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Potassium dichromate(CAS No. 7778-50-9)

Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 (cas 7778-50-9) Molecular Structure

7778-50-9 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Potassium dichromate
【Iupac name】
dipotassium oxido-(oxido(dioxo)chromio)oxy-dioxochromium
【CAS Registry number】
7778-50-9
【Synonyms】
Potassium dichromate standard solution
Potassium bichromate
Red potassium chromate
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-906-6
【Molecular Formula】
K2Cr2O7 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
294.18
【Inchi】
InChI=1/2Cr.2K.7O/q;;2*+1;;;;;;2*-1/rCr2O7.2K/c3-1(4,5)9-2(6,7)8;;/q-2;2*+1
【InChIKey】
KMUONIBRACKNSN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
[O-][Cr](=O)(=O)O[Cr](=O)(=O)[O-].[K+].[K+]
【MOL File】
7778-50-9.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
almost colorless liquid.
【Density】
2.676
【Melting Point】
398℃
【Boiling Point】
500℃
【Flash Point】
50?°F
【Water】
125 g/L (20℃)
【Solubilities】
125 g/L (20 oC) in water
【Color/Form】
Orange-red triclinic crystals
Bright orange-red crystals
【Storage temp】
Store at RT.
【Spectral properties】
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.738
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:294.1846 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:Cr2K2O7
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:7
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:293.77284
MonoIsotopic Mass:293.77284
Topological Polar Surface Area:124
Heavy Atom Count:11
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:194
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:3

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
O:Oxidizingagent;T+:Verytoxic;N:Dangerousfortheenvironment;
【Risk Statements】
R8;R21;R25;R26;R34;R42/43;R45;R46;R48/23;R50/53;R60;R61
【Safety Statements 】
S45;S53;S60;S61
【HazardClass】
5.1
【PackingGroup 】
III
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Diffuse eczematous contact dermatitis resulted from exposure in a blueprint worker.
【Cleanup Methods】
1) Ventilate the area of dpill. 2. Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation or for disposal in a secured sanitary landspill. Liquid containing chromic acid or chromates should be absorbed in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material.
Environmental considerations: Land Spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water.
Environmental considerations: Water Spill: Neutralize with dilute acid or removable strong acid. Add sodium bisulfite. Neutralize with agricultural lime (slaked lime), crushed limestone, or sodium bicarbonate. Adjust pH to neutral (pH 7).
WHERE POSSIBLE, WET METHODS OF CLEANING SHOULD BE USED; AT OTHER SITES ... ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVE IS BY VACUUM CLEANING. SPILLS OF LIQUID OR SOLID MUST BE REMOVED IMMEDIATELY TO PREVENT DISPERSION AS AIRBORNE DUST.
【Transport】
UN 1479
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.)
【Fire Potential】
DANGEROUS FIRE RISK IN CONTACT WITH ORG MATERIALS.
IGNITION MAY OCCUR WHEN IN CONTACT WITH FINELY DIVIDED COMBUSTIBLES SUCH AS SAWDUST.
Flammable by chemical reaction.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Technical granular form: Potassium dichromate, 99.9%; Chloride, 0.03%; Insolubles, 0.007%; Sulfate, 0.006%.
Grades: commercial; highest purity; highest purity fused; reagent.
IOPEZITE
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
POTASSIUM DICHROMATE ... REACTS EXPLOSIVELY WITH HYDRAZINE. ... A DROP OF ANHYDROUS HYDROXYLAMINE ON POWDERED POTASSIUM DICHROMATE PRODUCES A VIOLENT EXPLOSION.
Incompatibilities: Combustible, organic, or other readily oxidizable materials: Paper, wood, sulfur, aluminum, plastics, etc.
ACETONE IGNITED WHEN IT WAS ACCIDENTALLY SPLASHED INTO A SULFURIC ACID-DICHROMATE SOLN.
Pyrotechnic mixtures (1:1 wt) attained a maximum tempereture of about 1090 deg C on ignition.
A closed bottle of unused potassium dichromate-sulfuric acid mixture exploded after several months in storage.
It explodes in contact with air above 70 deg C. ... Contact of anhydrous base with potassium dichromate is violently explosive.
Reacts violently or ignites with... ethylene glycol (above 100 deg C). Forms pyrotechnic mixtures with boron + silicon; iron (ignites at 1090 deg C); tungsten (ignites at 1700 deg C). Reacts with sulfuric acid to form the strong oxidant chromic acid.
【Other Preventative Measures】
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary.
Personnel protection: Keep upwind. ... Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. Wash body which may have been exposed to material with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
... PREVENTION /OF EXPOSURE/ DEPENDS ON PROPER DESIGN OF PROCESSES INCLUDING ADEQUATE AND APPROPRIATE EXHAUST VENTILATION AND THE SUPPRESSION OF DUST OR MIST CONTAINING CHROMIUM IN THE 6+ STATE, SUPPLEMENTED WHERE NECESSARY BY BUILT-IN ACCESSORY CONTROL MEASURES & REQUIRING LEAST POSSIBLE ACTION BY ... STAFF.
/IN/ REPAIR & INSPECTION OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT. SURFACE CONTAMINATION SHOULD BE REMOVED BY WASHING DOWN OR SUCTION BEFORE WORK OF THIS TYPE BEGINS.
Employees should wash immediately when skin becomes contaminated. Work clothing should be changed daily, if it is reasonably probable that the clothing is contaminated. Immediately remove non-impervious clothing that becomes contaminated.
... ENSURE THAT SYSTEM IS ESTABLISHED FOR DAILY INSPECTION, REPAIR & REPLACEMENT OF ... PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Diffuse eczematous contact dermatitis resulted from exposure in a blueprint worker.
【Specification】

