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Sodium fluoride(CAS No. 7681-49-4)

Sodium fluoride NaF (cas 7681-49-4) Molecular Structure

7681-49-4 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Sodium fluoride
【CAS Registry number】
7681-49-4
【Synonyms】
Sodium fluoride 99% (ACS)
Fluoride ion chromatography standard solution Fluka
Fluoride
Sodiumfluoridemetalsbasiswhitepowder
Sodiumfluorideopticalgradewhitextl
Sodium fluoride solution
Activity standard solution for fluoride electrode (100 ppm as fluoride)
Natriumfluorid
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-667-8
【Molecular Formula】
NaF (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
41.99
【Inchi】
InChI=1/FH.Na/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
【InChIKey】
PUZPDOWCWNUUKD-UHFFFAOYSA-M
【Canonical SMILES】
[F-].[Na+]
【MOL File】
7681-49-4.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white odorless powder or crystal
【Density】
2.558
【Melting Point】
993℃
【Boiling Point】
1700℃
【Refractive Index】
1.336
【Flash Point】
Not considered to be a fire hazard
【Water】
4 g/100 mL (25℃)
【Solubilities】
4 g/100 mL (25 oC) in water
【Color/Form】
Colorless, cubic or tetragonal crystals
White powder or colorless crystals [Note: Pesticide grade is often dyed blue].
【Stability】
Stable. Hydrolyzed by water. Reacts with mineral acids to generate highly toxic hydrogen fluoride. Incompatible with glass.
【Storage temp】
2-8°C
【Spectral properties】
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.336
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:41.988173 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:FNa
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:1
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:41.988173
MonoIsotopic Mass:41.988173
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:2
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:2
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
T:Toxic
【Risk Statements】
R25;R32;R36/38
【Safety Statements 】
S22;S36;S45
【HazardClass】
6.1
【Hazard Note】

Toxic/Hygroscopic

【Safety】

Hazard Codes:?ToxicT
Risk Statements: 25-32-36/38?
R25 :Toxic if swallowed.?
R32:Contact with acid liberates very toxic gas.?
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin.
Safety Statements: 23-24/25-45-36-22?
S23:Do not breathe vapour.?
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes.?
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)?
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing.?
S22:Do not breathe dust.
RIDADR: UN 1690 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: WB0350000
F: 10
Hazard Note: Toxic/Hygroscopic
HazardClass: 6.1
PackingGroup: III
Human poison by ingestion. Experimental poison by ingestion, skin contact, intravenous, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular routes. Human systemic effects: changes in teeth and supporting structures, cyanosis, diarrhea, EKG changes, fluid intake, headache, hypermotility, increased immune response, muscle weakness, musculo-skeletal changes, nausea or vomiting, paresthesia, ptosis (drooping of the eyelid from sympathetic innervation), respiratory depression, salivary gland changes, tremors. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. It is very phytotoxic. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of F? and Na2O. Used in chemical cleaning, for fluoridation of drinking water, as a fungicide and insecticide. See also FLUORIDES.

