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Potassium permanganate(CAS No. 7722-64-7)

Potassium permanganate KMnO4 (cas 7722-64-7) Molecular Structure

7722-64-7 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Potassium permanganate
【CAS Registry number】
7722-64-7
【Synonyms】
Permanganicacid (HMnO4), potassium salt (8CI,9CI)
Allways Fresh
C.I. 77755
Cairox
Chameleon mineral
Condy's crystals
GS-KP
HY 5
Permanganic acid potassiumsalt
Pure Light E 2
Tarco 4338C
Turco 4338C
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-760-3
【Molecular Formula】
KMnO4 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
158.03
【Inchi】
InChI=1/K.Mn.4O/q+1;;;;;-1/rK.MnO4/c;2-1(3,4)5/q+1;-1
【InChIKey】
VZJVWSHVAAUDKD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
[O-][Mn](=O)(=O)=O.[K+]
【MOL File】
7722-64-7.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
purplish colored crystalline solid
【Density】
2.703
【Melting Point】
240℃
【Flash Point】
无意义
【Water】
6.4 g/100 mL (20℃)
【Solubilities】
6.4 g/100 mL (20 oC) in water
【Color/Form】
Dark purple or bronze-like crystals; Almost opaque by transmitted light and of a blue metallic luster by reflected air.
Purple orthorhombic crystals
Bipyrimidal rhombic prisms
【Stability】
Stable, but contact with combustible material may cause fire. Substances to be avoided include reducing agents, strong acids, organic material, combustible materials, peroxides, alcohols and chemically active metals. Strong oxidant.
【Storage temp】
Store at RT.
【Spectral properties】
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.59
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:158.033949 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:KMnO4
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:4
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:157.881415
MonoIsotopic Mass:157.881415
Topological Polar Surface Area:74.3
Heavy Atom Count:6
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:118
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn:Harmful
【Risk Statements】
R22;R50/53;R8
【Safety Statements 】
S60;S61
【HazardClass】
5.1
【Safety】

R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Hazard Codes:?OxidizingO;?HarmfulXn,Xi;?DangerousN
Risk Statements: 8-51/53-50/53-22-52/53-36/38?
R8 :Contact with combustible material may cause fire.?
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.?
R50/53:Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.?
R22:Harmful if swallowed.?
R52/53:Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.?
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin.
Safety Statements: 60-61-36-26?
S60:This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.?
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing.?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
RIDADR: UN 3082 9/PG 3
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: SD6475000
HazardClass: 5.1
PackingGroup: II

