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Nitric acid(CAS No. 7697-37-2)

Nitric acid HNO3 (cas 7697-37-2) Molecular Structure

7697-37-2 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Nitric acid
【CAS Registry number】
7697-37-2
【Synonyms】
nitric acid 65% (hg 69.5%
nitric acid fuming 100%
Nitric acid Solution
clp aa/icp nitric acid
Nitric Acid 1.42 -TECHNIQUE
Contract Lab Program AA/ICP Nitric acid
Nitric Acid 1.42 - ANALYPUR
Nitric acid 70%
Nitrate acid
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-714-2
【Molecular Formula】
HNO3 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
63.01
【Inchi】
InChI=1/HNO3/c2-1(3)4/h(H,2,3,4)
【InChIKey】
GRYLNZFGIOXLOG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
[N+](=O)(O)[O-]
【MOL File】
7697-37-2.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
Colourless clear liquid
【Density】
1.4
【Melting Point】
-42℃
【Boiling Point】
122℃
【Flash Point】
120.5°C
【Water】
>100 g/100 mL (20℃)
【Solubilities】
H2O: >100 g/100 mL (20 oC)
【Color/Form】
Colorless, yellow, or red, fuming liquid.
Concentrated nitric acid is a colorless to yellow liquid.
【Storage temp】
2-8°C
【Spectral properties】
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.397 @ 16.4 DEG C/D
Refractive index: 1.3970 at 24 deg C/D.
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:63.01284 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:HNO3
XLogP3-AA:0.2
H-Bond Donor:1
H-Bond Acceptor:3
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:62.995643
MonoIsotopic Mass:62.995643
Topological Polar Surface Area:66
Heavy Atom Count:4
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:24.8
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:3
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
C:Corrosive
【Risk Statements】
R8;R35
【Safety Statements 】
S23;S26;S36;S45
【HazardClass】
8
【Safety】

Hazard Codes of Nitric acid (CAS NO.7697-37-2): CorrosiveC,OxidizingO
Risk Statements: 8-35-34-20 
R8: Contact with combustible material may cause fire. 
R35: Causes severe burns. 
R34: Causes burns. 
R20: Harmful by inhalation.
Safety Statements: 23-26-36-45
S23: Do not breathe vapour. 
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. 
S36: Wear suitable protective clothing. 
S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
RIDADR: UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: QU5900000
F: 8
HazardClass: 8
PackingGroup: II
Human poison by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Corrosive to eyes, skin, mucous membranes, and teeth. Causes upper respiratory irritation that may seem to clear up, only to return in a few hours and more severely. Depending on environmental factors the vapor will consist of a mixture of the various oxides of nitrogen and nitric acid. Flammable by chemical reaction with reducing agents. It is a powerful oxidizing agent.

