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Sodium Chloride(CAS No. 7647-14-5)

Sodium Chloride NaCl (cas 7647-14-5) Molecular Structure

7647-14-5 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Sodium Chloride
【CAS Registry number】
7647-14-5
【Synonyms】
SALT
SEA SALT
TANKER FINE SALT
SODIUM STOCK SOLUTION
SODIUM STANDARD STOCK SOL
SODIUM CHLORIDE NATIVE
SODIUM CHLORIDE 2500 UMHO/
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-598-3
【Molecular Formula】
NaCl (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
58.44
【Inchi】
InChI=1/ClH.Na/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
【InChIKey】
FAPWRFPIFSIZLT-UHFFFAOYSA-M
【Canonical SMILES】
[Na+].[Cl-]
【MOL File】
7647-14-5.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
colourless crystals or white powder
【Density】
2.165
【Melting Point】
801℃
【Boiling Point】
1461℃
【Vapour】
1 mm Hg ( 865 °C)
【Refractive Index】
n20/D 1.378
【Flash Point】
1413°C
【Water】
360 g/L (20℃)
【Solubilities】
360 g/L (20 °C)
【Color/Form】
Colorless, transparent crystals or white, crystalline powder
Colorless and transparent or translucent when in large crystals.
【Stability】
Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions.
【HS Code】
3822 00 00
【Storage temp】
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
【Spectral properties】
Index of refraction: 1.5442
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:58.44277 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:ClNa
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:1
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:57.958622
MonoIsotopic Mass:57.958622
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:2
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:2
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xi: Irritant;
【Risk Statements】
R36;R22
【Safety Statements 】
S24/25
【Safety】
Poison by intraperitoneal and intracervical routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion, intravenous, and subcutaneous routes. An experimental teratogen. Human systemic effects by ingestion: blood pressure increase. Human reproductive effects by intraplacental route: terminates pregnancy. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A skin and eye irritant. When bulk sodium chloride is heated to high temperature, a vapor is emitted that is irritating, particularly to the eyes. Ingestion of large amounts of sodium chloride can cause irritation of the stomach. Improper use of salt tablets may produce this effect. Potentially explosive reaction with dichloromaleic anhydride + urea. Electrolysis of mixtures with nitrogen compounds may form the explosive nitrogen trichloride. Reaction with burning lithium forms the dangerously reactive sodium. The molten salt at 1100° reacts explosively with water. Violent reaction with BrF3. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl- and Na2O.
Hazard Codes:?IrritantXi
The Risk Statements information of: Sodium chloride:
22:? Harmful if swallowed
36:? Irritating to the eyes
36/37/38:? Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
The Safety Statements information of? Sodium chloride:
26:? In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
36:? Wear suitable protective clothing
24/25:? Avoid contact with skin and eyes
WGK Germany:? 1
F:? 3-10
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Sodium chloride at concentrations much above that in tears causes a stinging sensation on contact with the eye.
【Cleanup Methods】
Solids: Collect and remove with a broom in a large bucket. Dilute with water. Drain into the sewer with sufficient water. For solution: Wipe with mop or use water aspiration. Drain into the sewer with sufficient water.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Intra-amniotic: Injection 20%
Highest purity medicinal, crystals; highest purity, dried; highest purity, fine powder; highest purity, fused; reagent; reagent, fused; sea evaporated; ground; microsized; powdered; table salt; rock salt; chemically pure; United States Pharmacopeia; "Food Chemicals Codex"; single pure crystals.
