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Iron(III) chloride(CAS No. 7705-08-0)

Iron(III) chloride FeCl3 (cas 7705-08-0) Molecular Structure

7705-08-0 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Iron(III) chloride
【CAS Registry number】
7705-08-0
【Synonyms】
ferric chloride anhydrous
Iron (III) chloride anhydrous
Ironchlorideanhydrous
iron trichloride
Ferric trichloride
Ferric chloride
Iron(III) chloride, 5 wt.%
Ferric chloride, anhydrous
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-729-4
【Molecular Formula】
FeCl3 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
162.2
【Inchi】
InChI=1/3ClH.Fe/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
【InChIKey】
RBTARNINKXHZNM-UHFFFAOYSA-K
【Canonical SMILES】
Cl[Fe](Cl)Cl
【MOL File】
7705-08-0.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
black crystalline powder
【Density】
2.8
【Melting Point】
304℃
【Boiling Point】
316℃
【Flash Point】
316 °C
【Water】
920 g/L (20℃)
【Solubilities】
920 g/L (20 oC) in water
【Color/Form】
Hexagonal red by transmitted light, green by reflected light; sometimes appears brownish-black; dark leaflets or plates.
【Stability】
Stable. Very sensitive to moisture. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents; forms explosive mixtures with sodium, potassium. Hygroscopic.
【Storage temp】
2-8°C
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:162.204 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:Cl3Fe
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:0
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:160.8415
MonoIsotopic Mass:160.8415
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:4
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:8
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn:Harmful
【Risk Statements】
R22;R38;R41
【Safety Statements 】
S26;S39
【HazardClass】
8
【Safety】

Hazard Codes:?CorrosiveC,?HarmfulXn,?IrritantXi
Risk Statements: 41-38-22-34?
R41:Risk of serious damage to the eyes.?
R38:Irritating to skin.?
R22:Harmful if swallowed.?
R34:Causes burns.
Safety Statements: 26-39-45-36/37/39?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S39:Wear eye / face protection.?
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)?
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
RIDADR: UN 2582 8/PG 3
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: LJ9100000
HazardClass: 8
PackingGroup: III
Poison by ingestion and intravenous routes. Experimental reproductive effects. Corrosive. Probably an eye, skin, and mucous membrane irritant. Mutation data reported. Reacts with water to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Catalyzes potentially explosive polymerization of ethylene oxide, chlorine + monomers (e.g., styrene). Forms shock-sensitive explosive mixtures with some metals (e.g., potassium, sodium). Violent reaction with allyl chloride. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of HCl.

【PackingGroup 】
III
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Dust: Irritating to eyes, nose and throat. If inhaled will cause coughing or difficult breathing. Solid: Will burn skin and eyes.
Inhalation of ferric salts as dusts and mists is irritating to the respiratory tract. Ferric salts are regarded as skin irritants. /Iron salts/
If inhaled, iron is a local irritant to the lung and gastrointestinal tract. /Iron compounds/
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental consideration: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. /Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). /Ferric chloride, solution/
Environmental consideration: Water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. Adjust pH to neutral (pH= 7). /Ferric chloride, solution/
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Adjust pH to neutral (pH= 7). Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. /Ferric chloride, solution/
【Transport】
UN 1773
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) /Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
If material on fire or involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Ferric chloride, solution/
【Fire Potential】
Not flammable
【Formulations/Preparations】
Ferric chloride solution, reagent, 5% and 10%.
Grades: Anhydrous 96%; 42 deg Be solution, photographic and sewage grades.
Anhydrous; Hydrate; Reagent; 46% solution in water.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Ferric chloride, solution/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns, or death. Reaction with water or moist air will release toxic, corrosive or flammable gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or contaminated with water. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Fire: Note: Most foams will react with the material and release corrosive/toxic gases. Small fires: CO2 ... , dry chemical, dry sand, alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Small spills: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand, or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect material and place it into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Ferric chloride; Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Ferric chloride is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Will react with water to produce toxic and corrosive fumes.
During chlorination of styrene in carbon tetrachloride at 50 deg C, a violent reaction occured when some 10% of the chlorine gas had been fed in. Laboratory examination showed that the eruption was caused by a rapid decomposition reaction catalysed by ferric chloride.
Forms shock-sensitive explosine mixture with some metals (eg potassium and sodium).
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime. /Ferric chloride, solution/
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. /Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing fumes from burning material. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Ferric chloride, solution/
Personnel protection: Keep upwind. ... Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Ferric chloride, anhydrous/
All ... /iron/ preparations should be kept in child-proof bottles. /Iron preparations/
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Dust: Irritating to eyes, nose and throat. If inhaled will cause coughing or difficult breathing. Solid: Will burn skin and eyes.
Inhalation of ferric salts as dusts and mists is irritating to the respiratory tract. Ferric salts are regarded as skin irritants. /Iron salts/
If inhaled, iron is a local irritant to the lung and gastrointestinal tract. /Iron compounds/
【Specification】

