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Calcium hypochlorite(CAS No. 7778-54-3)

Calcium hypochlorite Ca.2ClHO (cas 7778-54-3) Molecular Structure

7778-54-3 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Calcium hypochlorite
【CAS Registry number】
7778-54-3
【Synonyms】
Hypochlorousacid, calcium salt (8CI,9CI)
B-K Powder
Bleaching powder
Ca(ClO)2
Calciumhypochlorite
Calcium oxychloride
Caporit
Chemichlon G
Chloride of lime
Chlorinated lime
Chloro lime chemical
Eusol BPC
HTH (bleaching agent)
HTHVAN
Lime chloride
Losantin
Nisso Hi-Chlon
Nisso Hi-chlon LC
Perfect PA
Solvox KS
T-Eusol
Granular Calcium Hypochlorite
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-908-7
【Molecular Formula】
Ca. 2 Cl H O (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
142.9828
【Inchi】
InChI=1S/Ca.2ClO/c;2*1-2/q+2;2*-1
【InChIKey】
ZKQDCIXGCQPQNV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
[O-]Cl.[O-]Cl.[Ca+2]
【MOL File】
7778-54-3.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white powder with a chlorine-like odour
【Density】
2.35
【Melting Point】
100℃
【Refractive Index】
1.545 (20 C)
【Flash Point】
无意义
【Water】
200 g/L (20℃) (dec.)
【Solubilities】
Water Solubility :200 g/L (20 oC) (dec.)
【Color/Form】
WHITE POWDER OR FLAT PLATES
WHITE GRANULES OR PELLETS
White crystalline solid
【Stability】
Stability Strong oxidizer - contact with flammable material may lead to fire. Incompatible with water, reducing agents, combustible material, phenol.
【Storage temp】
Store at RT.
【Spectral properties】
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.545 (ALPHA), 1.69 (BETA)
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:142.9828 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:CaCl2O2
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:141.890126
MonoIsotopic Mass:141.890126
Topological Polar Surface Area:46.1
Heavy Atom Count:5
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:2
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:3