【PackingGroup 】
II
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.
【Cleanup Methods】
1. Ventilate area of spill or leak. 2. Flush with copious quantities of water & neutralize with alkaline material (such as soda ash, lime, etc).
Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder. Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone, or sodium bicarbonate. /Nitric acid, fuming/
Water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (slaked lime), crushed limestone, or sodium bicarbonate. Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment. /Nitric acid, fuming/
【Transport】
UN 3264 8/PG 3
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors & toxic decomposition products. Use flooding quantities of water as spray or fag. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire.
Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Nitric acid, fuming/
【Fire Potential】
Contact of concentrated nitric acid with combustible materials may incr the hazard from fire & may lead to an explosion.
【Formulations/Preparations】
COMMERCIAL NITRIC ACIDS CONTAIN 68% AND 56% NITRIC ACID.
NITRIC ACID CONCENTRATED IS A WATER SOLN CONTAINING 70-71% NITRIC ACID
ACS GRADE: 69.0-71.0%; ACS FUMING GRADE: >90%; USA DOD MILITARY SID MS26047 TECH GRADE: 61%
Strength of solutions: 36, 38, 40, 42 degrees Be; 58-63.5%; 95%.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
If ... THERE IS NO FIRE, go directly to the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances /(see table below)/ ... to obtain initial isolation and protective action distances. IF THERE IS A FIRE, or IF A FIRE IS INVOLVED, go directly to the appropriate guide /(see guide(s) below)/ and use the evacuation information shown under PUBLIC SAFETY. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming/ Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances for Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming Small Spills (from a small package or small leak from a large package) -------------------- First ISOLATE in all Directions 30 meters (100 feet) Then PROTECT persons Downwind during DAY: 0.1 kilometers (0.1 miles) Then PROTECT persons Downwind during NIGHT: 0.2 kilometers (0.2 miles) ==================== Large Spills (from a large package or from many small packages) -------------------- First ISOLATE in all Directions 60 meters (200 feet) Then PROTECT persons Downwind during DAY: 0.6 kilometers (0.4 miles) Then PROTECT persons Downwind during NIGHT: 1.2 kilometers (0.8 miles)
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns, or death. Reaction with water or moist air will release toxic, corrosive or flammable gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or contaminated with water. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Fire: Note: Most foams will react with the material and release corrosive/toxic gases. Small fires: CO2 ... , dry chemical, dry sand, alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Small spills: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand, or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect material and place it into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Nitric acid, fuming; Nitric acid, red fuming; Nitric acid, other than red fuming/
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Nitric acid is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
REACTS VIOLENTLY WITH ALCOHOL, TURPENTINE, CHARCOAL, AND ORGANIC REFUSE.
Can react explosively with many reducing agents.
REACTS EXPLOSIVELY WITH METALLIC POWDERS, CARBIDES, CYANIDES, SULFIDES, ALKALIES, & TURPENTINE.
A jet of ammonia will ignite in nitric acid vapor.
Cellulose may be converted to the highly flammable nitrate ester on contact with the vapor of nitric acid, as well as the liquid itself.
A winchester of fuming nitric acid with a plastic cap burst, probably owing to pressure build-up and uneven wall thickness. The explosion fractured an adjacent bottle of acetone which ignited on contact with the powerful oxidant.
Combustible materials, metallic powders, hydrogen sulfide, carbides, alcohols [Note: Reacts with water to produce heat. Corrosive to metals].
Arsine, phosphine, and tetraborane are all oxidized explosively by fuming nitric acid. Phosphine, hydrogen sulfide, and selenide all ignite when the fuming acid is dripped into the gas. Hydrogen telluride ignites with the cold concentrated acid, sometimes exploding.
Phosphine ignites in concentrated nitric acid and the addition of warm fuming nitric acid to phosphine causes explosion. Phosphonium iodide ignites with nitric acid, and ethylphosphine explodes with fuming acid. Tris(iodomercuri)-phosphine is violently decomposed by nitric acid.
Nickel tetraphosphide ignites with the fuming /nitric acid/, and tetraphosphorus diiodide triselenide reacts explosively with nitric acid.
A mixture of nitric and phosphoric acids (50, 17% respectively) with a primary alcohol ethoxylate surfactant (0.1%) and water exploded after 7 months storage in a glass bottle.
Cesium and rubidium acetylides explode in contact with nitric acid, and the sodium and potassium analogs probably react violently.
When the (unspecified) thiocyanate solution was pumped through a 80 mm pipeline containing nitric acid, a violent explosion occurred.
Oxidation of 4-methylcyclohexanone by addition to nitric acid at about 75 deg C caused a detonation to occur. ...
A plant explosion involved a mixture of nitrobenzene, nitric acid and a substantial quantity of water. Detonation occurred with a speed and power comparable to TNT.
Addition of ether to a nitration mixture (o-bromotoluene and concentrated nitric acid) diluted with an equal volume of water in a separating funnel caused a low-order explosion. This was attributed to oxidation of the ether (possibly containing alcohol) by the acid. ...
Cyclopentadiene reacts explosively with fuming nitric acid.
Several cases of interaction between anion exchange resins and nitric acid have resulted in a rapid release of energy or an explosion.
Nitration of 2-aminothiazole with nitric acid/sulfuric acid was normally effected by mixing the reactants at low temperature, heating to 90 deg C during 30 min and then positively cooling. When positive cooling was omitted, a violent explosion occurred.
The literature procedure for preparation of 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, involving direct nitration in 65% nitric acid, was modified by increasing the reaction temperature to 60 deg C one hour after holding at 30-35 deg C as originally specified. This procedure was satisfactory on the bench scale, and was scaled up to a 900 liter reactor. After the temperature had reached 30 deg C, heating was discontinued, but the temperature continued to rise to 100-110 deg C and the decomposition set in with copious evolution of nitrous fumes and production of a very shock sensitive explosive solid. This was identified as 4-chloro-2,5-dinitrobenzenediazonium-6-olate. ...
A mixture of equal parts of nitric acid, acetone, and 75% acetic acid, used to etch nickel, will explode 1.5-6 hours after mixing if kept in a closed bottle ... .
Acetone is oxidized violently by mixed nitric-sulfuric acids, and if the mixture is confined in a narrow-mouthed vessel, it may be ejected or explode.
Mixtures of fumic nitric acid and acetonitrile are high explosives.
During preparation of diacetatoplatinum (II) ... the hexahydroxyplatinate in mixed nitric-acetic acids was evaporated to a syrup and several explosions were experienced, possibly due to formation of acetyl nitrate. On one occasion, a brown solid was isolated and dried, but subsequently exploded when touched with a glass rod. The material was thought to be a mixture of platinum (IV) acetate-nitrate species.
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Vapor hazard index (VHI) is defined as concn of saturated vapor divided by TLV multiplied by 1000. The dimension of the vapor hazard index is temp dependent and is an indication of vapor hazard potential. Vapor hazard index 100% nitric acid= 28= good fume cupboard required at 20 deg C; 70% nitric acid= 2= extra precautions advisable in case of accidents at 20 deg C.
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Use water spray to knock down vapors. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime. Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors; Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. Do not handle broken packages without protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from downwind area based on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions. /Nitric acid, fuming/
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Air mask; Rubber acid suit, hood, boots & gloves; Chemical goggles; Safety shower & eye bath.
Respiratory protection at 250 mg/cu m or less: A chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece providing protection against nitric acid. A gas mask with a chin-style or a front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister providing protection against nitric acid. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece, or helmet or hood. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. A Type-C supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode. Respiratory protection at greater than 250 mg/cu m: Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. A combination respirator which includes a Type-C supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
Vendor recommendations concerning the protective qualities of materials are as follows: Natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, viton and saranex received excellent or good ratings from less than three vendors (no fair or poor ratings), good and fair ratings, with good ratings predominating, from several vendors; Butyl, nitrile/poyvinyl chloride, polyunethome, polyvinyl alcohol received fair or poor ratings from less than three vendors, good and fair ratings, with fair ratings predominating, from several vendors. /Nitric acid, > 70%/
Vendor recommendations concerning the protective qualities of materials are as follows: Natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile and polyvinyl chloride received excellent of good ratings from three or more vendors; Butyl, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, styrene, butadiene rubber and viton received excellent or good ratings from less than three vendors (no fair or poor ratings), good and fair ratings, with good ratings predominating, from several vendors. /Nitric acid,
Vendor recommendations concerning the protective qualities of materials are as follows: Neoprene and and polyvinyl chloride received excellent and good ratings from three or more vendors; Natural rubber, nitrile, nitrile/polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polyurethane, Viton, and Saranex received excellent or good ratings from three vendors (no fair or poor ratings), good and fair ratings, with good ratings predominating, from several vendors. /Nitric acid 30-70%/
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. /pH
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.] /pH
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 25 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. May require eye protection. Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. Only nonoxidizable sorbents allowed (not charcoal). Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Only nonoxidizable sorbents are allowed (not charcoal). Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Only nonoxidizable sorbents are allowed (not charcoal). Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
【Specification】