The Potassium bichromate , with the CAS register number 7778-50-9, has other names as bichromateofpotash;chromicaci (h2cr2o7),dipotassiumsalt;chromicacid,dipotassiumsalt;chromicacid[h2cr2o7],dipotassiumsalt;dichromatedepotassium;Dichromicacid,dipotassiumsalt;dichromicacid[h2cr2o7],dipotassiumsalt;dichromicaciddipotassiumsalt .

It is a kind of orange red monoclinic system or triclinic system crystalline, and it is slightly soluble in water and easily soluble in hot water while insoluble in ethyl alcohol .

As for its usage, it is widely used in many field. First, it could be used as the chrome alum, chromium oxide green, chrome yellow pigment. Then, it could be mixed with the? feldspar powder and quartz sand to calcine and then comes enamel powder; It is used in modulating the match head to take the function of anti-moisture; It could be applied to as the tanning extracts and mordant in dyeing and printing; It could be used in making spice to be as oxidant. Besides, it is applied in welding rod, printing ink,passivation of metals and also as the oxidant and catalyst for organic synthesis and the raw material of the medicines.

It?is a kind of very harmful chemical and you need to very cautious while dealing with it. Because it is dangerous for the environment, and it is toxic and oxidizing. Besides, it may cause cancer, heritable genetic damage, and impair fertility and it may cause harm to the unborn child, and etc. So take these instructions while using it. Wash hands, face, forearms and neck when exiting restricted areas; Wash hands before eating and do not eat, drink, or smoke in workplace; Wear special protective equipment for maintenance break-in or where exposures may exceed established exposure levels. Shower, dispose of outer clothing, change to clean garments at the end of the day; Protect against physical damage; Remove and dispose of any spilled dichromates; do not return to original containers;

When it comes to its storing, containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product; Store in a dry location separate from combustible, organic or other readily oxidizable materials. Avoid storage on wood floors.

What's more, its product categories are including the followings: inorganics;chromatesvolumetric solutions;n - r;oxidation;salt solutions;synthetic reagents;n - rvolumetric solutions;reference material sodium thiosolfatetitration;salt solutionsanalytical reagents;by reference material;solution containers (volpac);volumetric solutions;waste water;water test;reference material sodium thiosolfate;chromatesconcentrates (e.g. fixanal);concentrates (e.g. fixanal);reference material sodium thiosulfatetitration;salt concentrates.