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
C:Corrosive
【Risk Statements】
R22;R31;R34;R50;R8
【Safety Statements 】
S26;S36/37/39;S45;S61
【HazardClass】
5.1
【Safety】
Hazard Codes:O,C,N
Risk Statements:8-22-31-34-50
8:Contact with combustible material may cause fire
22:Harmful if swallowed
31:Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
34:Causes burns
50:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms
Safety Statements:26-36/37/39-45-61
26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)
61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet
RIDADR:UN 1748 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany:2
HazardClass:5.1
PackingGroup:II
Hazardous Substances Data:7778-54-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
【PackingGroup 】
II
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
... INHALATION OF /CHLORINATED LIME/ FUMES MAY CAUSE LARYNGEAL & PULMONARY IRRITATION. ... /CHLORINATED LIME/
DUST ... IS IRRITATING TO NOSE ... AT HIGH CONCN EYES ARE ALSO IRRITATED. /BLEACHING POWDER/
【Cleanup Methods】
HYPOCHLORITE PRODUCED DURING TREATMENT OF CHLORINE CONTAINING WASTE GASES OR WATER IS DECOMP BY TREATING WITH ALKALINE SOLN. 5 L WASTEWATER CONTAINING 25 G Ca(ClO)2 WAS MIXED WITH 100 L 74.8% SODIUM HYDROXIDE & KEPT @ 20 HR TO DECOMP 75% CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE.
【Transport】
UN 2880/1748/2208
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material involved in fire: Extinguish using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Chlorinated lime, liquid/
Personnel protection: ... Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material. /Chlorinated lime, liquid/
Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. Use flooding quantities of water as fog or spray. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Do not use dry chemical fire extinguishers containing ammonium compounds. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry, or calcium hypochlorite, mixtures, dry/
【Fire Potential】
Contact with combustible materials will increase fire hazard. May undergo accelerated decomposition with release of heat above 350 deg F (177 deg C). /Calcium hypochlorite, dry, or calcium hypochlorite, mixtures, dry/
CONTACT OF SOLID HYPOCHLORITE WITH GLYCEROL, DIGOL MONOMETHYL ETHER, OR PHENOL CAUSES IGNITION WITHIN FEW MINUTES, ACCOMPANIED BY IRRITANT SMOKE, PARTICULARLY WITH PHENOL (FORMATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS).
CONTENTS OF A DRUM /OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE/ ERUPTED & IGNITED DURING INTERMITTENT USE. THIS WAS ATTRIBUTED TO CONTAMINATION OF SOLDERED METAL SCOOP (NORMALLY KEPT IN THE DRUM) BY OIL, GREASE OR WATER, OR ALL THREE, & SUBSEQUENT EXOTHERMIC REACTION WITH THE ... /HYPOCHLORITE/.
... The hypochlorite constitutes a hazard in the absence of other combustible materials, because after initiation, local rapid thermal decomp will spread through the contained mass of hypochlorite as a vigorous fire which evolves, rather than consumes, oxygen.
May cause fire in contact with wood or straw.
Not flammable /SRP: Acts as oxidizer with combustible material./
Ignites on contact with algacide; ... organic sulfur compounds. ... Flammable by chemical reaction with combustible materials, e.g., anthracene; grease; oil; mercaptans; methylcarbitol; nitromethane; organic matter; propylmercaptan.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Grades: commercial (70%); high purity (99.2% available chlorine as calcium hypochlorite).
Ingredient of camporit which also contains NaCl.
Active ingredient in LO-BAX, hth, Perchloron, Pennswim brand products, & in Eusol.
/CHLORINATED LIME (BLEACHING POWDER)/ CONSISTS OF MIXT OF ... CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, CALCIUM CHLORIDE, & CALCIUM HYDROXIDE; SHOULD NOT BE CONFUSED WITH PURE CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE. ...
Chloride of lime (35% calcium chlorine); highest calcium hypochlorite (70% available chlorine)
Chlorinated lime consists of a mixture of calcium chloride and calcium hypochloride and should contain a minimum of 30% available chlorine.
65% available chlorine, 4 oz briquettes grades; granular, tablet grades; 70% granular grades; technical grades
Grade: 35-37% active chlorine, technical /lime, chlorinated/
Grade or purity: 70% (self-propagating); 65% (non-propagating)
Chemically, it consists of varying proportions of calcium hypochlorite, calcium chloride, calcium oxychloride, calcium chloride, free calcium hydroxides, and water. /Chlorinated lime/
Sold as partially hydrated calcium hypochlorite(65% available Chlorine), sanitizer (50% available Chlorine), and mildew control (32% available Chlorine).
Solutions of Calcium Hypochlorite: Milk of lime - a suspension of calcium hydroxide in water - is chlorinated.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire or Explosion: These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Health: Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire: Small fires: Use water. Do not use dry chemicals or foams. CO2, or Halon may provide limited control. Large fires: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Spill or Leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers. Small dry spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Small liquid spills: Use a non-combustible material like vermiculite or sand to soak up the product and place into a container for later disposal. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Following product recovery, flush area with water. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Contaminated clothing may be a fire risk when dry. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixture, with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 10% but not more than 39% available Chlorine; Calcium hypochlorite mixture, dry, with more than 39% available Chlorine (8.8% available Oxygen)/