【PackingGroup 】
III
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Dust inhalation and skin or eye contact may cause irritation of the skin, eyes or respiratory tract ...
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations-land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material; /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. /Sodium fluoride solution/
Environmental considerations-water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Adjust pH to neutral (pH= 7). /Sodium fluoride solution/
Shovel into suitable dry container. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
【Transport】
UN 1690
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire (material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty). Use water in flooding quantities as fog; Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water; Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Sodium fluoride solution/
If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
【Fire Potential】
Not combustible.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Commercial grade (purity 93-99%) is used to prepare baits
Technical grades are 90% and 95% NaF, light (37 cu in/lb) and dense (23 cu in/lb), and 98%
Sodium fluoride solution contains not less than 95% and not more than 105.0% of the labelled amount of sodium fluoride, USP XXI
The purity of the commercial material is about 98%
Commercially available as tablets or solutions for oral admin and in dentifrices or as oral gels, pastes, or rinsing solutions for topical administration.
Oral, Topical Use Only: Cream 1.1% (0.5% fluoride ion) Control Rx, Omnii International PreviDent 5000 Plus, (Colgate Oral), SF 5000 Plus, Cypress Foam Sodium Fluoride 2% (0.9% fluoride ion) Neutra-Foam, (Oral-B) Gel 1.1% (0.5% fluoride ion) (Karigel), Maintenance-Neutral, (Young Dental), NeutraCare, (Oral-B), PreviDent Brush-On Gel ( with parabens), (Colgate) Oral SF Gel, Cypress Thera-Flur-N Gel-Drops ( with parabens), (Colgate) Oral Rinsing solution 0.05% (0.02% fluoride ion) ACT, (Johnson & Johnson) Fluorigard Anti-Cavity Dental Rinse ( with alcohol 6%, glycerin 15%, and tartrazine), (Colgate) Oral 0.2% (0.09% fluoride ion) Fluorinse ( with parabens), (Oral-B) PreviDent Dental Rinse ( with alcohol 5.8% and glycerin), (Colgate Oral).
Oral: Solution: 1.1 mg/mL (0.5 mg of fluoride ion per mL) Luride Drops ( with parabens and propylene glycol), (Colgate) Oral Pediaflor Drops ( with alcohol
Trade names for sodium fluoride include Floridine, Florocid, Flura-Drops, Karidium, Pergantine, T-Fluoride, and Villiaumite.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas.
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible.
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire.
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS.
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List identifies currently marketed over-the-counter drug products, incl sodium fluoride, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by FDA under sections 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Strong oxidizers.
Reacts with acids to form hydrogen fluoride.
【Other Preventative Measures】
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers; Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. /Sodium fluoride solution/
Personnel protection: Keep upwind. ... Avoid breathing vapors. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Sodium fluoride solution/
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Wear special protective clothing and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
Wear appropriate chemical protective gloves, and boots. /Sodium fluoride solution/
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 12.5 mg/cu m: (Assigned Protection Factor = 5) Any quarter-mask respirator.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 25 mg/cu m: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any particulate respirator equipped with an N95, R95, or P95 filter (including N95, R95, and P95 filtering facepieces) except quarter-mask respirators. The following filters may also be used: N99, R99, P99, N100, R100, P100. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 62.5 mg/cu m: (Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any powered air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection. May need acid gas sorbent.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 125 mg/cu m: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter. May need acid gas sorbent./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 250 mg/cu m: (Assigned Protection Factor = 2000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure- demand or other positive-pressure mode./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter. May need acid gas sorbent./Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
【Report】

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Group III Containers (both combustible and non-combustible) that previously held organic mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, or inorganic pesticides should be triple rinsed, punctured and disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Non-rinsed containers should be encapsulated and buried at a specially designated landfill site. /Organic mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, or inorganic pesticides/
A suggested disposal method converts the soluble fluoride ions to insoluble calcium fluoride ... a naturally occurring mineral (fluorspar) which can safely be added to a landfill. The method is as follows: add slowly to a large container of water. Stir in slight excess of Na2CO3 /sodium carbonate/. If fluoride is present add Ca(OH)2 /calcium hydroxide/ also. Let stand 24 hr. Decant or siphon into another container and neutralize with 6 m HCl /hydrochloric acid/ before washing down with large cxcess of water. The sludge may be added to landfill. Recommendable methods: Precipitation & landfill.
Precipitation & landfill: Industry wastes with a high fluoride concn are treated in two phases. By adding CaO /calcium oxide/, the soluble fluorides are precipitated as CaF2 /calcium fluoride/ until the concn has been reduced to 10 mg/l. The compact sludge is disposed of on special waste dumps.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Prepared by fusing cryolite with sodium hydroxide
Normally manufactured by the reaction of hydrofluoric acid with soda ash (sodium carbonate) or caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), with control of pH essential and proper agitation necessary to obtain the desired crystal size.
Sodium fluoride ... is prepared by neutralizing aqueous hydrogen fluoride with sodium bicarbonate ...
U.S. Imports

(1977) AT LEAST 5.95X10+7 G
U.S. Production

(1977) AT LEAST 4.60X10+8 G
(1986) 5.44X10+9 g /estimate/
Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule. Year Production Range (pounds) 1986 No Reports 1990 10,000 - 500,000 1994 >500,000- 1million 1998 No Reports 2002 >1 million - 10 million
In 2004, participating countries declared 298.6 metric tons of potassium fluoride and reported that no metric tons of this category 2 unscheduled chemical were destroyed.
【Sampling Procedures】
NIOSH 8308: Analyte: fluoride ion (F-); Specimen: urine, pre- and post- shift; Vol: 50 ml in chemically clean polyethylene bottles; Preservative: 0.2 g EDTA added to bottles before collection; Stability: 2 wk @ 4 deg C, longer if frozen; Controls: collect 3 sets of specimens from unexposed workers pre- and post- shift /Fluoride in urine/
NIOSH 7902: Analyte: fluoride ion (F-); Matrix: air; Sampler: filter plus treated filter (0.8-um cellulose ester membrane followed by sodium carbonate treated cellulose pad; Flow rate: 1-2 l/min; Vol: min: 20 l @ 2.5 mg/cu m, max: 800 l @ 2.5 mg/cu m; Stability: stable /Fluorides, aerosol and gas/