Below are the toxicity information of this kind of chemcial:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
child LDLo oral 26mg/kg (26mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Zeitschrift fuer Kinderheilkunde. Vol. 81, Pg. 417, 1958.
child LDLo oral 50mg/kg (50mg/kg) ? Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 40, Pg. 2677, 1998.
dog LDLo oral 2829mg/kg (2829mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
dog LDLo unreported 2300ug/kg (2.3mg/kg) ? Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 27(12), Pg. 77, 1962.
guinea pig LDLo oral 163mg/kg (163mg/kg) ? Zeitschrift fuer Kinderheilkunde. Vol. 81, Pg. 417, 1958.
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 29400ug/kg (29.4mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
man LDLo oral 143mg/kg (143mg/kg) VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: URINE VOLUME DECREASED
Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 40, Pg. 2677, 1998.
monkey LDLo subcutaneous 40mg/kg (40mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)" American Journal of Pathology. Vol. 9, Pg. 133, 1933.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 37mg/kg (37mg/kg) ? Carcinogenesis Vol. 4, Pg. 1535, 1983.
?
mouse LD50 oral 190mg/kg (190mg/kg) ? Sangyo Igaku. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. Vol. 20, Pg. 590, 1978.
mouse LDLo subcutaneous 100mg/kg (100mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
rabbit LD50 skin 14mg/kg (14mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE"

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0537040,
rabbit LDLo intravenous 27900ug/kg (27.9mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 10mg/kg (10mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 9, Pg. 13, 1911.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 28mg/kg (28mg/kg) ? Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. (5), Pg. 30, 1997.
?
rat LD50 oral 25mg/kg (25mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0545929,

【Report】

The Potassium bichromate , with the CAS register number 7778-50-9, has other names as bichromateofpotash;chromicaci (h2cr2o7),dipotassiumsalt;chromicacid,dipotassiumsalt;chromicacid[h2cr2o7],dipotassiumsalt;dichromatedepotassium;Dichromicacid,dipotassiumsalt;dichromicacid[h2cr2o7],dipotassiumsalt;dichromicaciddipotassiumsalt .

It is a kind of orange red monoclinic system or triclinic system crystalline, and it is slightly soluble in water and easily soluble in hot water while insoluble in ethyl alcohol .

As for its usage, it is widely used in many field. First, it could be used as the chrome alum, chromium oxide green, chrome yellow pigment. Then, it could be mixed with the? feldspar powder and quartz sand to calcine and then comes enamel powder; It is used in modulating the match head to take the function of anti-moisture; It could be applied to as the tanning extracts and mordant in dyeing and printing; It could be used in making spice to be as oxidant. Besides, it is applied in welding rod, printing ink,passivation of metals and also as the oxidant and catalyst for organic synthesis and the raw material of the medicines.

It?is a kind of very harmful chemical and you need to very cautious while dealing with it. Because it is dangerous for the environment, and it is toxic and oxidizing. Besides, it may cause cancer, heritable genetic damage, and impair fertility and it may cause harm to the unborn child, and etc. So take these instructions while using it. Wash hands, face, forearms and neck when exiting restricted areas; Wash hands before eating and do not eat, drink, or smoke in workplace; Wear special protective equipment for maintenance break-in or where exposures may exceed established exposure levels. Shower, dispose of outer clothing, change to clean garments at the end of the day; Protect against physical damage; Remove and dispose of any spilled dichromates; do not return to original containers;

When it comes to its storing, containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product; Store in a dry location separate from combustible, organic or other readily oxidizable materials. Avoid storage on wood floors.

What's more, its product categories are including the followings: inorganics;chromatesvolumetric solutions;n - r;oxidation;salt solutions;synthetic reagents;n - rvolumetric solutions;reference material sodium thiosolfatetitration;salt solutionsanalytical reagents;by reference material;solution containers (volpac);volumetric solutions;waste water;water test;reference material sodium thiosolfate;chromatesconcentrates (e.g. fixanal);concentrates (e.g. fixanal);reference material sodium thiosulfatetitration;salt concentrates.

