc is typically recycled.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing
Zinc chloride is commercially made by the reaction of aqueous hydrochloric acid with scrap zinc materials or roasted ore. The solution is purified in various ways depending upon the impurities present.
HIgh-purity zinc chloride is formed from zinc and hydrogen chloride gas at 700 deg C.
Zinc oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride.

U.S. Exports
(1978) 1.4X10+9 G
(1982) 1.4X10+9 G
(1985) 8.47X10+8 g
(1987) 1,634,919 lb
Quantity in metric tons: (1994) 947; (1995) 1,690

U.S. Imports
(1978) 1.4X10+9 G
(1982) 9.0X10+8 G
(1985) 2.39X10+9 g
(1986) 3,464,898 lb
Quantity in metric tons: (1994) 3,360; (1995) 2,450
(1970) 1,044 metric tons; (1975) 696 metric tons; (1980) 1,008 metric tons; (1992) 3,096 metric tons

U.S. Production
(1970) 20,139 metric tons
(1978) 1.5X10+10 G (EST)
(1980) 11,676 metric tons
(1982) 1.2X10+10 G (EST)
(1990) >1 million-10 million pounds
(1992) 6,309 metric tons

Consumption Patterns
(2001) 1410 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2002) 1420 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2003) 1340 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2004) 1400 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2005) 1370 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
【Usage】
Battery electrolyte; metal processing and galvanization; metal and stone cements; cold water glue; deodorant; disinfectant and preservative for medical specimens and embalming; lumber treatment; fibre and textile processing and dyeing; solvent for cellulose; dehydrating agent; corrosion inhibitor for water treatment; reverse emulsion breaker for oil refining.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
【Therapeutic Uses】
Mesh Heading: Mouthwashes
In low concentrations it is astringent and mildly antibacterial. It is used in vaginal douches to supress trichomonal and hemophilus infections. Although it is used in mouthwashes, contact time is too short, and only astringent and not antibacterial action results.
MEDICATION (VET): Rare as caustic in fistulas (20% solution), as paste in chemotherapy of cancers, and on ulcers (2-4%). Some may still use it as antiseptic astringent on eye infections (0.1-0.2% solution).
Astringent for corn and callus treatment
MEDICATION (VET): Used as a trace mineral added to animal feeds, also as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement food additive
In "chemosurgery" of skin cancer
Zinc supplements are indicated in the prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency, which may result from inadequate nutrition or intestinal malabsorption and other conditions that interfere with zinc utilization or increase zinc losses from the body, but does not occur in healthy individuals receiving an adequate balanced diet. For prophylaxis of zinc deficiency, dietary improvement, rather than supplementation, is advisable. For treatment of zinc deficiency, supplementation is preferred. /Included in US product labeling; Zinc supplements/
THERAP CAT: Astringent
THERAP CAT (VET): Antiseptic, astringent.
Zinc supplements have been used along with a reduced copper diet in the treatment of Wilson's disease in patients who are unable to tolerate penicillamine. /NOT included in US product labeling; Zinc supplements/
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
In humans subjected to low doses of (65)zinc chloride and whole-body measurements. It was estimated absorption to range from 58% to 77% in 5 controls, and from 16% to 42% in 3 patients suffering from acrodermatitis enterohepatica. The whole-body zinc retention was measured for 34 days. One week after oral tracer dose of 2 ug zinc chloride to mice, the highest concentrations were found in bone tissue followed by liver and kidney.
The whole-body retention at 95 hr after intravascular injection of carrier-free (65)zinc chloride to mature male rats amounted to 78.3% of the dose.
In one study, 95 hr after injection of (65)zinc chloride to rats, 20.1% of the dose was recovered in feces and only 0.6% in urine.