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
【Therapeutic Uses】
Fluorides, Topical
Sodium fluoride is indicated as a dietary supplement for prevention of dental caries in children in those areas where the level of naturally occurring fluoride in the drinking water is inadequate. In optimally fluoridated communities, sodium fluoride supplementation may be necessary in infants that are totally breast-fed or receive ready-to-use formulas or in children consuming nonfluoridated bottled water rather than tap water. Sodium fluoride supplementation may also be indicated in those situations where home water filtration systems remove fluoride. This usually occurs with reverse osmosis or distillation units, but not with carbon charcoal filters. Evidence that oral systemic fluoride supplements reduce dental caries in adults is lacking. /Included in US product labeling/
Sodium fluoride has been used to treat osteoporosis and otospongiosis in adults; however, its use is controversial and further studies are needed. The doses used in osteoporosis and otospongiosis have potential for toxicity, including skeletal fluorosis, osteomalacia, widening of unmineralized osteoid seams, and upper gastrointestinal ulceration.
Sodium fluoride is commercially available in multivitamin or multivitamin/iron preparations for use as oral fluoride supplements in infants and children.
MEDICATION (VET): ... USE ... as an anthelmintic against round worms (Ascaris) and stomach worms (Hyostrongylus) in pig. FOr this purpose ... usually mixed with dry food in concentration not exceeding 1%.
MEDICATION (VET): Anthelmintic, pediculicide, acaricide
In areas where there is a deficiency of fluoride in the drinking water, the incidence of dental caries can be reduced by admin sodium fluoride at a rate of 2.2 mg/day. However, to be of value the drug must be taken consistently during the years when the permanent teeth are being formed ... It is ... efficient to treat municipal water supplies so that the concn of fluoride ion is in the range 0.7 to 1.2 ppm. This may be done by adding sodium fluoride at a rate of 1.5 to 3.0 ppm.
The American Dental Association (ADA) and some clinicians recommend that, in patients without dental caries and with no apparent increased risk for dental caries, adequate water fluoridation or oral fluoride supplementation, combined with daily use of fluoridated dentrifice and semiannual topical applications of fluoride by dental professionals, may be appropriate. Individuals with, or at increased risk for, dental caries may require additional exposure to fluorides. Those with low rates of dental caries, or with a slightly increased risk, may require the addition of sodium fluoride 0.05% mouth rinse or 0.4% stannous fluoride gel. Those with moderate to high rates of dental caries, or with a moderately to greatly increased risk, also may require daily use of a neutral sodium fluoride 1.1% gel or an acidulated phosphate fluoride gel containing sodium fluoride 1.1%.
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
During the growth phase of the skeleton, a relatively high portion of an ingested fluoride dose will be deposited in the skeleton. In infants and children with skeletal growth or individuals not consuming fluoridated drinking-water, up to 75% of the daily amount of fluoride that is absorbed may be incorporated into skeletal tissue. When a fluoride dose (e.g., a fluoride tablet or an infant formula diluted with fluoridated drinking-water) is given to infants, the retention will be strongly correlated with the absorbed fluoride dose per kilogram body weight: the higher the fluoride dose, the higher the fluoride retention. Retention of fluoride following intake of a fluoride supplement of 0.25 mg given to infants was shown to be as high as 80-90%. In a study with adults (aged 23-27 years) in which fluoride was given as a single intravenous injection, about 60% of the injected dose (3 mg fluoride as sodium fluoride) was retained.
Experimental studies performed in vivo with rats and in vitro with isolated segments of dog jejunum have indicated that fluoride (as sodium fluoride) is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and intestinal tract in animals. The rate at which fluoride is absorbed from the stomach is inversely related to the pH of the stomach contents
Although most of the fluoride ingested by laboratory animals is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, small amounts may also be absorbed from the oral cavity. In female Fischer F-344 rats intubated endotracheally (with oesophageal ligation) with 200 ul of a solution of sodium fluoride (Na18F), approximately 7% of the administered material was absorbed from the oral cavity within 2.5 hr. The absorption of fluoride (as sodium fluoride in solution) from the oral cavity of Syrian hamsters increased with decreasing pH of the solution.