 Nitric acid , its cas register number is 7697-37-2. It also can be called Acide nitrique ; Acido nitrico ; Acidum nitricum ;
 Aqua fortis ; Azotic acid ; Azotowy kwas ; Engraver's acid ; Hydrogen nitrate ; Kyselina dusicne ; Nital ; Nitric acid ; Nitrous fumes ; Nitryl hydroxide ; Red fuming nitric acid ; Salpetersaeure ; Salpetersaure ; Salpeterzuuroplossingen ; UNII-411VRN1TV4 .
 Nitric acid (CAS NO.7697-37-2) is a colorless, highly corrosive liquid and a very powerful oxidizing agent that in the highly pure state is not entirely stable and must be prepared from its azeotrope by distillation with concentrated sulfuric acid. Nitric acid gradually yellows because of decomposition to nitrogen dioxide. Solutions containing more than 80% nitric acid are called fuming nitric acids. Something you should know ahout it as As follows:
1. Fire Fighting Measures of  Nitric acid 
General Information: As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Strong oxidizer. Contact with other material may cause fire. Substance is noncombustible. 
Extinguishing Media: Do NOT use water directly on fire. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Substance is noncombustible; use agent most appropriate to extinguish surrounding fire. 
2. Handling and Storage  of  Nitric acid
Handling: Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Use only in a chemical fume hood. 
Storage: Do not store near combustible materials. Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container. Corrosives area. 

