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Hydrazine monohydrate(CAS No. 7803-57-8)

Hydrazine monohydrate H4N2?H2O (cas 7803-57-8) Molecular Structure

7803-57-8 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Hydrazine monohydrate
【CAS Registry number】
7803-57-8
【Synonyms】
Hydrazine hydrate solution 60 % (N2H4.H2O)
Hydrazine hydrate
Diamide monohydrate
【EINECS(EC#)】
206-114-9
【Molecular Formula】
H4N2?H2O (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
50.06
【Inchi】
InChI=1/H4N2.H2O/c1-2;/h1-2H2;1H2
【Canonical SMILES】
NN
【MOL File】
7803-57-8.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
colorless fuming liquid with a faint ammonia-like odor
【Density】
1.032
【Melting Point】
-51.5℃
【Boiling Point】
120.1℃
【Vapour】
5 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
【Refractive Index】
n20/D 1.428(lit.)
【Flash Point】
75℃
【Solubilities】
Miscible
【Color/Form】
Colorless oily liquid
WHITE CRYSTALS
Colorless fuming, oily liquid ... (Note: A solid below 36 degrees F).
Anhydrous hydrazine is a waxy solid.
【Stability】
Stability Incompatible with a wide variety of materials, including oxidizing agents, heavy metal oxides, dehydrating agents, alkali metals, rust, silver salts. Combustible. Contact with many materials may cause fire or explosive decomposition. May react explosively with a variety of materials, including dehydrating agents, heavy metal ox
【HS Code】
28251000
【Storage temp】
0-6°C
【Spectral properties】
Index of refraction: 1.46979 @ 22.3 deg C/D; 1.46444 @ 35 deg C/D
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:32.04516 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:H4N2
XLogP3-AA:-1.5
H-Bond Donor:2
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:32.037448
MonoIsotopic Mass:32.037448
Topological Polar Surface Area:52
Heavy Atom Count:2
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
T:Toxic
【Risk Statements】
R23/24/25;R34;R43;R45;R50/53
【Safety Statements 】
S45;S53;S60;S61
【HazardClass】
8
【PackingGroup 】
II
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Vapors are very irritating to the mucous membranes, nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract.
【Cleanup Methods】
Hydrazine removal from nuclear power plant wastewater using activated carbon and copper ion catalysts.
In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the hydrazine with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area.
Spill or leak procedures: Eliminate all ignition sources. Approach release from upwind. Use water spray to cool & disperse vapors, protect personnel, & dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures. Control runoff & isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
Environmental considerations: Land Spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents.
Environmental considerations: Land Spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution/
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; hydrazine, aqueous solution/
【Transport】
UN 2029/2030
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material on fire or involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution/
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Hydrazine can ignite spontaneously in air, when in contact with porous materials.
【Fire Potential】
Hydrazine vapor is exceptionally hazardous in that once it is ignited it will continue to burn by exothermic decomposition in complete absence of air or other oxidant.
Flammable liquid. ... Flammable over a wide range including 100% pure material. Air or oxygen is not required for decomposition. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated. Thermally unstable. Ignites in air at room temperature on metal oxide surfaces, & in a wide variety of porous materials, such as cellulosic materials.
【Formulations/Preparations】
Hydrazine is produced in USA in a propellant grade which contains a minimum of 97.5% of active ingredient.
Grade: to 99% pure
Anhydrous propellant grade
Liquid grade, 55%, 85%, 100% hydrate solutions
17%, 25%, 35%, 55%, 75%, 85%, 100% hydrate grades
Hydrazine is available in anhydrous form as well as aqueous solutions, typically 35, 51.2, 54.4, and 64 wt% N2H4.
Hydrazine hydrate is a colorless liquid containing 63.4% hydrazine (1:1 N2H4:H2O). Aqueous solutions with lower hydrazine contents are also available. A 35% aqueous solution is commonly used for boiler treatment applications.