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Reacts with water and with acids releasing chlorine. Forms explosive compounds with ammonia and amines. Strong oxidizer. Other incompatible materials include organics, nitrogen containing compounds, dry chemical fire extinguishers containing mono-ammonium phosphate, combustible or flammable materials. /Calcium hypochlorite, dry or calcium hypochlorite, mixtures, dry/
A MIXTURE OF DAMP SULFUR AND SOLID 'SWIMMING POOL CHLORINE' CAUSED A VIOLENTLY EXOTHERMIC REACTION, AND EJECTION OF MOLTEN SULFUR.
Calcium hypochlorite and mercaptans will react violently.
Nitromethane, either alone or in a mixture with methanol and castor oil (model airplane fuel) has a delayed but violent reaction with powdered calcium hypochlorite, esp when confined, as in a plastic bag.
THERE HAVE BEEN RECENTLY SEVERAL INSTANCES OF MILD EXPLOSIONS ... ON SHIPS CARRYING CARGOES OF COMMERCIAL HYPOCHLORITE, USUALLY PACKED IN LACQUERED STEEL DRUMS & OF JAPANESE ORIGIN. ... /SUGGEST/ PRESENCE OF MAGNESIUM OXIDE IN LIME USED TO PREPARE THE HYPOCHLORITE MAY HAVE LED TO ... MAGNESIUM HYPOCHLORITE WHICH IS KNOWN TO BE OF VERY LIMITED STABILITY.
A CONFINED INTIMATE MIXTURE OF HYPOCHLORITE AND FINELY DIVIDED CHARCOAL EXPLODED ON HEATING.
CONTENTS OF A DRUM /OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE/ ERUPTED & IGNITED DURING INTERMITTENT USE. THIS WAS ATTRIBUTED TO CONTAMINATION OF SOLDERED METAL SCOOP (NORMALLY KEPT IN THE DRUM) BY OIL, GREASE OR WATER, OR ALL THREE, & SUBSEQUENT EXOTHERMIC REACTION WITH THE ... /HYPOCHLORITE/.
/CONTACT WITH/ ETHANOL MAY CAUSE AN EXPLOSION, AS MAY METHANOL. ... PRIMARY ALIPHATIC OR AROMATIC AMINES REACT WITH CALCIUM, (OR SODIUM) HYPOCHLORITE TO FORM N-MONO- OR DI-CHLOROAMINES WHICH ARE EXPLOSIVE, BUT LESS SO THAN NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE.
MIXTURES OF SOLID HYPOCHLORITE WITH 1% OF ADMIXED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS ARE SENSITIVE TO HEAT IN VARYING DEGREE. WOOD CAUSED IGNITION AT 176 DEG C, WHILE OIL CAUSED VIOLENT EXPLOSION AT 135 DEG C.
SHORTLY AFTER A MIXTURE OF ... /SODIUM HYDROGENSULFATE, STARCH, SODIUM CARBONATE, CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE/ HAD BEEN COMPRESSED INTO TABLETS, INCANDESCENCE & AN EXPLOSION OCCURRED.
SPONTANEOUS EXPLOSION OF /BLEACHING POWDER/ ... PACKED IN DRUMS WAS ATTRIBUTED TO CATALYTIC LIBERATION OF OXYGEN BY IRON & MANGANESE OXIDES PRESENT IN THE LIME USED FOR MANUFACTURE. ... WHEN THE LEVER-LID OF A 6 MONTH OLD TIN OF BLEACHING POWDER WAS BEING REMOVED, IT FLEW OFF WITH EXPLOSIVE VIOLENCE, POSSIBLY DUE TO RUST CATALYZED SLOW LIBERATION OF OXYGEN.
EXPLOSIVE REACTIONS BETWEEN HYDROCARBONS, BETWEEN AMINES & IMINES, & BETWEEN HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS & OTHER CHEMICALS ARE DESCRIBED & REFERENCED.
When calcium hypochlorite was inadvertently used in place of calcium hydroxide to prepare ammonia gas, an explosion occurred, attributed to formation of nitrogen trichloride.
A severe explosion occurred when a carbon tetrachloride fire extinguisher was used to extinguish a fire in an open container of calcium hypochlorite.
An explosion occurred when 10 g of calcium hypochlorite was dumped into a beaker containing 5 ml of 1-propanethiol. Identical results were obtained with ethanediol and isobutanethiol. ... Calcium hypochlorite was placed in a turpentine can thought to be empty. A few min later reaction between the residual turpentine and the calcium hypochlorite resulted in an explosion.
Dry calcium hypochlorite when mixed with organic sulfides causes a violent reaction. ... /Phenol and calcium hypochlorite react exothermally/ producing toxic fumes.
CONTACT OF SOLID HYPOCHLORITE WITH GLYCEROL, DIGOL MONOMETHYL ETHER, OR PHENOL CAUSES IGNITION WITHIN FEW MINUTES, ACCOMPANIED BY IRRITANT SMOKE, PARTICULARLY WITH PHENOL (FORMATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS).
Dry calcium hypochlorite when mixed with organic sulfides causes a violent reaction with the possibility of a flash fire. /Phenol and calcium hypochlorite react exothermally/ producing toxic fumes, which may ignite.
The bulk material may ignite or explode in storage. Traces of water may initiate the reaction. A rapid exothermic decomposition above 175 deg C releases oxygen and chlorine. Moderately explosive in its solid form when heated. Explosive reaction with acetic acid + potassium cyanide; amines; ammonium chloride; carbon or charcoal + heat; carbon tetrachloride + heat; N,N-dichloromethylamine + heat; ethano;' methanol; iron oxide; rust; 1-propanethiol; isobutanethiol; turpentine. Potentially explosive reaction with sodium hydrogen sulfate + starch + sodium carbonate. Reaction with acetylene or nitrogenous bases forms explosive products.
Fire occurred when a bag of calcium hypochlorite was inadvertently placed on a methyl carbitol spill on the floor.
Dry calcium hypochlorite when mixed with organic sulfides causes a violent reaction with the possibility of a flash fire. /Phenol and calcium hypochlorite react exothermally/ producing toxic fumes, which may ignite.
【Other Preventative Measures】
... ADEQUATE EXHAUST & GENERAL VENTILATION IS NECESSARY TO PREVENT FORMATION OF DANGEROUS CONCENTRATION OF CHLORINE GAS. /CHLORINATED LIME/
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime. /Chlorinated lime, liquid/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Avoid bodily contact with the material ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amt of water or soap and water. ... If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemcial protective clothing. /Chlorinated lime, liquid/
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
... INHALATION OF /CHLORINATED LIME/ FUMES MAY CAUSE LARYNGEAL & PULMONARY IRRITATION. ... /CHLORINATED LIME/
DUST ... IS IRRITATING TO NOSE ... AT HIGH CONCN EYES ARE ALSO IRRITATED. /BLEACHING POWDER/
【Specification】