Below are the toxicity information of this kind of chemcial:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
child LDLo oral 26mg/kg (26mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Zeitschrift fuer Kinderheilkunde. Vol. 81, Pg. 417, 1958.
child LDLo oral 50mg/kg (50mg/kg) ? Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 40, Pg. 2677, 1998.
dog LDLo oral 2829mg/kg (2829mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
dog LDLo unreported 2300ug/kg (2.3mg/kg) ? Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 27(12), Pg. 77, 1962.
guinea pig LDLo oral 163mg/kg (163mg/kg) ? Zeitschrift fuer Kinderheilkunde. Vol. 81, Pg. 417, 1958.
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 29400ug/kg (29.4mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
man LDLo oral 143mg/kg (143mg/kg) VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: URINE VOLUME DECREASED
Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 40, Pg. 2677, 1998.
monkey LDLo subcutaneous 40mg/kg (40mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)" American Journal of Pathology. Vol. 9, Pg. 133, 1933.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 37mg/kg (37mg/kg) ? Carcinogenesis Vol. 4, Pg. 1535, 1983.
?
mouse LD50 oral 190mg/kg (190mg/kg) ? Sangyo Igaku. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. Vol. 20, Pg. 590, 1978.
mouse LDLo subcutaneous 100mg/kg (100mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
rabbit LD50 skin 14mg/kg (14mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE"

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0537040,
rabbit LDLo intravenous 27900ug/kg (27.9mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
?
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 10mg/kg (10mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 9, Pg. 13, 1911.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 28mg/kg (28mg/kg) ? Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. (5), Pg. 30, 1997.
?
rat LD50 oral 25mg/kg (25mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0545929,

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

In USA it is usually prepared by reaction of potassium chloride on sodium dichromate: Vetter in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chem Technology, vol 3 (Interscience, NY, 1949), page 951. In Germany it is obtained from potassium chromate produced by roasting the chrome ore with potassium hydroxide: Muller, Glissmann in Ullmann's Encyklopadie der Technischen Chemie, 3rd ed, vol 5 (Munich, 1954), page 580.
POTASSIUM DICHROMATE IS PRODUCED INDUSTRIALLY BY ROASTING CHROME ORE WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE ... .
Potassium chloride + sodium dichromate (salt formation)
U.S. Exports