【PackingGroup 】
II
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Solid: Irritating to the skin & eyes.
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. Add sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3).
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Add dilute caustic soda (NaOH). Add sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3). Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
【Transport】
UN 1490/1482
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material on fire or involved in fire: Flood with water. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
Evacuation: If fire becomes uncontrollable - consider evacuation of one-half (1/2) mile radius.
【Fire Potential】
MODERATE, BY CHEMICAL REACTION.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Grades: technical, CP (chemically pure), USP
Formulations include ready to use liquids (0.004%-2.5%), pelleted/tableted (40%), crystals (80%-99.99%), and powder (41%).
ICC 237 Disinfectant, Sanitizer, Destainer, and Deodorizer; soluble concn, 0.01% potassium permanganate.
Chlorisol; soluble concn, 0.01% potassium permanganate.
Algae-K; solution-ready to use, 2.5% potassium permanganate.
Hilco #88; soluble concn, 0.01% potassium permanganate.
Diversey Diversol CX with Arodyne, Diversey Diversol CXU; soluble concn, 0.01% potassium permanganate.
Solo San Soo; soluble concn, 0.01% potassium permanganate.
Walko Tablets; pelletted/tabletted, 40.0% potassium permanganate.
Argucide; soluble concn, 41.0% potassium permanganate.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire or Explosion: These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Health: Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire: Small fires: Use water. Do not use dry chemicals or foams. CO2, or Halon may provide limited control. Large fires: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Spill or Leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers. Small dry spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Small liquid spills: Use a non-combustible material like vermiculite or sand to soak up the product and place into a container for later disposal. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Following product recovery, flush area with water.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Contaminated clothing may be a fire risk when dry. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Food starch may be bleached by treatment with one or more of the following: ... potassium permanganate, not to exceed 0.2 percent. Limitations: Residual manganese (calculated as Mn), not to exceed 50 ppm in food starch-modified.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
CAUTION: TAKE GREAT CARE IN HANDLING AS EXPLOSIONS MAY OCCUR IF IT IS BROUGHT INTO CONTACT WITH ORG OR OTHER READILY OXIDIZABLE SUBSTANCES, EITHER IN SOLN OR IN DRY STATE.
CONTACT ... /WITH GLYCEROL/ MAY PRODUCE EXPLOSION.
CRYSTALS OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE EXPLODE VIGOROUSLY WHEN GROUND WITH PHOSPHORUS.
Methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, pentanol, or isopentanol do not ignite immediately upon mixing with red fuming nitric acid, but addition of potassium permanganate (20%) to the acid before mixing causes immediate ignition.
Admixture of 0.5% potassium permanganate with an ammonium nitrate explosive caused an explosion 7 hr later. This was owing to formation and explosive decomposition of ammonium permanganate, leading to ignition.
Addition of potassium permanganate to dimethylformamide to give a 20% solution led to an explosion after 5 min.
During preparation of chlorine by addition of the concn acid /hydrochloric acid/ to solid potassium permanganate, a sharp explosion occurred on one occasion.
Contact of glycerol with solid potassium permanganate caused a vigorous fire.
INCOMPATIBILITIES: ALCOHOL, ARSENITES, BROMIDES, IODIDES, CHARCOAL; ORG SUBSTANCES GENERALLY; FERROUS OR MERCUROUS SALTS, HYPOPHOSPHITES, HYPOSULFITES, SULFITES, PEROXIDES, OXALATES
SPONTANEOUSLY FLAMMABLE ON CONTACT WITH ETHYLENE GLYCOL.
An attempt to prepare permanganyl chloride, MnO3Cl, by adding cautiously, concentrated sulfuric acid to an intimate mixture of potassium permanganate and potassium chloride kept at 0 deg C in clean all-glass apparatus resulted in a violent explosion.
When potassium permanganate is dissolved in 95% sulfuric acid, a green solution of permanganyl sulfate is formed. This solution will oxidize most organic compounds and, if the solution is strongly concentrated, explosion may accompany the oxidation.
An explosion occurred when concentrated sulfuric acid was mixed with crystalline potassium permanganate in a vessel containing moisture. Manganese heptoxide was formed, which is explosive at 70 deg C.
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE BEING CONVEYED THROUGH POLYPROPYLENE TUBE IGNITED THE TUBE.
WHEN SOLID HYDROXYLAMINE IS BROUGHT INTO CONTACT WITH SOLID POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE, THERE IS PRODUCED IMMEDIATELY A WHITE FLAME.
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE DECOMP HYDROGEN TRISULFIDE SO RAPIDLY THAT SUFFICIENT HEAT IS LIBERATED TO IGNITE THE TRISULFIDE.
WHEN ANTIMONY OR ARSENIC & SOLID POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE ARE GROUND TOGETHER, THE METALS IGNITE.
CAN REACT VIOLENTLY WITH MOST METAL POWDERS, AMMONIA & AMMONIUM SALTS, PHOSPHORUS, MANY FINELY DIVIDED ORG CMPD, FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, ACIDS, & SULFUR. /PERMANGANATES/
PERMANGANATES ARE EXPLOSIVE WHEN TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID. WHEN BOTH CMPD ARE USED IN AN ABSORPTION TRAIN, AN EMPTY TRAP SHOULD BE PLACED BETWEEN THEM. /PERMANGANATES/
MATERIALS SUSCEPTIBLE TO SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION INCLUDE ... ORGANIC MATERIALS MIXED WITH STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (SUCH AS ... PERMANGANATES) ... /PERMANGANATES/
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
WHEN USING WITH STRONG ACIDS TO DESTROY ORGANIC MATTER, PERFORM REACTION BEHIND SAFETY BARRIER. /PERMANGANATES/
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers.
Personnel protection: ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may be contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. ...
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Solid: Irritating to the skin & eyes.
【Specification】

?Potassium permanganate , its cas register number is 7722-64-7. It also can be called?Algae-K ; Argucide ; Cairox ; Condy's crystals ; Diversey Diversol CX with Arodyne ; Icc 237 Disinfectant, Sanitizer, Destainer, and Deodorizer ; Insta-perm ; Kaliumpermanganat ; Permanganate de potassium ; Permanganate of potash .It is a?purplish colored crystalline solid. Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible material. If the combustible material is finely divided the mixture may be explosive. It contact with liquid combustible materials may result in spontaneous ignition. Contact with sulfuric acid may cause fire or explosion. Soluble in water.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

May be prepared by oxidizing manganese dioxide with potassium chlorate in potassium hydroxide soln, then completing the oxidation with chlorine or air & carbon dioxide.
(1) By oxidation of the manganate in an alkaline electrolytic cell. (2) A hot solution of the mangenate is treated with carbon dioxide; on cooling, the solution deposits crystals fo the permanganate.
May be manufactured by one-step electrolytic conversion of ferromanganese to permanganate, or by a two-step process involving the thermal oxidation of manganese oxide of a naturally occurring ore into potassium manganate followed by electrolytic oxidation to permanganate...
Roasting processes that employ manganese(IV) oxide:potassium hydroxide molar ratio of 1:2 to 1:3 (reaction mixture is a solid); heated to 300-400 deg C; exposed to secondary oxidation at 190-210 deg C.
Liquid-phase process with a manganese(IV) oxide:potassium hydroxide molar ratio greater than or equal to 1:5; molten mixture at 200-350 deg C is oxygenated; separation of product.
U.S. Exports