Some rock salt deposits contain pure, crystallized salt. This salt is extremely clear and free from defects. It is about 99.8% pure sodium chloride.
Iodized salt
Trade Name: Purex
Parenteral Injection: 0.9% (with benzyl alcohol or parabens)
Parenteral: Injection, for preparation of IV admixtures: 2.5 mEq of Na+/mL and Cl-/mL; 2.5 mEq of Na+/mL and Cl-/mL pharmacy bulk package Sodium Chloride Additive Solution, (American Pharmaceutical Partners), Sodium Chloride Additive Solution, (Hospira); 4 mEq of Na+/mL and Cl-/mL; 4 mEq of Na+/mL and Cl-/mL pharmacy bulk package Sodium Chloride Injection Concentrate MaxiVial, (American Pharmaceutical Partners).
Parenteral: Injection: 0.45%: 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, (Baxter); 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, (Braun); 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, (Hospira); 0.9%: 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, (Baxter); 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, (Braun); 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, (Hospira); 3% 3% Sodium Chloride Injection Hypertonic, (Baxter); 3% Sodium Chloride Injection Hypertonic, (Braun) 5%: 5% Sodium Chloride Injection Hypertonic, (Baxter), 5% Sodium Chloride Injection Hypertonic, (Braun), 5% Sodium Chloride Injection Hypertonic, (Hospira).
Oral: Inhalation Aerosol, sterile, for dilution of oral inhalation solutions: 0.9% Bronco Saline, (Blairex) Solution, for nebulization: 0.45% Arm-a-Vial Sodium Chloride Solution, (AstraZeneca); 0.9% Arm-a-Vial Sodium Chloride Solution, (AstraZeneca), Dey-Pak Sodium Chloride Solution, (Dey), Dey-Vial Sodium Chloride Solution, (Dey) Sodium Chloride Inhalation Solution, (Nephron), Sodium Chloride Inhalation Solution, (Roxane), Sodium Chloride Inhalation Solution, (Wyeth); 3% Dey-Pak Sodium Chloride Solution, (Dey); 10% Dey-Pak Sodium Chloride Solution, (Dey).
Local Solution, sterile, for irrigation: 0.45%: 0.45% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, (Baxter), 0.45% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, (Hospira); 0.9%: 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, (Baxter), 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, (Braun), 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, (Hospira) Tablets, for solution: 1 g (for preparation of 0.9% sodium chloride solution) Sodium Chloride Tablets, (Lilly).
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List identifies currently marketed over-the-counter drug products, incl sodium chloride, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by FDA under sections 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Sodium chloride is rapidly attacked by bromine trifluoride.
Violent reaction with lithium.
Sodium chloride extinguishant should no be used on lithium fires since the reaction releases sodium and results in a more violent fire.
Electrolysis of sodium chloride in presence of nitrogenous compounds to produce chlorine may lead to formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride.
To prepare dichloromaleimide, sodium chloride, urea, and dichloromaleic anhydride are melted together with stirring. At 118 deg C the vigorous exothermic reaction sets in, and rapid ice cooling must then be applied to prevent explosion.
The mechanism of explosion of molten salt /eg, sodium chloride at 1100 deg C in accidental contact with water was studied.
The causes of furnace blasts occurring in soda-regeneration plants when water is split into molten sodium chloride are discussed, together with method of prevention.
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Sodium chloride at concentrations much above that in tears causes a stinging sensation on contact with the eye.
【Specification】
Sodium chloride (CAS NO.7647-14-5), also known as common salt, table salt, or halite,it also has synonyms such as Salt;Sea Salt;Tanker Fine Salt;Sodium Stock Solution.It is an ionic compound.
【Report】
Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.
【Disposal Methods】

SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Put into large vessel containing water. Discharge into the sewer with sufficient water.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing
1. Evaporation and crystallization of natural brines.
2. Solar evaporation of sea water.
3. Direct mining from underground or surface deposits.
Method of purification: Recrystallization
Sodium chloride, or rock salt, is obtained from underground room and pillar mining or solution mining (in which water is pumped into a rock salt deposit, brought back to the surface, and evaporated).

U.S. Imports
13,190,739,100 lb

U.S. Production
Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule. Year Production Range (pounds) 1986 < 10,000 1990 10,000 - 500,000 1994 10,000 - 500,000 1998 10,000 - 500,000 2002 >1 million - 10 million

Consumption Patterns
Production of chlorine, caustic soda, and soda ash accounts for about 57% of total usage, mainly in the form of brine. Highway use of rock salt represents about 19% of total tonnage.
【Usage】
In the production of chemicals (sodium hydroxide, soda ash, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, metallic sodium), ceramic glazes, metallurgy, curing hides, food preservative, mineral waters, soap manufacture (salting out), home water softeners, highway deicing, regeneration of ion-exchange resins, photography, food seasoning, herbicide, fire extinguishing, nuclear reactors, mouthwash, medicine (heat exhaustion), salting out dyestuffs, supercooled solutions. Single crystals are used for spectroscopy, uv and infrared transmissions.
【Sampling Procedures】
NIOSH Method 173. Analyte: Sodium. Matrix: Air. Procedure: Filter collection, acid digestion Flow Rate: 1.5 l/min. Sample Size: Not specified. /Sodium/
NIOSH Method 7300. Analyte: Sodium. Matrix: Air. Sampler: Filter (0.8 um, cellulose ester membrane) Flow Rate: 1 to 4 l/min. Sample Size: 500 liters. Shipment: Routine. Sample Stability: Stable. /Sodium/
NIOSH Method 115. Analyte: Chloride. Matrix: Air. Procedure: Collection with an impinger. Flow Rate: 2.5 l/min. Sample Size: 200 liters. /Chloride/
NIOSH Method 6011. Analyte: Chloride ion. Matrix: Air. Sampler: Filter (0.45 um, silver membrane). Flow Rate: 0.3 to 1 l/min. Sample Size: 90 liters. Shipment: Routine. Sample Stability: Greater than or equal to 30 days at 25 deg C. /Chloride ion/