(1985) 4.54x10+5 g /Potassium Chromate and Dichromate/
U.S. Imports

(1985) 5.80x10+8 g /Potassium Chromate and Dichromate/

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
- Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
【Therapeutic Uses】
Anti-Infective Agents, Local; Astringents; Caustics; Dyes
MEDICATION (VET): CAUSTIC AGENT
MEDICATION (VET): HAS BEEN USED IN ANTITUSSIVE & LYMPHANGITIS MIXTURES; 20 PPM IN FISH TANK WATER TO CONTROL PROTOZOA & FLUKES
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
... POTASSIUM DICHROMATE /WAS STUDIED/ ... IN GUINEA PIGS FOR 140 DAYS ... AFTER SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL INJECTION OF 200 UG CHROMIUM. ... /IT WAS/ CLEARED VERY RAPIDLY FROM THE LUNGS; ONLY ABOUT 15% CHROMIUM REMAINED IN THE LUNGS 10 MINUTES AFTER INJECTION; 20% WAS FOUND IN THE BLOOD AT THIS TIME & ANOTHER 5% IN THE THREE TISSUES ANALYZED (LIVER, KIDNEYS, SPLEEN), ALTHOUGH SMALL AMOUNTS WERE DEPOSITED IN OTHER SOFT TISSUES, & SOME MAY HAVE BEEN DEPOSITED IN THE GI TRACT THROUGH CILIA ACTION. AFTER 24 HR ABOUT 13% OF THE DOSE HAD BEEN ELIMINATED IN THE URINE; 11% REMAINED IN THE LUNGS, 8% IN RED BLOOD CELLS, 1% IN PLASMA, & ABOUT 4 & 3% IN THE LIVER & KIDNEYS. SMALL AMOUNTS OF CHROMIUM WERE DEPOSITED IN MUSCLE, ADRENALS, & SKIN, BUT ESSENTIALLY NONE IN THE BONES, EVEN AFTER 90 DAYS. CHROMIUM IN ALL TISSUES, EXCEPT LUNG & SPLEEN, GRADUALLY DECREASED TO VERY LOW LEVELS OR DISAPPEARED ALTOGETHER BY 140 DAYS. CHROMIUM REACHED A PEAK IN THE SPLEEN IN 30 DAYS, AFTER WHICH IT DECLINED, OWING TO UPTAKE OF DISINTEGRATING CHROMIUM-BEARING RED CELLS. CHROMIUM WAS STILL PRESENT IN THE LUNGS & SPLEEN EVEN AFTER 140 DAYS, HOWEVER.
The acute & subacute toxicities of several Cr(III) & Cr(VI) cmpds (chromous nitrate, chromic chloride, chromic sulfate, chromic trioxide, & potassium dichromate) were determined in NZC & (CxO) mice injected ip. The distal median lethal doses (>10 days after treatment) averaged (17.9 +/- 1.8) the oxidation state of the chromium cmpd injected chromic sulfate may be an exception), but acute toxicity (3 days) was much greater with Cr(VI) cmpds. Acid digests of entire male mice that were admin ip 1/6 of the distal LD50, either once or repeatedly at weekly intervals, were analyzed to determine the whole body persistence & clearance kinetics of chromium. Mice dosed once with Cr(III) retained 6.5 times more chromium at 21 days than mice treated with Cr(VI). When Cr(III) was given at weekly intervals mice accumulated 6 times more chromium by 8 wk than Cr(VI)-treated mice, though only the latter showed symptoms of chromic toxicity. Whole body chromium concns continued to rise with further Cr(III) treatments, but slowly declined with Cr(VI). Analyses of fecal & urinary excretion confirmed that most of the urinary chromium excretion from Cr(VI)-treated animals was much faster in both urine & feces than from mice given Cr(III). The differential storage & clearance kinetics of Cr(III) & Cr(VI) cmpds may be significant in experimental chromium carcinogenesis studies & in the toxicology of chromium in workers exposed industrially to potentially carcinogenic chromium containing dusts & aerosols. [Bryson WG, Goodall CM; Carcinogenesis 4 (12): 1535-1540 (1983)] PubMed Abstract
Inhalation of highly water-soluble hexavalent chromium salts, such as ... potassium dichromate, may result in systemic absorption.
In another study in which rats were exposed to chromium(VI) as potassium dichromate or to chromium(III) as chromium trichloride, the pulmonary clearance of both valence states was dependent on particle size, but chromium(VI) was more rapidly and extensively transported to the bloodstream than chromium(III). The rats had been exposed to 7.3-15.9 mg chromium(VI)/m3 as potassium dichromate for 2-6 hr or to 8 or 10.7 mg chromium(III)/m3 as chromium trichloride for 6 or 2 hr, respectively. ... Following exposure to chromium(VI), the ratio of blood chromium/lung chromium was 1.44 at 0.5 hr, 0.81 at 18 hr, 0.85 at 48 hr, and 0.96 at 168 hr after exposure. ... Following exposure to chromium(III), the ratio of blood chromium/lung chromium was 0.39 at 0.5 hr, 0.24 at 18 hr, 0.22 at 48 hr, and 0.26 at 168 hr after exposure. Therefore, the amt of chromium(VI) transferred to the blood from the lungs was always at least three times greater than the amt of chromium(III) transferred ... . /Potassium dichromate and chromium trichloride/