The ingestion of fluoride with food retards its absorption and reduces its bioavailability. When fluoride was ingested as sodium fluoride tablets on a fasting stomach, the bioavailability of fluoride was almost 100%. When the same dose was taken together with a glass of milk, the bioavailability decreased to 70%; when it was taken together with a calcium-rich breakfast, the bioavailability was further reduced to 60%). The decrease in absorption associated with the ingestion of milk or food is probably due to binding of fluoride with certain food constituents, including calcium and other divalent and trivalent cations. When this occurs, the faecal excretion of fluoride will increase. The timing of fluoride ingestion in relation to a meal is critical with respect to fluoride bioavailability. When a few grams of a fluoride dentifrice are swallowed on a fasting stomach, the plasma peak is recorded within 30 min; however, when the dentifrice is swallowed 15 min after a meal, the peak does not occur until after 1 hr. The fluoride from most dental products intended for oral application is almost completely absorbed when swallowed.
After intake of sodium fluoride as tablets or a solution, fluoride is rapidly absorbed. Only a few minutes after intake, there is a rise in the plasma fluoride concentration, and the plasma peak usually occurs within 30 min. The height of the plasma peak is proportional to the fluoride dose ingested.
/Studies in man revealed/ peak serum levels are reached within a half hour, and levels fall promptly, with 20% of a given dose being excreted in the urine within 4 hr.
Fluoride crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk. Fluoride concentrations in milk are reported to range from less than 0.05 ppm (mg/L) to 0.13 ppm (mg/L) and generally remain constant regardless of the fluoride concentration in the woman's serum or drinking water. In one study, the concentration of fluoride in milk ranged from 2-8 ng/mL prior to and up to 2 hours after oral administration of a single 1.5-mg dose of sodium fluoride.
/Renal Clearance/ 1. Virtually all fluoride in plasma ... is ultrafilterable. 2. Renal excretion of radiofluoride depends on glomerular filtration & variable tubular reabsorption. 3. Probably, reabsorption is largely passive ... 4. Fluoride excretion incr when plasma concn is increased. 5. Procedures that increase urinary flow rate (eg, admin of osmotic diuretics, hypertonic saline, or diuretic drugs) increase the clearance of fluoride. /Fluoride/
In female rats, poisoned by oral admin of sodium fluoride, the skeletons of younger rats apparently are more efficient at removing fluoride from circulation than are those of older rats. [DE LOPEZ OH ET AL; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 37 (1): 75-83 (1976)] PubMed Abstract
Rats given 18-fluoride ion as a radiotracer by continuous iv infusion of sodium fluoride for 3 hr showed at sublethal dose rates, blood fluoride concn nears steady state proportional to fluoride infusion rate. Blood, kidney, & lung had highest concn @ doses up to 3 mg fluoride/kg/hr, but @ 6 mg/kg/hr the fluoride of the liver, spleen & hollow organs incr sharply. Amt above this was not well processed by excretory mechanism. Rats infused 3 hr with 6 mg fluoride/kg/hr: during infusion fluoride concn of bone & other tissues was high, bone the highest. Of soft tissues, lung had the highest, brain, testes, & fat pads the least concn. During depletion phase, tissue fluoride concn decr, bone fluoride remained constant, & substantial amount remained in the lung.
Following oral admin of sodium fluoride to rabbits, the fluoride concn of plasma rose rapidly from a range of 0.01 to 0.07 ppm to a maximal level usually within 1 hr and then usually declined with a half-life of 4 or 5 hr. Doses of 100 to 140 mg/kg gave 1 hr concn of 12 to 14 ppm.
Following ingestion, soluble fluorides are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract at least to the extent of 97%. Absorbed fluoride is distributed throughout the tissues of the body by the blood. Fluoride concentrations in soft tissues fall to pre-exposure levels within a few hours of exposure. Fluoride exchange with hydroxyl radicals of hydroxyapatite (the inorganic constituent of bone) to form fluorohydroxyapatite. Fluoride that is not retained is excreted rapidly in urine. In adults under steady state intake conditions, the urinary concentration of fluoride tends to approximate the concentration of fluoride in the drinking water. This reflects the decreasing retention of fluoride (primarily in bone) with increasing age. Under certain conditions perspiration may be an important route of fluoride excretion. The concentration of fluoride retained in bones and teeth is a function of both the concentration of fluoride intake and the duration of exposure. Periods of excessive fluoride exposure will result in increased retention in the bone. However, when the excessive exposure is eliminated, the bone fluoride concentration will decrease to a concentration that is again reflective of intake. /Fluoride/
Sodium fluoride and other soluble fluoride salts are readily and almost completely absorbed from the GI tract. The absorption of fluoride from ingested toothpaste containing sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) also appears to be almost complete. A substantial portion of an oral dose of soluble fluoride may be absorbed in the stomach, and the rate of absorption may depend on gastric pH.

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