In mice given 0.3 ugzinc chloride iv, about 50% of the total dose was recovered in feces within a week. The corresponding value in 1 wk for dogs given 6.5 ug zinc chloride was about 20%. Urinary excretion for the same period was well below 5% of the dose in both species. Biliary excretion of zinc in rats was found to be 4% over a period of 48 hr following a single iv dose of 0.1 mg (65)zinc chloride.
In rats given a daily dose of 1.4 mg zinc chloride, content of zinc in the liver increased in the first 17 days but more prolonged administration resulted in normalization of its concentration. A mechanism by which zinc absorption is reduced is associated with the exhaustion of metallothionein synthesis in the intestinal mucosa. Erythrocytes contain most of zinc in blood; 10-20% is found in plasma.
The highest levels of radioactivity were found in the small intestine followed by the kidney, liver and large intestine six hours after a single oral administration of 0.1 uCi of (65)Zn2+ as zinc chloride to Wistar rats. Smaller amounts were found in the lungs and spleen. 14 days after the administration, highest levels of radioactivity could be found in the hair, testicles, liver and large intestines. Organs with high zinc concentrations are liver, gut, kidney, skin, lung, brain, heart and pancreas. High concentrations of zinc were also detected in the retina and in sperm.
Zinc acetate was added to the diet of Sprague Dawley rats (9/group) to reach concn of Zn of 58 (no zinc acetate added; normal concn in control feed), 117, 175, 293, 410 or 664 mg/kg via the feed, corresponding to ca 3, 6, 9, 14.5, 20.5 or 33 mg Zn/kg bw. After 28 days the unfasted animals were dosed with 1.2 uCi of (65)ZnCl2 (ca. 0.15 ng). Whole-body radioactivity was determined at various time points up to 11 days post dosing using a whole-body gamma counter. In the group which received the non-supplemented diet (ie 58 mg Zn/kg feed) ca 20% of the administered radioactivity was retained at 24-hour post dosing which gradually decreased to about 9% at day 11. The amount of radioactivity retained at 24-hour post-dosing declined with increasing dietary zinc levels to about 13% for the group with the highest dietary zinc. In this group after 11 days only ca 2.3% of the administered radioactivity was left. The data indicated that low dietary zinc results in increased zinc retention and that at higher dietary zinc levels absorption of zinc is reduced.
The intestinal absorption following single oral administration of (65)Zn-chloride to 6 groups of 5 healthy adult volunteers /was determined/ by comparison of whole body radioactivity counting and fecal excretion data. The individuals fasted overnight prior to dosing. Approximately 55% of the administered (65)Zn-chloride was absorbed at doses of 18, 45 and 90 umol (1.2, 2.9 or 5.8 mg) of zinc. The absorption was reduced with increasing dose, indicating that zinc absorption is saturable. At test dose levels of 180, 450 and 900 umol (11.6, 29 or 58 mg of Zn), only 51, 40 and 25% of the (65)Zn was absorbed, respectively. Additional studies in 15 human volunteers with various intestinal diseases indicated that absorption of Zn occurred mainly in the proximal parts of the intestine. It appears that in healthy persons with intake levels differing by a factor of 10, uptake levels vary maximally by a factor of two.
The dermal absorption of (65)Zn2+ from ZnCl2 and ZnO was studied by applying the zinc preparations under occlusion on the shaven, but intact skin on the back of male Sprague Dawley rats. The zinc absorption, being the ration between (65)Zn-activity in the carcass, liver and gastrointestinal tract, and the (65)Zn-activity in carcass, liver, gastrointestinal tract, skin and bandage, was reported to range from 1.6 to 6.1%. It should be noted that the higher percentages (3.6 to 6.1%) were achieved after application of ZnCl2 in acidic solution (pH = 1). Less acidic solutions with ZnCl2 or with ZnO resulted in a dermal absorption of less than 2%. In this study only the absorption into the body, excluding the skin, was determined. No data were available as to the effect of zinc chloride solutions with pH = 1 on dermal integrity.