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Therapeutic Uses】
Sodium chloride injections are used as a source of sodium chloride and water for hydration. Sodium chloride is used in the prevention or treatment of deficiencies of sodium and chloride ions and in the prevention of muscle cramps and heat prostration resulting from excessive perspiration during exposure to high temperature. Sodium chloride is also used to treat deficiencies of sodium and chloride caused by excessive diuresis or excessive salt restriction.
/VET:/ Hyponatremia in pinnipeds is closely related to adrenal exhaustion and development of Addison's disease, which links the syndrome to environmental stressors rather than to a simple primary salt deficiency. It is most common in pinnipeds maintained in freshwater exhibits but can be seen in animals kept in saltwater. Emergency therapy consists of sodium chloride infusion and replacement corticosteroids. Longterm management of advanced cases requires mineralocorticoid supplementation in conjunction with oral sodium chloride supplements and periodic monitoring of serum sodium levels. Control consists of provision of saltwater pools or supplementation of sodium chloride (3 g/kg food) in the diet of captive pinnipeds maintained in freshwater pools. Animals on salt supplementation should have continuous access to freshwater.
MEDICATION (VET): Essential nutrient factor. May be given orally as emetic, stomachic, laxative or to stimulate thirst (prevention of calculi). Intravenously as isotonic solution to raise blood volume, to combat dehydration. Locally as wound irrigant, rectal douche.
Sodium chloride 20% solution is used by transabdominal intra- amniotic instillation for aborting late second-trimester pregnancy (between the 16th and 24th weeks of gestation as calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period). The severity of the potential complications limits the use of hypertonic sodium chloride for abortion and it has generally been replaced by D & E . The maternal case-fatality rate is 11.6 per 100,000 abortions . Complications or method failure can occur if this method is used before the 16th week of gestation. /NOTE: Sodium chloride for intra-amniotic use is not commercially available in the US or Canada./
Controversy persists regarding the appropriate treatment of acute alkali injury to the esophagus. The current study establishes a controlled model of alkali esophageal injury and examines the efficacy of saline dilution therapy. Esophagi were harvested from 60 Sprague Dawley rats. Each end was cannulated with a 20 gauge catheter. Specimens were maintained in an oxygen perfused saline bath (37 deg C) during a 60 min experimental period and then fixed immediately in 10% formalin solution for histologic examination. Three experimental groups (A, B, and C) were perfused with 50% sodium hydroxide solution at time zero. Treatment with saline perfusion was performed immediately in group A, five min after injury in group B, and 30 min after injury in group C. The positive control group D was perfused with saline at time zero. A negative control, group E, was perfused with 50% sodium hydroxide at time zero. This group did not receive subsequent treatment with saline. Pathologic examination was performed in a blinded fashion using a score of 0 to 3 (0, no injury; 1, minimal 2, moderate; 3, severe) for seven histologic criteria: epithelial viability, extent of injury, cornified epithelial cell differentiation, granular cell differentiation, epithelial cell nuclei, muscle cells, and muscle cell nuclei. The positive control group demonstrated scores of zero. Nonparametric analysis showed a significant difference among treatment groups for each injury category. Trend analysis revealed a significant progression of injury for each category associated with time to treatment. Discriminant analysis indicated that the muscle cells category was the most useful category with which to distinguish injury among groups. In conclusion, saline lavage decreased objective evidence of esophageal injury after a severe alkaline exposure, and early therapy enhanced this beneficial effect. [Homan CS et al; Ann Emerg Med 22 (2): 178-82 (1993)]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
The primary route of sodium excretion is the urine; additional excretion occurs in sweat and feces. The kidney filters sodium a the glomerulus, but 60% to 70% is reabsorbed in the proximal tubules along with bicarbonate and water. Another 25% to 30% is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle, along with chloride and water. In the distal tubules, aldosterone modulates the reabsorption of sodium and, indirectly, chloride. The renal threshold for sodium is 110 to 130 mEq/L. Less than 1% of the filtered sodium is excreted in the urine.
Sodium is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract; it is also absorbed from rectal enemas. Intestinal wall absorption occurs via the Na+, K+-adenosine triphosphatase system that is augmented by aldosterone and desoxycorticosterone acetate. Sodium is not bound by plasma proteins. The volume of distribution is 0.64 L/kg.
In one study using radiolabeled 20% sodium chloride injection, most of the drug concentrated in the decidua and the fetal part of the placenta following intra-amniotic injection. Following intra-amniotic administration of 20% sodium chloride injection, some of the drug diffuses into the maternal blood.
Atrichial sweat glands are the organs by which considerable body water and electrolytes, mainly sodium chloride, are lost.
Sweating causes loss of both body water and electrolytes, especially sodium chloride, but only in diluted proportion to body fluids. Because sweat produced by atrichial glands is hyposmotic, sweating has the net effect of depleting body water, more than its electrolytes. Prolonged heavy sweating, however, challenges both.
Sodium ion is the principal electrolyte in extracellular fluid, which is excreted in the urine. /Na+/
Angiotensin II has pronounced effects on renal function to reduce the urinary excretion of Na+ and water while incr the excretion of K+. Very low concn of angiotensin II stimulate Na+/H+ exchange in the proximal tubule--an effect that incr Na+, Cl-, and bicarbonate reabsorption. At high concn, angiotensin II may inhibit Na+ transport in the proximal tubule. Angiotensin II stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex to incr the synthesis and secretion of aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the distal and collecting tubules to cause retention of Na+ and excretion of K+ and H+. The stimulant effect of angiotensin II on the synthesis and release of aldosterone is enhanced under conditions of hyponatremia or hyperkalemia and is reduced when concn of Na+ and K+ in plasma are altered in the opposite direction. Such changes in sensitivity are due in part to alterations in the number of receptors for angiotensin II on zona glomerulosa cells as well as to adrenocortical hyperplasia in the Na+-depleted state. Reductions in renal blood flow markedly attenuate renal excretory function, and angiotensin II reduces renal blood flow by directly constricting the renal vascular smooth muscle, by enhancing renal sympathetic tone (a CNS effect), and by facilitating renal noradrenergic neurotransmission (an intrarenal effect). Angiotensin II may reduce Na+ excretion in part by diminishing medullary blood flow. /Na+/
Arterial blood pressure is a major determinant of Na+ excretion. The renin-angiotensin system plays a major role in maintaining a constant levels of arterial blood pressure despite extreme changes in dietary Na+ intake. When dietary Na+ intake is low, renin release is stimulated, and angiotensin II acts on the kidneys. Conversely, when dietary Na+ is high, renin release is inhibited causing the withdrwal of angiotensin II. /Na+/

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