The absorption of a single bolus dose of chromium(VI) as potassium dichromate has been assessed in male volunteers ... . In this study, 5 volunteers ingested either 2.5 or 5 mg chromium(VI) as a 10 mg/l soln in a 2-min period. Based on the volunteer's weight, the est doses were 0.03 & 0.05 mg chromium(VI)/kg. A peak in plasma & red blood cell chromium was reached within 90 min after dosing for the 4 volunteers ingesting 0.05 mg chromium(VI)/kg (avg plasma concn 25 ug chromium/l; range 5.1-57 ug/l, avg RBC concn 17.6 ug chromium/l, range 13.5-24 ug/l). Peak plasma chromium concn was 23 ug chromium/l (at 30 min after ingestion) for the 1 volunteer at 0.03 mg chromium(VI)/kg. No chromium(VI) was detected in any of the plasma samples from the 5 volunteers for up to 14 hr post-dosing, indicating that reduction of chromium(VI) had taken place in the GI tract or bloodstream. Bioavailability, as assessed by urinary excretion for 4 days after dosing, avg 5.7% but varied considerably among the volunteers (range 1.1-14.5%). The authors stated that the individual absorbing 14.5% of the dose was an "outlier" compared to other absorption experiments performed by this group.
Uptake of potassium dichromate was determined in a man who was given 0.8 mg of chromium(VI) in drinking water 5 times/day for 17 days ... . Steady-state concn of chromium in blood were attained after 7 days. Red blood cell and plasma levels returned to background levels within a few days after exposure was stopped. The data are consistent with a bioavailability of 2% and a plasma elimination half-life of 36 hours.
The distribution of chromium(VI) compared with chromium(III) was investigated in guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of potassium dichromate or chromium trichloride. At 24 hr after instillation, 11% of the original dose of chromium from potassium dichromate remained in the lungs, 8% in the erythrocytes, 1% in plasma, 3% in the kidney, and 4% in the liver. The muscle, skin, and adrenal glands contained only a trace. All tissue concn of chromium declined to low or nondetectable levels in 140 days with the exception of the lungs and spleen. After chromium trichloride instillation, 69% of the dose remained in the lungs at 20 min, while only 4% was found in the blood and other tissues, with the remaining 27% cleared from the lungs and swallowed. The only tissue that contained a significant amt of chromium 2 days after instillation of chromium trichloride was the spleen. After 30 and 60 days, 30 and 12%, respectively, of the chromium(III) was retained in the lungs, while only 2.6 and 1.6%, respectively, of the chromium(VI) dose was retained in the lung ... . /Potassium dichromate and chromium trichloride/
The distribution of chromium in human body tissue after acute oral exposure was determined in the case of a 14-yr-old boy who ingested 7.5 mg chromium(VI)/kg as potassium dichromate. ... Upon autopsy, the chromium concn were as follows: liver, 2.94 mg/100 cc (normal, 0.016 mg/100 cc); kidneys, 0.64 and 0.82 mg/100 cc (normal, 0.06 gm/100 cc); and brain, 0.06 mg/100 cc (normal, 0.002 mg/100 cc) ... . Although these data were obtained after extensive treatment to rid the body of excess chromium, the levels of chromium remaining after the treatment clearly demonstrate that these tissues absorbed at least these concn after an acute, lethal ingestion of a chromium(VI) cmpd.
The chromium content in major organs of mice receiving drinking water that provided doses of 4.8, 6.1, or 12.3 mg chromium(III)/kg/day as chromium trichloride or 4.4, 5.0, or 14.2 mg chromium(VI)/kg/day as potassium dichromate was determined after 1 yr of exposure. Chromium was detected only in the liver in the chromium(III)-treated mice. Mice treated with chromium(VI) compounds had accumulation in all organs, with the highest levels reported in liver & spleen. Liver accumulation of chromium was 40-90 times higher in the chromium(VI)-treated group than in the chromium(III)-treated group ... . /Chromium trichloride and potassium dichromate/