(1985) 9.08X10+8 g (est)
U.S. Imports

(1985) 1.36X10+9 g (est)
(1986) 3,741,874 lb
U.S. Production

(1985) 7.26X10+9 g (est)
14,000 tons/year
Consumption Patterns

Water & Waste Treatment, 80%; Chemical Processing, 10%; & Misc, 10% (1984)

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
【Therapeutic Uses】
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE, USP, HAS LIMITED TOPICAL EFFICACY AGAINST BACTERIA & FUNGI. CONCN OF 1:5000 OR MORE ARE NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE BACTERICIDAL ACTION, BUT THEY ARE IRRITATING TO TISSUES. ... SOLN OF 1:10,000 ARE USUALLY USED. HOWEVER, UP TO AN HR MAY BE REQUIRED TO KILL ... BACTERIA & SOME ... SURVIVE EXPOSURE TO THIS CONCN. FOR THIS REASON, PERMANGANATE HAS BEEN MADE OBSOLETE BY /OTHER/ ... DRUGS. BECAUSE OF THE ASTRINGENCY OF MANGANOUS & MANGANIC IONS ... SUBSTANCE IS OCCASIONALLY USED TO SUPPRESS VESICULAR STAGE OF ECZEMA-DERMATITIS. A WET DRESSING OF PERMANGANATE MAY BE EMPLOYED IN THE TREATMENT OF IVY POISONING.
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE IS EMPLOYED EXTERNALLY FOR GERMICIDAL, FUNGICIDAL, ASTRINGENT, OXIDIZING, & KERATOPLASTIC EFFECTS. SOLN ... SHOULD BE FRESHLY PREPARED.
SOLN ... EMPLOYED IN DERMATOMYCOSES, ESPECIALLY TINEA PEDIS, TINEA CRURIS, & RINGWORM.
DOSE: TOPICAL ... FOR IVY POISONING OR ECZEMA, 0.01%; FOR EPIDERMOPHYTOSIS, 1% ... DOSAGE FORMS: TABLETS FOR SOLN: 300 MG.
FISH POISON ANTIMYCIN WAS EFFECTIVELY DETOXIFIED @ PH 6.5-9.5 BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE. HALF-LIFE OF ANTIMYCIN RANGED FROM 7-11 MIN @ 12 DEG C IN WATERS OF DIFFERENT PH WHEN EXPOSED TO 1 MG/L POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE.
MEDICATION (VET): TOPICAL ANTISEPTIC, ASTRINGENT, DEODORANT
MANGANOUS ION RESULTING FROM REDN OF PERMANGANATE IS ASTRINGENT, & THIS AIDS IN SUPPRESSION OF INFLAMMATION. ... THEIR FORMER EXTENSIVE LOCAL APPLICATION IN TREATMENT OF URETHRITIS HAS BECOME OBSOLETE. /PERMANGANATES/
MEDICATION: PERMANGANATE SOLN CAN OXIDIZE MANY DRUGS, BUT IT IS SELDOM USED AS ANTIDOTE IN POISONING. /EXCEPT FOR YELLOW PHOSPHORUS OR ZINC PHOSPHIDE./
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
SYSTEMIC EFFECTS ARE NOT ... /COMMONLY SEEN/ BECAUSE OF POOR ABSORPTION.
Adult channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were exposed to waterborne potassium permanganate for 12 wk to determine if such exposure would alter the manganese content of axial muscle or liver tissue. Continuous exposure to 0.5 mg KMnO4 or exposure to 1 or 2 mg KMnO4/L on alternate days did not cause a significant incr in manganese in axial muscle or liver tissue. The mean (|SE) concn of manganese in axial muscle of unexposed controls was 0.262 | 0.018 mg/kg (wet weight). Means of scle could be detected within groups. The mean (|SE) concn of manganese in liver tissue of controls was 1.67 | 0.09 mg/kg (wet weight). Manganese concns in liver tissue of the three exposure groups were 1.57 | 0.07 mg/kg, 1.68 | 0.08 mg/kg, and 1.58 | 0.10 mg/kg, for 0.5 (continuous), 1, or 2 mg/L (alternate days), respectively. Manganese was thought to accumulate in liver tissue, however, there were no statistically significant differences between those groups & the controls.

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