Hydrazine, greater than or equal to 98.5 wt%; water, less than or equal to 1.0 wt%; chloride, less than or equal to 5 ppm; iron, less than or equal to 20 ppm; aniline, less than or equal to 0.5 wt%; non-volatile residue, less than or equal to 0.005 wt%; carbon dioxide, less than 0.02 wt%; carbon volatile, greater than 0.02 wt%; density 1.008-1.002 g/ml at 25 deg C.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire or Explosion: Flammable/combustible materials. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire: Some of these materials may react violently with water. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Do not get water inside containers. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers ... . Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: Highly toxic, may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not more than 37% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading . Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; Hydrazine, aqueous solutions, with more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with more than 37% Hydrazine; Hydrazine, aqueous solution, with not less than 37% but not more than 64% Hydrazine/
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Residue from dehydrating hydrazine with barium or calcium oxide slowly decomposes exothermically in daylight and finally explodes.
Explosive metal hydrazides form when hydrazine & alkali metals are mixed in liquid ammonia.
While boiling a sample of a polyester fiber in hydrazine in a glass beaker, the technician used a somewhat rusty pair of metal tweezers to handle the sample. When the tweezers were put in the solution, the solution ignited. The ignition temperature of hydrazine varies from 75 deg F in the presence of iron oxide to 518 deg F in a glass container.
During the measurement of shock sensitivity of a mixture containing hydrazine, a drop of the hydrazine mixture fell inadvertently on the tetryl donor explosive. The tetryl immediately burst into flame.
Oxidizers, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, metallic oxides, acids (Note: Can ignite SPONTANEOUSLY on contact with oxidizers or porous materials such as earth, wood, & cloth).
Hydrazine ignites in contact wiht chlorine.
Hydrazine is decomposed explosively by chromates & chromic anhydride.
Hydrazine reacts vigorously with cupric oxide.
Spontaneous ignition occurs when /fluorine & hydrazine/ are mixed.
The catalytic decomposition of hydrazine in the presence of Raney nickel may be vigorous at room temp.
The blue precipitate formed from nickel perchlorate & hydrazine in water exploded violently when a glass stirring rod was introduced into the suspension.
Spontaneous ignition occurs when nitrous oxide & lithium hydride or hydrazine are mixed.
Potassium dichromate or sodium dichromate reacts explosively with hydrazine.
The action of an ethereal soln of hydrazine on zinc diamide or diethyl zinc, gives a product, zinc hydrazine, which explodes at 70 deg C.
【Other Preventative Measures】
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. /Hydrazine, aqueous solution/
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to diperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Hydrazine, anhydrous; hydrazine, aqueous solution/
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing, & possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. ... /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Respirator Recommendations: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration: (Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode/(Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. (Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.)
... Vinyl coated hand protection, natural or reclaimed rubber protection, rubber aprons, and plastic eye and face protection ... used when working with small quantities. Where possibility of gross splashing exists, full protective clothing made of rubber, neoprene or vinyl-coated materials should be worn. For respiratory protection in situations where recommended tolerance limits are ... exceeded, respiratory protective equipment ... must be used. /Hydrazine and derivatives/
【Specification】

