Related Searches: Agar

Agar(CAS No. 9002-18-0)

Agar Unspecified (cas 9002-18-0) Molecular Structure

9002-18-0 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Agar
【CAS Registry number】
9002-18-0
【Synonyms】
AX 30
Agar 150C
Agar Agar Flake
Agargel
Inagel N 6
Japan agar
Japan isinglass
Kantenmatsu
LX 30
Layor Carang
Luxara 1253
Max
Neosoft AR
Neosoft AR 132
Oxoid III
AX 200
Agar-agar(8CI)
Agaron gel
Agaropectin, mixt. with agarose
Agarose, mixt. with agaropectin
Bacto-agar
Bengal gelatin
Bengal isinglass
CS 110
Ceylon isinglass
Chinese isinglass
Czapeck agar
D 100 (polysaccharide)
Deltagar LTS
Digenea simplexmucilage
E 406
GAM medium
Gel Up J 1630
Gel Up J 3762
Gelose
HygicultTPC
Ina Agar DJ 100
Ina Agar M 8
Ina Agar S 7
Ina Agar Z 10
Ina Agar ZR
Oxoid L 11
Phytagar
S 10 (polysaccharide)
S 100
S 6S
S 7 (polysaccharide)
S 9
Sabourauddextrose agar
UP 16
S 100 (polysaccharide)
S 6(polysaccharide)
UP 26K
UP 37
UP 37K
UP 6
UP 7
UX 100
UX 30
UZ4K
Ultra Agar UX 30
Ultra-Agar
Ultra-Agar AX 100
Ultra-Agar AX 100CS
XG89
【EINECS(EC#)】
232-658-1
【Molecular Formula】
Unspecified (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
0
【Inchi】
InChI=1S/C17H12O6/c1-20-10-6-11-14(8-4-5-21-17(8)22-11)15-13(10)7-2-3-9(18)12(7)16(19)23-15/h4-6,8,17H,2-3H2,1H3
【Canonical SMILES】
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4C5C=COC5OC4=C1

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white to pale yellow or tan crystalline powder, no odour
【Melting Point】
85-95?°C
【Water】
SOLUBLE IN HOT WATER
【Solubilities】
H2O: 1.5% with heat
【Color/Form】
Crystals ... exhibits blue fluorescence
【Stability】
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
【HS Code】
13023100
【Storage temp】
BELOW +15°C
【Spectral properties】
Max absorption (ethanol): 223, 265, 362 nm (e= 25,600, 13,400, 21,800); specific optical rotation (0.1 in chloroform): -558 deg/D; (0.1 in dimethylformamide): -480 deg/D
Fluorescence emission max of 425 nm
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:312.27358 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C17H12O6
XLogP3-AA:1.6
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:6
Rotatable Bond Count:1
Tautomer Count:10
Exact Mass:312.063388
MonoIsotopic Mass:312.063388
Topological Polar Surface Area:71.1
Heavy Atom Count:23
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:650
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:2
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:5
Feature 3D Anion Count:1
Feature 3D Ring Count:5
Effective Rotor Count:1.8
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.6
CID Conformer Count:2

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn
【Risk Statements】
Xn
【Safety Statements 】
S24/25
【Safety】
Hazard Codes:Xn
Risk Statements:22-36/37/38
22:Harmful if swallowed
36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
Safety Statements:26-36-24/25
26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
36:Wear suitable protective clothing
24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes
WGK Germany:2
HS Code:13023100
【Sensitive】
Moisture Sensitive & Hygroscopic
【Cleanup Methods】
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Fire Potential】
Incinerability: thermal stability ranking of hazardous organic compounds: rank 200 on a scale of 1 (highest stability) to 320 (lowest stability).
【Other Preventative Measures】
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... Clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Specification】

white to pale yellow or tan crystalline powder, no odour
Safety Statements:26-36-24/25
26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
36:Wear suitable protective clothing
24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes
【Disposal Methods】
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/