The tissue uptake of (65)Zn2+ (as zinc chloride) was determined in adult male Wistar rats after intraperitoneal injection of 15 uCi (65)Zn2+. The liver displayed the greatest uptake for zinc ions, followed by the kidney, pancreas, spleen, ileum, lung, heart, bone, testis, blood cells, muscle and brain. Additional data on Zn2+ uptake by the brain indicate that the blood-brain barrier is minimally permeable to zinc cations.
After a single oral dose of 86 to 130 ug of (65)Zn as ZnCl2, ZnCO3 or Zn5(OH)8Cl2?H2O, male rats eliminated (65)Zn from the body with a rate of about 1.7% of the absorbed dose during day 5 to 14 post dosing as determined from stool, urinary and in vivo whole-body gamma counting results. In male rats who received 25 mg ZnCO3/kg feed or 100 mg Zn5(OH)8Cl2?H2O/kg feed for 14 days, the radioactivity from a subcutaneous dose of 37 kBq of (65)ZnCl2 disappeared from the body with a rate of approximately 1% during the period 5 to 14 days post dosing.
Body retention of Zn at 7 to 10 days after oral administration of 92 umol of (65)Zn (as ZnCl2) to 16 healthy adult human volunteers was determined. About 10% of the initially absorbed amount of Zn was excreted during the first 10 days post dosing. The excretion rates for the 18 to 450 umoles dose groups were not different, but after the 900 umole dose elimination was significantly increased.
Orally administered (65)Zn was studied in 50 patients with taste and smell dysfunction. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase all patients were studied for 21 days after receiving a single oral dose of 3 to 18 uCi of (65)Zn (~ 0.4 to 1.2 ng zinc) as ZnCl2 after an overnight fast. In the second phase, which started after 21 days and continued for 290 to 440 (mean 336) days, all 50 patients received placebo. In the third phase of the study 14 patients continued on placebo while 36 received ZnSO4 (100 mg Zn2+/day) for 112 to 440 (mean 307) days. Total body retention and activity in plasma and red cells were measured for all patients throughout the study. It was estimated that for the whole group of 50 patients the absorption was approximately 60 percent. About one-third of the absorbed radioactivity was eliminated from the body with a half-life of ca 19 days, while after about 100 days post dosing the remainder of the absorbed dose was eliminated with a biological half-life of 380 days (ie phase two of the study). During the third phase patients receiving ZnSO4 showed an accelerated loss of total body (65)Zn (half-life ca 230 days) which was significantly different (P > 0.001) from half-life values during placebo treatment. Accelerated loss of (65)Zn from the thigh was apparent immediately while that from the liver began after a mean delay of 107 days. There was no apparent effect of zinc on loss of mean (65)Zn activity from red blood cells. The increase in elimination of Zn during the third phase can be ascribed entirely to the change in two parameters: reduction in absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (5-fold: from 43% absorption in the beginning of the study to 9% during the period in which patients were dosed with ZnSO4) and to an increase in the urinary elimination rate (about 2-fold upon administration of ZnSO4 during phase three of the study).
Elimination: Primarily fecal (approximately 90%); to a lesser extent in the urine and in perspiration. /Zinc supplements/
Time to peak concentration: Approximately 2 hours. /Zinc supplements/
Zinc is stored primarily in red and white blood cells, but also in the muscle, bone, skin, kidney, liver, pancreas, retina, and prostate. /Zinc supplements/
Approximately 20 to 30% of dietary zinc is absorbed, primarily from the duodenum and ileum. The amount absorbed is dependent on the bioavailability from food. Zinc is the most bioavailable from red meat and oysters. Phytates may impair absorption by chelation and formation of insoluble complexes at an alkaline pH. After absorption, zinc is bound in the intestine to the protein metallothionein. Endogenous zinc can be reabsorbed in the ileum and colon, creating an enteropancreatic circulation of zinc. Protein binding: Zinc is 60% bound to albumin; 30 to 40% bound to alpha-2 macroglobulin or transferrin; and 1% bound to amino acids, primarily histidine and cysteine. /Zinc supplements/

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