white powder with a chlorine-like odour
Safety Statements:26-36/37/39-45-61
26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)
61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet
【Disposal Methods】
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
Dissolve the material in water and add to a large vol of concn reducing agent soln, then acidify the mixture with sulfuric acid. When reduction is complete, soda ash is added to make the soln alkaline. The alkaline liquid is decanted from any sludge produced, neutralized, and diluted before discharge to a sewer or stream. The sludge is landfilled. /Chlorinated lime/

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Prepn of solid product containing 90-94% calcium hypochlorite.
Chlorination of a slurry of lime & caustic soda with subsequent precipitation of calcium hypochlorite dihydrate, dried under vacuum.
... Reaction of gaseous chlorine with high calcium hydrated lime.
... Chlorination of hydrated lime.
Drying a filter cake of neutral calcium hypochlorite dihydrate containing 30-50% water.
U.S. Exports

(1984) 1.11X10+9 g
(1987) 4,382,677 lb
(1987) 512,096 lb /Calcium lime, chlorinated no more than 40% chlorine/
U.S. Imports

(1972) 9.07X10+8 G
(1975) 1.25X10+9 G
(1984) 4.02X10+9 g
(1986) 14,067,471 lb
(1986) 1,270,989 lb /Lime chlorinated with not more than 40% available chlorine/
U.S. Production

(1972) 4.8X10+10 G
(1975) 6.36X10+10 G (DEMAND)
(1984) 5.04X10+9 g /est-based on export value equal to 22% of production/
Consumption Patterns

100% IN DOMESTIC SWIMMING POOL SANITATION OR OTHER SANITATION & BLEACHING APPLICATIONS (MUNICIPAL & INDUSTRIAL) (1975)
Swimming pool sanitation and other bleaching and sanitation (municipal and industrial) uses, 78%; Exports, 22% (1986)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Calcium hypochlorite. Residential swimming pool sanitation, 65%; municipal and industrial bleaching and sanitation, 15%; exports, 20%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Calcium hypochlorite. Demand: 1988: 120,000 tons; 1989: 122,000; 1993 /projected/: 132,000 tons. (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 6,000 tons last year.)
Residential swimming pool sanitation 75%, municipal and industrial bleaching and sanitation 25%.
Demand for: 1996 - 98,000 tons; 1997 - 100,000 tons; 2001 - 110,000 tons (predicted).
【Usage】

Algicide, bactericide, deodorant, fungicide, in sugar refining, oxidizing agent, bleaching agent, disinfectant.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.

Supplier Location

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