Hydrazine hydrate?with cas registry number of 7803-57-8 is a colorless fuming liquid with a faint ammonia-like odor. It also has other registry numbers including 65209-65-6, 65492-74-2, 79785-97-0. Its EINECS?registry number is 206-114-9. This chemical is stable, but incompatible with a wide variety of materials, including oxidizing agents, heavy metal oxides, dehydrating agents, alkali metals, rust, silver salts. It belongs to the following categories: Biochemistry; Reagents for Oligosaccharide Synthesis; Synthetic Organic Chemistry; Water Ttreatment Chemicals. In addition, this chemical has a systematic name which is called hydrazine hydrate (1:1). And its IUPAC name is called hydrazine hydrate.

The physical properties about this chemical are:?(1)ACD/LogP: -1.20; (2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 0; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -3.73; (4)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -2.04; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1; (6)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1 ; (7)#H bond acceptors: 2; (8)#H bond donors: 4; (9)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 1; (10)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 41.8 kJ/mol; (11)Boiling Point: 113.5 °C at 760 mmHg; (12)Vapour Pressure: 20.7 mmHg at 25°C.

Preparation of?Hydrazine hydrate: There are several methods to prepare this chemical. For example, it can be made by?urea. First, mix the?sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide?by a certain percentage. And?add the mixture of urea and a small amount of potassium permanganate while stirring.?Second, pass the steam directly into?reactor?at the temperature of 103 ~ 104 ℃. The oxidation reaction begins. Third,?obtaine 40% hydrazine hydrate by?fractional distillation and vacuum concentration. At last,?80% hydrazine hydrate is prepared by?dehydration with caustic soda, vacuum distillation. The reaction?is as follows:
NH2ONH2 + NaC1O +2 NaOH → N2H4.H2O + NaC1 + Na2CO3

Uses:?It is used as reductant for hydrazine hydrate, medicine, pesticides, dyes, foaming agents, imaging agent, antioxidant materials. It is also used in the manufacture of high-purity metal, synthetic fiber, the separation of rare. In addition, the material can be used to manufacture rockets and explosives.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
This chemical causes burns. It also may cause cancer and?sensitization by skin contact. The most important thing is that it is very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Therefore, avoid exposure? before use. And avoid release to the environment. This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)SMILES: O.NN;
(2)InChI: InChI=1/H4N2.H2O/c1-2;/h1-2H2;1H2;
(3)InChIKey: IKDUDTNKRLTJSI-UHFFFAOYAN

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LD50 oral 40mg/kg (40mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 30(7-9), Pg. 191, 1965.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 156mg/kg (156mg/kg) ? Cancer Research. Vol. 41, Pg. 1469, 1981.
mouse LD50 oral 83mg/kg (83mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 30(7-9), Pg. 191, 1965.
rabbit LD50 oral 55mg/kg (55mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 30(7-9), Pg. 191, 1965.
rat LD50 oral 129mg/kg (129mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 30(7-9), Pg. 191, 1965.

【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow= -2.07
【Disposal Methods】
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U133, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Hydrazine is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration with facilities for effluent scrubbing to abate any ammonia formed in the combustion process.
Hydrazine is a potential candidate for liquid injection incineration with a temperature range of 650 to 1600 deg C and residence times of 0.1 to 2 seconds. Also a potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration with a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases; hours for solids. Also a potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration with a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases; longer for solids.
Recommendable method: Incineration. Peer-review: Dilute well with alcohol, hydrocarbon solvent before burning. Concentrated hydrazine may explode if heated. Hydrazine is a powerful reductant but should be well diluted prior to oxidizing. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC Expert Consultation (May 1985))
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas fired type, in which a first stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter, & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols, & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Neutralization of hydrazine fuels with hypochlorite is a recommended procedure for the treatment of fuel spills prior to disposal. Previous research has shown that incomplete reaction of hypochlorite with the methylated hydrazine fuels monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine leads to a wide variety of byproducts, including N-nitrosoamines, which are believed to be highly carcinogenic. The results presented in this paper were obtained as part of a program to assess the environmental implications of using the hypochlorite method for the treatment and disposal of hydrazine fuel spills. The fuels examined were hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine and Aerozine-50. The neutralization products were determined under experimental conditions comparable to those expected for actual spills. The effects of varying the temperature and the pH as well as of aging the final reaction mixture were determined. Quantitative measurements of nitrosoamines produced are presented. Major and environemntally significant minor products were identified using gas chromatography /mass-spectrometry.
Liquid injection or fluidized bed incineration methods are acceptable disposal methods ... .

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

In the Olin Raschig process ... sodium hypochlorite solution is mixed with a threefold excess of ammonia at 5 deg C to form chloramine, which is then rapidly added to a 30-fold molar excess of anhydrous ammonia under pressure (20-30 MPa) and heated to 130 deg C. The reaction liquor containing 1-2% hydrazine hydrate, is treated as in the conventional Raschig process to give hydrazine hydrate. Anhydrous hydrazine is obtained by removing the water by azeotropic distillation with aniline in a column at atmospheric pressure.
The Bayer process /uses/ ... sodium hypochlorite, acetone, and a 20% aqueous solution of ammonia (molar ratio 1:2:20, respectively) are fed simultaneously and continuously into a reactor at about 35 deg C and 200 kPa. Excess ammonia is removed from the reaction mixture by stripping, quenched with water, and recycled to the reactor as an aqueous solution. The aqueous dimethyl ketazine solution, freed from ammonia but containing unreacted acetone, sodium chloride, and organic impurities, is fed into a distillation column where the dimethyl ketazine is recovered as an aqueous azeotrope (containing 55% dimethyl ketazine; by 95 deg C at 101.3 kPa) at atmospheric pressure. ... The dimethyl ketazine is then hydrolyzed in a distillation column under pressure (0.8-1.2 Mpa), giving acetone, which is recycled to the reactor, and a 10% aqueous solution of hydrazine. The latter is then concentrated to a hydrazine content of 64%.
/In/ the most recent hydrazine process ... hydrogen peroxide is the oxidizing agent. The reaction is carried out in the presence of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) at atmospheric pressure and 50 deg C. The ratio of H2O2:MEK:NH3 used is 1:2:4. The hydrogen peroxide is activated by acetamide and disodium hydrogen phosphate or by an arsenic compound. The overall reaction results in the formation of methyl ethyl ketazine in high yield. ... Since methyl ethyl ketazine is insoluble in the reaction mixture, it is easily separated by decantation; it is then purified by distillation. The purified ketazine is hydrolyzed under pressure (0.8-10 MPa) to give concentrated aqueous hydrazine and overhead methyl ethyl ketone, which is recycled. The aqueous layer containing the activator is concentrated to remove water and recycled to the reactors after a purge of water-soluble impurities.
U.S. Production