【Report】

EPA Extremely Hazardous Substances List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Community Right-To-Know List.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
DISPOSAL OF WASTE NITRIC ACID INTO SEWERS OR WATERCOURSES SHOULD NOT BE PERMITTED UNTIL THE PH OF THE SOLN IS /SRP: ADJUSTED/ TO A RANGE OF 5.5-8.5.
Recovering: Sodium carbonate-calcium hydroxide is added to form the neutral soln of nitrate of sodium and calcium. This soln can be discharged after dilution with water. Also, nitric acid can be recovered and reused. Recommendable methods: Neutralization & discharge to sewer. Not recommendable method: Landfill. Peer-review: Prior to neutralization dilute 10 times. Beware - Potential toxic. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC expert consultation (May 1985))

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Usually produced by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia. Purification by distillation.
... (A) THE ACTION OF SULFURIC ACID ON SODIUM NITRATE (PURIFIED CHILE SALTPETER, 98-99%)- THIS PROCESS IS NOW OUTDATED; (B) OXIDATION OF AMMONIA BY THE CATALYTIC PROCESS (HEATED PLATINUM CATALYST)- WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC AMMONIA PLANTS THIS PROCESS HAS BECOME THE MOST IMPORTANT; (C) BY DIRECT SYNTHESIS, COMBINING ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN AND OXYGEN IN AN ELECTRIC ARC ...
(1) Oxidation of ammonia by air or oxygen with platinum catalyst. Air oxidation yields 60% acid; concentration is achieved by (1) distillation with sulfuric acid, (2) extractive distillation with magnesium nitrate, or (3) by neutralizing the weak acid with soda ash, evaporating to dryness, and treating with sulfuric acid. (2) High pressure oxidation of nitrogen tetroxide (yields 98% acid).
Prepared by distillation of concentrated nitric acid with concentrated sulfuric acid; by treating sodium or potassium nitrate with 100% H2SO4 and removing HNO3 by distillation; by fractional crystallization of concentrated nitric acid. Review of preparation and properties of pure HNO3: Stern et al, Chem Rev 60, 185-207 (1960). /Anhydrous nitric acid/
U.S. Imports

(1972) 1.57X10+9 G
(1975) 3.63X10+9 G
(1984) 1.18X10+10 g
U.S. Production

(1972) 7.24X10+12 G
(1975) 6.95X10+12 G
(1984) 7.02X10+12 g
(1990) 16.00 billion lb
(1991) 15.85 billion lb
(1992) 16.09 billion lb
(1993) 17.07 billion lb
Consumption Patterns

58% IS USED TO PRODUCE AMMONIUM NITRATE; 7% FOR ADIPIC ACID; 2% FOR ISOCYANATES, 6% FOR MILITARY USE IN EXPLOSIVES; 5% FOR PRODUCTION OF MISC FERTILIZERS; 1% TO MAKE NITROBENZENE; 3% IN MISC INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVES; 18% IN OTHER APPLICATIONS, INCLUDING PRODUCTION OF POTASSIUM NITRATE, NITROCELLULOSE LACQUERS, OTHER AROMATIC NITROGEN PRODUCTS AND NITROPARAFFINS, NUCLEAR FUEL, MISC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, AND STEEL PICKLING (1968).
80% IS USED TO PRODUCE AMMONIUM NITRATE; 8% FOR ADIPIC ACID; 3% FOR ANILINE; 3% FOR DINITROBENZENES; 2% FOR POTASSIUM AND SODIUM NITRATES; 4% FOR MISCELLANEOUS (1981).
The largest use of nitric acid (about 74 to 78% of total US production) is for the manufacture of ammonium nitrate. The next three largest uses for nitric acid are in the manufacture of cyclohexanone (about 8 to 9%), dinitrotoluene (about 4%), and nitrobenzene (about 3 to 4%).
【Usage】
Nitric acid is an important starting material for the production of fertilizers and chemicals. Diluted nitric acid is used for dissolving and etching metals Product Data Sheet
【Sampling Procedures】
MATRIX: AIR; PROCEDURE: IMPINGER COLLECTION
Air samples containing nitric acid are taken with a glass tube, 11 cm x 7 mm OD, containing a 400 mg front section and a 200 mg backup section of washed silica gel (20/40 mesh, Grade 01). The front section is retained with a glass fiber filter plug (6 mm in diam and 1 mm thick), and urethane plugs separate and retain the backup section. A sampling pump is connected to this tube and accurately calibrated at 0.2 and 0.5 l/minute to a total of 3 to 100 liters. Elution is performed with 10 ul of a buffer solution consisting of 3 uM sodium bicarbonate/2.4 mM sodium carbonate. This technique has an overall precision of 0.085, over a studied range of 1.0 to 10 mg/cu m.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
【Therapeutic Uses】
AS A CAUTERIZING AGENT FOR IMMEDIATE STERILIZATION OF DANGEROUSLY INFECTED WOUNDS, SUCH AS BITE FROM A RABID ANIMAL; IT DOES NOT PENETRATE TOO DEEPLY & FORMS A FIRM ESCHAR.
In a double blind study, the response of superficial skin tumors to topical treatment with a nitric acid preparation (6.2 N) or Solcoderm solution was compared in 33 patients. Treatment with the Solcoderm solution yielded superior results and less reaction in the surrounding normal skin than the plain nitric acid. It was suggested that the nitrate reduction products generated in the Solcoderm preparation contribute to the improved clinical effects by enhancing the speed and intensity of tissue fixation, but not tissue erosion. [Weiner M et al; Clin Pharmacol Ther 33: 77-83 (1983)]