?Ferric chloride (CAS NO.7705-08-0) is also named as AI3-51902 ; CCRIS 2299 ; Caswell No. 459 ; Chlorure ferrique ; Chlorure ferrique [French] ; Chlorure perrique ; Chlorure perrique [French] ; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 034901 ; Flores martis ; HSDB 449 ; Iron chloride ; Iron chloride (Fe2Cl3) ; Iron chloride (FeCl3) ; Iron perchloride ; Iron sesquichloride (DOT) ; Iron trichloride ; Iron(III) chloride ; Iron(III) chloride, solution ; NSC 135798 ; NSC 51150 ; Natural molysite ; Perchlorure de fer ; Perchlorure de fer [French]?.?Ferric chloride (CAS NO.7705-08-0) is?black crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in water. Ferric chloride is noncombustible. Wet Ferric chloride is corrosive to aluminum and most metals. Pick up and remove spilled solid before adding water. Alkali metal hydroxides, acids, anhydrous chlorides of iron, tin, and aluminum, pure oxides of iron and aluminum, and metallic potassium are some of the catalysts that may cause ethylene oxide to rearrange and polymerize, liberating heat. Explosions occur , although infrequently, from the combination of ethylene oxide and alcohols or mercaptans. Allyl chloride may polymerize violently under conditions involving an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid, Ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, Lewis acids, and Ziegler type catalysts.?Inhalation of dust may irritate nose and throat. Ingestion causes irritation of mouth and stomach. Dust irritates eyes. Prolonged contact with skin causes irritation and burns.

【Report】

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Neutralization & landfill: Bury neutralized (with lime or soda ash) waste material in an approved landfill or dispose of through a licensed waste disposal firm.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for iron (Fe+2): Concentration process: Biological treatment. /Iron (Fe+2)/

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

... Produced industrially by reaction of dry chlorine with scrap iron at 500-700 deg C. The process is known as direct chlorination.
... Carried out in a reactor with an acid-resistant liner, iron scrap and dry chlorine gas react in a eutectic melt of iron(III) chloride and potassium or sodium chloride ... First, iron scrap is dissolved in the melt at 600 deg C and oxidized to iron(II) chloride by iron(III) chloride. Iron(II) chloride then reacts with chlorine to yield iron(III) chloride, which sublimes and is collected in cooled condensation chambers.
Action of chlorine on ferrous sulfate or chloride.
Commercial process generally involves the reaction of chlorine gas on red hot iron.
By-product from white-pigment manufacture.
Most commercial material is obtained from spent steel pickling liquors or as a by-product of titanium dioxide manufacture by the chlorine process.
U.S. Production

(1984) 1.16X10+11 g
(1994) 200,000 tons (as 100% FeCl3)
Consumption Patterns

Sewage and waste water treatment, 80% ; industrial and potable water treatment, 15%; misc, 5% (1984)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ferric chloride. Sewage and waste water treatment, 70%; (waste water sludge conditioning, 50%; phosphates removal, 20%); industrial and potable water treatment, 15%; other, including electronic and photographic etchant, catalyst and asphalt walling, 15%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ferric chloride. Demand: 1987: 185,000 tons; 1988: 185,000 tons; 1992 /projected/: 194,000 tons (Imports and exports are negligible).
【Usage】

Treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, etching agent for engraving, photography, and printed circuitry, condensation catalyst in friedel-crafts reactions, mordant, oxidizing, chlorinating, and condensing agent, disinfectant, pigment, feed additive, water purification.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.
【Therapeutic Uses】
VET: Locally, as astringent and hemostatic, and occasionally in styptic dehorning powder mixtures. "Strong solution" ...was once popular hemostatic after removal of dew-claws, warts, etc. Tincture of ferric chloride... /is/ used as local hemostatic, and in pharyngitis or stomatitis... /used on/ catarrhal canaries for local and hematinic benefits.
/Ferric chloride/ hexahydrate /is used/ as an astringent, styptic.
Ferric salts have been used as astringents in the treatment of some skin disorders. /Ferric salts/
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
An ovine model of maternal iron poisoning in pregnancy was used to examine the placental transport of deferoxamine and ferrioxasmine and to follow maternal and fetal serum iron concentrations when maternal serum iron levels exceeded total iron-binding capacity. Ewes in the third stage of gestation underwent hysterectomy and delivery of the fetal head through an abdominal incision while under ketamine and halothane anesthesia. The fetal external jugular vein was catheterized for sampling of venous blood while the fetus remained in utero. Administration of deferoxamine mesylate or ferrioxamine mesylate IV to ewes was not accompanied by measurable deferoxamine or ferrioxamine in fetal blood. In a final experiment, four gravid ewes in a control group received 2 mg/kg maternal body wt iron IV over 60 minutes. An experimental group comprision another four ewes received similar doses of iron but then received 50 mg/kg deferoxamine mesylate IV over 15 minutes. Control and deferoxamine ewes reached similar peak maternal serum iron concentration (2,479 + or - 266 and 2,121 + or - 343 ug/dL, respectively). The markedly elevated maternal serum iron concentrations were not accompanied by meaningful elevations in fetal serum iron level over baseline values. Maternal deferoxamine infusion resulted in a more rapid fall in maternal serum iron concentrations but had no effect on fetal serum iron levels. The ovine fetus appears to be protected from elevated maternal serum iron concentrations in the last trimester of prenancy. It could not be demonstrated that meaningful quantities of deferoxamine or ferrioxamine cross the placenta in the last trimester. [Curry SC et al; Ann Emerg Med 19 (6): 632-8 (1990)] PubMed Abstract

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