(1992) Estimated hydrazine solutions production 16,500 metric ton. /on N2H4 basis; From table/
(1977) AT LEAST 9.08X10+8 G
Consumption Patterns

CHEM INT FOR PESTICIDES, 40%; CHEM INT FOR BLOWING AGENTS, 33%; CORROSION INHIBITOR & WATER TREATMENT AGENT, 15%; OTHER USES, 12% (1980)
(1982) ... 40% of the hydrazine consumed was used in agricultural chemicals, about 33% for blowing agents, 15% as corrosion inhibitor in boiler water and only 5% as an aerospace propellant.
【Usage】

An intermediate for chemical synthesis and, for example, for the production of azodicarbonamide, a blowing agent for the foaming of plastics. Foam plastics are processed in many consumer goods as for shoes, furniture and cars corrosion protection in closed water circuits. As an antioxidant, it protects pipes from rust and premature aging, particularly in the steam circuits of the power industry, manufacture medicines, including those for the treatment of tb, forms of depression and hypertension. And for crop protection products, hydrazine is a vital intermediate for growth regulators, for instance.

【Sampling Procedures】
Air samples containing hydrazine are taken with a glass tube, 5 cm x 6 mm ID, packed loosely with glass wool, and a glass midget bubbler with 15 ml HCl. A sampling pump is connected to this tube and accurately calibrated at a flow rate of 0.2 to 1 l/min for a total sample size of 7 to 100 liters. This technique has an overall precision of 0.094, over a studied range of 0.59 to 3.4 mg/cu m using 91 liter samples.
Naval Research Laboratory scientists have developed a dosimeter badge for passive hydrazine detection. The new NRL dosimeter badge satisfies the requirement for a small device that provides quantitative personal monitoring without interfering with the person's work and should eliminate larger, more cumbersome detectors presently in use. The badge consists of a diffusion barrier and a critic acid substrate that collects and stabilizes hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine, until it can be analyzed using wet chemical methods.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
- Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
【Therapeutic Uses】
EXPTL USE: The response of red cells from patients with sickle cell disease to hydrazine treatment in vitro is to inhibit the sickled morphology, while the metabolic characteristics and osmotic fragility of the cells remain unaltered. However, the oxygen affinity of the sickle cell hemoglobin is decreased. [PRICE-EVANS C ET AL; BIOCHEM BIOPHYS ACTA 691 (2): 367 (1982)]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Absorption of hydrazine through skin in dogs is rapid, and the hydrazine can be detected in femoral /artery/ blood within 30 seconds.
Hydrazino nitrogen (assumed to be largely unchanged hydrazine) is excreted in urine after iv or sc administration of hydrazine in dogs. 5-11% of large doses (50 mg/kg--twice the LD50) is excreted within first 4 hr and approximately 50% of 15 mg/kg dose is excreted within first 2 days after injection.
Hydrazine is rapidly and well absorbed by the skin, GI tract, and lungs, although its vapors are not absorbed significantly through the skin.
Hydrazine is rapidly absorbed and rapidly distributed to and eliminated from most tissues. It may compete to slow down the formation of glutamine and urea by combining with glutamic acid, carbamyl phosphate, or amino acid precursor of the urea cycle, as a result of which ammonia is released. In mice and rats, a part of the absorbed hydrazine is excreted unchanged and a part as labile conjugates or as acid-hydrolysable derivatives via the urine. When hydrazine is metabolized, a significant amount of nitrogen is produced, which is excreted via the lungs.
An aqueous solution (700 g/L) was administered dermally at a dose of 12 mg hydrazine (free base)/kg bw to groups of 4 rabbits by fixing a piece of fibre glass screen to an area of shaved skin. The area was not covered, but corrections were made for evaporation loss. Hydrazine was rapidly detectable in serum and reached a maximum concentration of 10 mg/L approximately 1 hr after application. The half-life of disappearance from serum was 2.3 hr. The apparent volume of distribution was determined to be 630 mL/kg bw. It was calculated that 55% of the applied hydrazine was absorbed percutaneously.
Following ip injection of 32 mg hydrazine/kg bw in rats or mice (free base and hydrazine sulfate, respectively), peak concentrations of hydrazine in blood of approximately 10 mg/L occurred almost immediately, and then the hydrazine disappeared rapidly from the blood. A half-life of 44 min was observed in the blood of the rats during the first 3 hr following exposure, followed by a slower phase with a half-life of 27 hr. When rats were exposed to hydrazine vapor at concentrations of between 0 and 40 mg/cu m (free base), the blood concentration of hydrazine increased with exposure. After 6 hr of exposure to a hydrazine concentration of 20-25 mg/cu m, a blood concentration of 0.64 mg/L was measured. Hydrazine was distributed rapidly in most tissues of mice and rats after ip or sc exposure. Elimination from these tissues also occurred rapidly. For example, 24 hr after the injection of 30 mg (ip to mice, hydrazine sulfate) or 60 mg (sc to rats, free base) hydrazine/kg bw,