Use and Manufacturing

【Usage】

Ingredient of culture media in microbiology, antitackiness & antistalling agent in baked goods, ingredient in desserts & beverages, laxatives & health foods, pet foods, impression materials, ingredient in pharmaceutical preparations, waveset preparations, laboratory agent in chemical & biological applications.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
FOUR DAYS AFTER /IP/ INJECTION INTO MONKEYS, 5.6% OF THE DOSE WAS STILL RETAINED BY THE LIVER, PRINCIPALLY BOUND TO LIVER PROTEINS. AFTER ORAL DOSE OF AFLATOXIN B1, RHESUS MONKEYS EXCRETED ABOUT 20% AS AFLATOXIN M1 DURING DAYS 1-4; UNCHANGED AFLATOXIN B1 ACCOUNTED ONLY FOR A SMALL PROPORTION & AFLATOXIN B1 BETA-GLUCURONIDE ACCOUNTED FOR 5% (3.3% AS GLUCURONIDE & 1.2% AS SULFATE CONJUGATE). ANOTHER 5% OF THE DOSE WAS EXCRETED AS AFLATOXIN B1 & AFLATOXIN M1 IN THE FECES.
AFLATOXICOL & AFLATOXIN B1 & M1 WERE FOUND IN TISSUES OF KIDNEY, LIVER, & MUSCLE OF FEEDER PIGS FED ESTIMATED LD50 DOSE OF B1 (0.1 MG/KG BODY WT) PROVIDED AS RICE CULTURE OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS & OF MARKET WT PIGS, FED NATURALLY CONTAMINATED FEED CONTAINING AFLATOXIN B1 AT LEVEL OF 400 NG/G FROM CORN FOR 14 DAYS. B1 & M1, WHEN FOUND IN THE FEEDING EXPERIMENT, WERE AT ABOUT THE SAME LEVELS IN ALL TISSUES EXCEPT THE KIDNEY, IN WHICH M1 WAS THE MOST DOMINANT AFLATOXIN. [TRUCKSESS MW ET AL; J ASSOC OFF ANAL CHEM 65 (4): 884 (1982)] PubMed Abstract
Aflatoxin is excreted in the form of its metabolite aflatoxin M1 in the milk of lactating animals. In cattle given a single oral dose of aflatoxin, 85% of the total amount found in the milk and urine were detected in the first 48 hours after treatment. There was none in the milk after four days, nor in the urine or feces after six days. The total aflatoxin found in the milk was 0.39% of that ingested. ... Less than 0.6% of administered aflatoxin B1 was excreted in the milk. The amount of aflatoxin excreted in milk is unrelated to milk yield, and it disappears from the milk three to four days after the feeding of toxic meal is discontinued.
Using aflatoxin B1, ring-labelled or methoxy-labelled with (14)carbon have shown that rats excrete 70-80% of a single ip dose within 24 hours.
...The pharmacokinetic disposition of intratracheally administered AFB1 was studied in male Sprague Dawley rats. Blood and tissues were sampled at selected intervals for 3 wk following administration of a single dose of grain dust-adsorbed or microcrystalline (3)H AFB1 (6 muCi; 300 ug/kg). The blood concn-time profiles from both groups best approximated a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The first-order absorption rate constant was significantly less in the animals given dust-adsorbed AFB1 than in those receiving microcrystalline AFB1 (0.0083 versus 0.1060/min, respectively), although the first-order elimination rate constants for both gruops were nearly identical (0.00928 and 0.00921/hr, respectively). Blood concn of the AFB1 metabolites aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, AFL, and AFP1 showed little differences among the two groups. The tissue concn of aflatoxins for the microcrystalline group were significantly greater at 3 hr in all tissues examined except for the trachea and lung in which those for the dust-adsorbed group were greater. At 3 days and 3 wk, no significant differences between exposure groups were seen in any tissue except fat, where the amount of aflatoxins was greater for the dust-adsorbed group. AFB1 binding to DNA was significantly greater in the trachea and lung of the dust-adsorbed group compared to that in the microcrystalline group at 3 hr, whereas in the liver the AFB1-DNA binding in the microcrystalline group was significantly greater during this time. Thus, particle association of AFB1 increased the respiratory tract retention of this compound at early time intervals, which might be a factor in the reputed carcinogenic action of this compound in the respiratory tract. These findings may be useful as part of a comprehensive study to evaluate the disposition of AFB1 in individuals exposed to grain dusts laden with this carcinogen. [Coulombe R A JR et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 109 (2): 196-206 (1991)] PubMed Abstract
The disposition of a non-toxic ip dose of (3)H-aflatoxin B1 (0.70 ug/kg) in the blood, plasma, and liver was studied in male Wistar rats. Uptake into the blood, plasma, and liver was biphasic; there was an initial rapid rise (0-2 hr) followed by a second phase (2-12 hr) of a gradual increase. Most of the radioactivity in the blood was bound noncovalently to albumin. Distribution of radioactivity in the subcellular fractions of liver showed that the microsomes exhibited the highest labeling which increased over the time course; labeling of the cytosol reached a maximum at 2 hr then decreased to a new steady state, whereas the mitochondria and nuclei reached a plateau. When the content of aflatoxin B1 in the nuclear subfractions was examined, greater than 92% of the total radioactivity was found in the deoxyribonucleoprotein fraction, and 84% of this was bound noncovalently. These results suggest that aflatoxin B1 is transported from the site of injection through the blood to the liver and its subcellular and subnuclear fractions primarily in a noncovalent form. [Ewaskiewicz JI et al; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 179 (2): 1095-100 (1991)] PubMed Abstract
The aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine (AFB1-N7-guanine) adduct has been established as one of the relevant biomarkers of dietary aflatoxin (AFB1) exposure. Measurement of this adduct is potentially a useful dosimeter in molecular epidemiological studies. This paper reports the application and evaluation of a sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of urinary AFB1-N7-guanine adduct in high risk populations exposed to dietary aflatoxin. Earlier, we had reported a simple and rapid indirect ELISA method for AFB1-N7-guanine adduct in the urine and liver tissues using polyclonal antibodies specific to AFB1-N7-guanine adduct. The method was evaluated using a rodent model (Fischer 344), exposed to 1 mg kg-1 body mass of AFB1 and human urine samples obtained from a maize eating population, environmentally exposed to AFB1 through their diet. The levels of AFB1-N7-guanine adduct in rat and human urine ranged from 6.42 to 20.16 micrograms mg-1 creatinine and from 9.30 to 13.43 ng mg-1 creatinine, respectively. The level of AFB1 in the diet as estimated by ELISA ranged from 1000 to 3600 ng d-1. The interesting observation in these studies is that the females (in both rodents and human subjects) are more efficient than males at excreting the adduct. Total adduct (DNA bound adduct and guanine adduct excreted in urine) was found to be similar in male and female rats. However, 63% of the total adduct was accounted for in urine of female rats, whereas male rats excreted 47% of the total adduct in their urine. The present method may find wide application as a biochemical tool in molecular epidemiological studies with respect to human exposure to dietary aflatoxins. [Nayak S, et al; Analyst 126 (2): 179-183 (2001)] PubMed Abstract
The fate and acute toxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were studied in the mastomys (Praomys coucha) and compared with Fischer rats. The experiment regarding the fate of [3H]AFB1 showed that the radioactivity was excreted mainly through the feces, more rapidly in the mastomys than in the rat, regardless of whether [3H]AFB1 was given orally or intravenously. The levels of radioactivity bound to the liver DNA were lower in the mastomys than in the rat, indicating that the levels of AFB1 binding to the macromolecules in the liver were lower in the mastomys. Consistent with such differences in the fate of AFB1 between the two species, the mastomys were far more resistent to the acute effects of AFB1 than were the rats. Oral administration of AFB1 at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg to rats caused marked microscopic changes in the liver, involving hepatic necrosis and proliferation of bile ducts, but at a dose of 4.0 mg/kg to mastomys caused no pathological changes in the liver or kidneys, and at a dose of 10.0 mg/kg caused only glycogen deposition in hepatic cells in a limited area. The observed differences in susceptibility to the toxic effects of AFB1 and in the fate of AFB1 between the two species are in accord with our previous finding that liver cytosol in the mastomys inhibits microsome-mediated AFB1-DNA binding in vitro more strongly than in rat liver.[Kumagai S, et al; Toxicon 36 (1): 179-188 (1998)] PubMed Abstract
Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of some Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius strains that occur in many foods and feeds. There are four major natural occurring aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2. These toxins can cause illness in human beings and animals. Aflatoxin B1 is the most abundant and toxic member of the family, and it is also the most potent hepatocarcinogen known. In order to estimate the potential human health risk of AFB1, it is useful to measure blood concentration. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in patients was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, in serum samples, obtained from 20 patient volunteers with hepatic disease. [Lopez C, et al; Medicina (B Aires) 62 (4): 313-316 (2002)] PubMed Abstract
ADMINISTRATION OF (3)H-AFLATOXIN B2 TO MALE RATS GAVE LEVELS OF HEPATIC DNA & RIBOSOMAL (R)RNA AFLATOXIN ADDUCTS THAT WERE ABOUT 1% OF THOSE FOR RATS GIVEN AFLATOXIN B1. LEVELS OF HEPATIC PROTEIN AFLATOXIN ADDUCTS WERE 35-70% AS GREAT FOR AFLATOXIN B2-TREATED RATS AS FOR AFLATOXIN B1-TREATED RATS. [SWENSON DH ET AL; CANCER RES 37 (1): 172 (1977)] PubMed Abstract
A study was conducted to determine aflatoxin levels in the tissues of broiler chickens that had been fed a diet containing 2,057 ug aflatoxin B1 and 1,323 ug aflatoxin B2/kg for 35 days. Results showed that aflatoxins were deposited in all tissues. The highest levels of aflatoxins were present in the gizzards, livers and kidneys. There was evidence that the high levels of aflatoxins B1 and B2 in the gizzards might have been caused by contamination by the gizzard contents during the slaughtering process. After feeding the aflatoxin-contaminated diet for 35 days, mean values for the combined aflatoxins were PubMed Abstract
To evaluate the rate at which the four main aflatoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2) are able to cross the luminal membrane of the rat small intestine, a study about intestinal absorption kinetics of these mycotoxins has been made. In situ results obtained showed that the absorption of aflatoxins in rat small intestine is a very fast process that follows first-order kinetics, with an absorption rate constant (ka) of 5.84 +/- 0.05 (aflatoxin B1), 4.06 +/- 0.09 (aflatoxin B2), 2.09 +/- 0.03 (aflatoxin G1) and 1.58 +/- 0.04 (aflatoxin G2)/hr, respectively. [Ramos A et al; Mycopathologia 134 (1): 27-30 (1996)] PubMed Abstract

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