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Ferrous sulfate(CAS No. 7720-78-7)

Ferrous sulfate FeSO4 (cas 7720-78-7) Molecular Structure

7720-78-7 Structure

Identification and Related Records

Ferrous sulfate
【CAS Registry number】
Exsiccated ferrous sulfate
Exsiccated ferroussulphate
Feofol Spansule
Fero-Folic 500
Ferrous sulfate (1:1)
Ferrous sulphate
Green Salts
Green vitriol
Iron monosulfate
Iron sulfate (1:1)
Iron sulfate (FeSO4)
Iron vitriol
Iron(2+) sulfate
Iron(2+) sulfate (1:1)
Iron(II) sulfate
Microfer Spansule
Quickfloc (salt)
SFE 171
Sulfuricacid iron salt (1:1)
ferrous sulfate monohydrate
Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate
heptahydrate Ferrous sulfate
【Molecular Formula】
FeSO4 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
【Canonical SMILES】
【MOL File】

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Melting Point】
【Boiling Point】
330 °C at 760 mmHg
Extremely sol in water; insol in most org solvents.
Completely miscible with 0.9% sodium chloride injection.
Dark brown slightly viscous liquid
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:153.92348 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:FeH2O4S
H-Bond Donor:2
H-Bond Acceptor:4
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:153.902321
MonoIsotopic Mass:153.902321
Topological Polar Surface Area:83
Heavy Atom Count:6
Formal Charge:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2

Safety and Handling

【Risk Statements】
【Safety Statements 】

A human poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic to humans by an unspecified route. An experimental poison by ingestion, intraduodenal, intraperitoneal, intravenous, and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: aggression, somnolence, brain recording changes, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, bleeding from the stomach, coma. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Potentially explosive reaction with methyl isocyanoacetate at 25°. May ignite on contact with arsenic trioxide + sodium nitrate. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SOx.
Risk Statements: 25?
R25 :Toxic if swallowed.
Safety Statements: 45?
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)

【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
If inhaled, iron is a local irritant to the lung and gastrointestinal tract. /Iron compounds/
【Cleanup Methods】
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Iron dextran is avail in 10 mL vials containing 0.5% phenol for im use & in 2 & 5 mL ampuls for im or iv admin.
Iron dextran injection, USP (Infed, Dexderrum), is parenteral preparation in general use in United States. It is a colloidal solution of ferric oxyhydroxide complexed with polymerized dextran (molecular weight approx 180,000), resulting in a dark brown viscous liquid,containing 50 mg/mL of elemental iron.
Iron-dextran complex: A complex of ferric hydroxide with dextrans of average molecular weight 5000-7500 ... A typical product contains 5% (w/v) iron & 20% (w/v) dextran, molecular weight 6500-7600.
Commercial hydrogenated form is also marketed as implant with vitamin B12 ("rubrafer").
Parenteral: Injection, for IV or IM use, equivalent to iron 50 mg/mL, DexFerrum (American Regent), INFeD (Watson).
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List identifies currently marketed prescription drug products, incl iron dextran, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by FDA under sections 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Oral dosage form new animal drug: iron dextran oral suspension. ... Indications for use: Prevention of iron deficiency anemia in baby pigs. ... Limitations: Treat each pig within 24 hours of farrowing. Administer 1.8 milliliters orally by automatic dose dispenser.
Implantation or injectable dosage form new animal drugs. Iron dextran complex injection. ... Used in baby pigs ... for the prevention of anemia due to iron deficiency... /and/ for the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency.
Dextrans used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. /Dextrans of average molecular weight below 100,000/
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Iron dextran has been reported to be physically incompatible with oxytetracycline and with sulfadiazine sodium in iv ifusions
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
All ... /iron/ preparations should be kept in child-proof bottles. /Iron preparations/
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
If inhaled, iron is a local irritant to the lung and gastrointestinal tract. /Iron compounds/

?Ferrous sulfate?, its cas register number is 7720-78-7. It also can be called?Ferrous sulfate anhydrous ; Combiron ; Copperas ; Duretter ; Duroferon ; Feosol ; Feospan ; Iron monosulfate ; Iron sulfate (1:1) ; Iron(2+) sulfate ; Iron(II) sulfate .It is most commonly encountered as the blue-green heptahydrate.