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 2(SRC), determined from a log Kow of -2.07(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that hydrazine is expected to have very high mobility in soil(SRC). Hydrazine is a weak base with a pKa of 7.96(4), which indicates it will partially exist in the protonated form in moist soils, and this species may adsorb more than the free base(4). Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected(3) since cations do not volatilize and the Henry's law constant of the free base is estimated as 6.1X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 14.4 mm Hg(5), and water solubility, 1X10+6 mg/L(6). Volatilization from dry soil surfaces may occur(SRC) based on the vapor pressure(5). Hydrazine appears to degrade more rapidly in soil than in water, with oxidation and biodegradation as the main removal processes(SRC). Hydrazine applied to nonsterile Arredondo soil (fine sand) at concentrations of 10, 100, and 500 ug/g was completely degraded in 1.5 hours, 1 day, and 8 days, respectively(7). In this study, comparison to degradation rates in sterile soils indicated that autoxidation appeared to be the major factor contributing to disappearance of the chemical, but the study authors attributed about 20% of removal to biodegradation.
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 2(SRC), determined from a log Kow of -2.07(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that hydrazine is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Hydrazine is a weak base with a pKa of 7.96(4), which indicates it will exist partially in the protonated form in water, and this species may adsorb to suspended solids and sediment more so than the free base(4). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(3) since cations do not volatilize and the Henry's law constant of the free base is estimated as 6.1X10-7 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 14.4 mm Hg(5), and water solubility, 1X10+6 mg/L(6). According to a classification scheme(7), an estimated BCF of 3(SRC), from its log Kow(2) and a regression-derived equation(8), suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Hydrazine is degraded rapidly in water through a combination of biotic and abiotic processes(SRC). The estimated half-life of hydrazine, initially present at 1.8 mM, in pond water was 8.3 days(9). In river water, containing substantial amounts of organic matter, 22.6%, 96%, and 100% of the added hydrazine, initially at 5 mg/l, was degraded after about 1 hour, 1 day and 2 days, respectively. In pond water, 20%, 74%, 80%, and 81.6% of the added hydrazine, initially at 5 mg/L, was degraded after about 1 hr, 1 day, 2 days and 3 days, respectively(10). Hydrazine will react with dissolved oxygen at a rate inversely proportional to the concentration of hydrazine. After 4 days, 52%, 48%, 21.4% and 7.4% of the added hydrazine had degraded in hard water, moderately hard water, slightly hard water, and soft water samples, respectively(10). The addition of organic matter increased the amount of hydrazine degraded(10).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), hydrazine, which has a measured vapor pressure of 14.4 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase hydrazine is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be about 6 hours(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 6.5X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(3). Vapor-phase hydrazine also reacts with ozone(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be about 9 hours(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 3X10-17 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(4). It was estimated that the half-life for the reaction of hydrazine with ozone would be

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