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
Aquatic: Elevated nitrate levels will stimulate plankton and aquatic weed growth ... .
Terrestial: During transport through the soil, nitric acid will dissolve some of the soil material, in particular, the carbonate based materials. The acid will be neutralized to some degree with adsorption of the proton also occurring on clay materials. However, significant amounts of acid are expected to remain for transport down toward the ground water table. Upon reaching the ground water table, the acid will continue to move, now in the direction of the ground water flow. A contaminated plume will be produced with dilution and dispersion serving to reduce the acid concn.
In Colorado, nitric acid vapor is scavenged by incorporation into snow.
A mesoscale model of pollutant transport, transformation and deposition was used to perform a detailed analysis of acidic deposition to the states of New York and Ohio (USA) during a 3 day springtime deposition episode. This model can be used to assess the roles of wet and dry deposition to individual land types in the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere. Over two-thirds (67%, Ohio; 78%, New York) of the acidic deposition during this rainy period fell as wet deposition, primarily in the form of sulfuric acid. Dry deposition of sulfur dioxide accounted for 70-75% of the total dry acidic deposition in both areas, and most of the remaining dry deposition occurred as nitric acid. Over both deposition areas, particulate sulfate deposition accounted for
Rain chemistry was measured in August 1983 on Allegheny Mountain and Laurel Hill in southwestern Pennsylvania (USA). The average composition approximated an sulfuric acid/ nitric acid mixture with a volume-weighted average pH of 3.5 and sulfate/nitrate mole ratio of 1.8. There was very little undissociated (weak) acidity and very little sulfur(IV). The acidic rains were associated with air masses traversing sulfur dioxide source regions west of the sites; stagnation and intervening precipitation were important influences. The geographic scale for a halving of rain sulfate concentration downwind of sulfur dioxide sources washing ratios were inferred for sulfur dioxide, aerosol sulfate, and nitric acid. On average about half of the rain sulfate resulted from scavenging of sulfur dioxide, the rest from scavening of aerosol sulfate. The rain hydrogen was attributed about 25% to nitric acid, 55% to scavenging of sulfur dioxide, and 20% to scavenging of aerosol acid sulfate. Cumulative deposition totals in rain were compared with deposition in fog and with dry deposition in the same experiment. A crude acid deposition budget was calculated as follows: 47%, sulfuric acid in rain; 23%, sulfur dioxide dry deposition without dew; 16%, nitric acid and sulfuric acid in fog and dew; 0.5%, aerosol dry deposition without dew. [Pierson WR; Environ Sci Technol 21 (7): 679-91 (1987)] PubMed Abstract
Dry deposition of nitric acid (HNO3) to forests is controlled by aerodynamic properties of the canopy. Most surfaces are strong sinks for HNO3, and measurements show that deposition rates to vegetation are determined entirely by atmospheric transport, i.e. there are no surface resistances limiting uptake rates. For a typical forest 10 m high in a wind speed of about 5 m/sec, values of deposition velocity for HNO3 are likely to be in the range 50-100 mm/sec. For an avg air concn of HNO3 of 0.5 nl/l this would result in the deposition of about 4-8 kg N/ha/yr. A multi-layer canopy gas and radiation exchange model (Maestro) was modified to calculate air pollutant deposition. Leaf boundary layer resistances, and stomatal resistances in the model were adjusted for gas molecular diffusivity, and leaf surface resistances and internal resistances were added. A comparison between HNO3 deposition on Keilder Forest (300 m above sea level), United Kingdom and Whitetop Mountain (1682 m above sea level), Virginia for 6 mo (spring-summer) gave gas concn of 0.3 nl/l and 0.7 nl/l, respectively.

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