【Disposal Methods】
[40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/2004)] Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U139, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U139, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
A poor candidate for incineration.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

... Synthetic commercial product which is probably produced by treating solution of water-sol iron salt (eg ferric chloride) & dextran with alkaline material (sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate) & purifying resulting complex (eg by dialysis).
U.S. Production

Consumption Patterns

Essentially 100% as a hematinic

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Therapeutic Uses】
Iron dextran ... are recommended for patients in whom iron deficiency has been determined, only after the cause has been corrected, if possible, and only when oral administration has been found unsatisfactory or impossible. /Included in US product labeling/
Iron dextran is used in the treatment of iron deficiency when oral iron preparations are ineffective or cannot be used. There are relatively few indications for parenteral iron therapy. Occasionally, however, parenteral administration may be required in iron-deficient patients in whom oral administration of iron is infeasible or ineffective because of intolerance, poor absorption, GI disease, refusal or inability to take the oral medication, or when rapid replenishment of iron stores is necessary as in hypochromic anemia of infancy or the last trimester of pregnancy. In addition, most chronic renal failure patients who receive therapy with epoetin alfa will require oral or parenteral iron therapy because of the dramatic decrease in iron stores associated with erythrocyte formation.
MEDICATION (VET): It revolutionized prevention and treatment of baby pig anemias ...Most forms are used im (except for sc implants), and rarely iv. Sc use has been very popular even if not officially recommended until recently. Extensively used as parenteral source of iron in prophylaxis and treatment of anemias in many species.
MEDICATION (VET): Nutritional factor (parenteral). Used in iron deficiency anemia, chiefly in pigs.
In treatment of microcytic, hypochromic anemia resulting from iron deficiency.
... Total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran, when appropriately used, is a safe and potentially efficacious treatment for children with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency anemia who are unresponsive to or noncompliant with oral iron therapy. [Mamula P et al; J pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 34 (3): 286-290 (2002)]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Iron dextran is absorbed from the injection site into the capillaries and lymphatic system. The majority of the intramuscular injection is absorbed within 72 hours. The remaining iron is absorbed in the following 3 to 4 weeks. Evidence of a therapeutic response is observed in a few days as an increase in reticulocyte count. The intravenous dose is available much more rapidly.
Following im or iv injection, iron dextran is gradually cleared from plasma by reticuloendothelial cells of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Results of several studies indicate that /a/ variable portion of iv dose... may be stored in unusable form in bone marrow.
In vitro studies have shown that removal of iron dextran by dialysis is negligible.
Iron dextran must first be phagocytized by reticuloendothelial cells, and iron is then split from sugar molecules of dextran before it becomes available to body. /A/ portion of processed iron is rapidly returned to plasma and made available to erythroid marrow... /an/ even greater portion remains temporarily trapped within the reticuloendothelial cell.
Only traces of unmetabolized iron dextran are excreted in breast milk, urine, bile, or feces.
Small amounts of iron apparently reach the fetus following administration of iron dextran during pregnancy, but the form in which it crosses the placenta is not clearly established.
... Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups (n=6). The animals were given standard 1.5% Dianeal (group 1) or 1.5% Dianeal containing iron in a concentration of 2 mg/L (group 2) or 10 mg/L (group 3) as iron dextran. First, a predialysis blood sample was obtained, and 25 mL of the designated dialysis solution was instilled into the peritoneal cavity. After a 6-hr cycle the dialysate was drained, and a postdialysis blood sample and specimen of the peritoneum were obtained. The iron concentrations of the dialysis solution, the dialysate, and both serum samples were determined. Histological samples were processed by hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stain. Results of the iron concentration (mg/L) of the dialysis solution, the dialysate, and the percent of the absorbed iron were as follows: group 1: 0.00, 0.20 +/- 0.15, N/A; group 2: 2.24, 0.66 +/- 2.8, 73.8 +/- 11.0; group 3: 9.84, 2.12 +/- 0.62, 80.8 +/- 5.7. The serum iron concentration did not change. No abnormal findings were found histologically. More than 70% of the iron dextran was absorbed from the peritoneal cavity of the rats during a 6-hr peritoneal dialysis exchange. [Suzuki K et al; Adv Perit Dial 11: 57-59 (1995)] PubMed Abstract

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