Twelve pregnant female albino rats (Druckrey strain) and 13 Swiss albino mice were exposed to 500 ppm potassium dichromate (VI) in their drinking water during pregnancy up to 1 day before delivery ... . The chromium(VI) daily intake was calculated to be 11.9 mg chromium(VI)/day for the rats and 3.6 mg chromium(VI)/day for mice which were considered to be maximal non-toxic doses for both species. In rats, concn of chromium were 0.067, 0.219, and 0.142 ug/g fresh weight in maternal blood, placenta, and fetuses respectively, and 0.064, 0.304, and 0.366 ug/g fresh weight in mice, respectively. In treated rats, chromium levels were 3.2-fold higher in maternal blood, 3-fold higher in placenta, and 3.1-fold higher in fetal tissue when compared to control values. In treated mice, chromium levels were 2.5-fold higher in maternal blood, 3.2-fold higher in placenta, and 9.6-fold higher in fetuses when compared to control values. In treated mice there was a significant elevation in chromium levels in placental and fetal tissues over maternal blood levels, and a significant incr in chromium levels in fetal tissue over placental concn when compared to controls. These differences were not observed in rats, indicating that the distribution patterns in mice and rats are different.
In rats injected sc with 5.25 mg chromium(VI)/kg as potassium dichromate, most of the chromium in the tissues analyzed was found in the red blood cells with a peak level (63 ug chromium/g) achieved 24 hr after dosing. White blood cells were not analyzed for chromium content. Whole plasma contained 2.7-35 ug/ml, & the plasma ultrafiltrate contained 0.15-0.79 ug/ml. Tissue distribution 48 hr after dosing was as follows: 221.2 ug/g in renal cortex, 110.0 ug/g in liver, 103.0 ug/g in spleen, 86.8 ug/g in lung, 58.9 ug/g in renal medulla, & 8.8 ug/g in bone, compared with 2.28-5.98 ug/g in any tissues in controls.
Normal urinary levels of chromium in humans have been reported to range from 0.24-1.8 ug/l (0.00024-0.0018 mg/l) with a median level of 0.4 ug/l (0.0004 mg/l) ... . Humans exposed to 0.05-1.7 mg chromium(III)/m3 as chromium sulfate and 0.01-0.1 mg chromium(VI)/m3 as potassium dichromate (8-hr time-weighted avg) had urinary excretion levels from 0.0247 to 0.037 mg chromium(III)/l. Workers exposed mainly to chromium(VI) cmpds had higher urinary chromium levels than workers exposed primarily to chromium(III) cmpds. An analysis of the urine did not detect the hexavalent form of chromium, indicating that chromium(VI) was rapidly reduced before excretion ... . /Chromium sulfate and Potassium dichromate/
The acute and subacute toxicities of several Cr(III) and Cr(VI) compounds (chromium(3+) chloride, chromium(3+) nitrate, chromium(3+) sulfate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate) were determined in NZC and (CxO) mice injected ip. The distal median lethal doses (> 10 days after treatment) averaged (17.9 + or - 1.8) X 10(-6) g chromium/g body wt regardless of the oxidation state of the Cr compound injected (chromium(3+) sulfate may be an exception), but acute toxicity (3 days) was much greater with Cr(VI) compounds. Acid digests of entire male mice that were administered ip 1/6 of the distal LD50, either once or repeatedly at weekly intervals, were analyzed to determine the whole body persistence and clearance kinetics of Cr. Mice dosed once with Cr(III) retained 6.5 times more chromium at 21 days than mice treated with Cr(VI). When Cr(III) was given at weekly intervals mice accumulated 6 times more Cr by 8 wk than Cr(VI)-treated mice, though only the latter showed symptoms of chromic toxicity. Whole body Cr concentrations continued to rise with further Cr(III) treatments, but slowly declined with Cr(VI). Analyses of fecal and urinary excretion confirmed that most of the urinary Cr excretion from Cr(VI)-treated animals was much faster in both urine and feces than from mice given Cr(III). The differential storage and clearance kinetics of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) compounds may be significant in experimental Cr carcinogenesis studies and in the toxicology of Cr in workers exposed industrially to potentially carcinogenic chromium-containing dusts or aerosols. /Potassium dichromate/ [Bryson WG, Goodall CM; Carcinogenesis 4 (12): 1535-40 (1983)] PubMed Abstract

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