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Ammonium chloride(CAS No. 12125-02-9)

Ammonium chloride NH4Cl (cas 12125-02-9) Molecular Structure

12125-02-9 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Ammonium chloride
【CAS Registry number】
12125-02-9
【Synonyms】
Ammonium chloride Salmiac
Amchlor
ammonium muriate
Darammon
Sal ammoniac
Salammonite
Ammonium chloride,medicinal
【EINECS(EC#)】
235-186-4
【Molecular Formula】
NH4Cl (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
53.49
【Inchi】
InChI=1/ClH.H3N/h1H;1H3
【InChIKey】
NLXLAEXVIDQMFP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
[NH4+].[Cl-]
【MOL File】
12125-02-9.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white crystalline solid
【Density】
1.527
【Melting Point】
340-341℃
【Boiling Point】
520℃
【Refractive Index】
1.642
【Flash Point】
无意义
【Water】
soluble
【Solubilities】
40.4 °C at 760 mmHg
【Color/Form】
Colorless crystals or crystalline masses; or white, granular powder
Cubic crystals
A white, fine or coarse, crystalline powder
Finely divided, ... white particulate dispersed in air.
【Stability】
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases.
【Storage temp】
Store at RT.
【Spectral properties】
Index of refraction: 1.642
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:53.49146 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:ClH4N
H-Bond Donor:1
H-Bond Acceptor:1
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:53.003227
MonoIsotopic Mass:53.003227
Topological Polar Surface Area:1
Heavy Atom Count:2
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn:Harmful
【Risk Statements】
R22;R36
【Safety Statements 】
S22
【Safety】

Hazard Codes of Ammonium chloride (CAS NO.12125-02-9):?HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 22-36-41-37/38?
R22: Harmful if swallowed.?
R36: Irritating to eyes.?
R41: Risk of serious damage to the eyes.?
R37/38: Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
Safety Statements: 22-36-26?
S22: Do not breathe dust.?
S36: Wear suitable protective clothing.?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
RIDADR: UN 9085
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: BP4550000

【PackingGroup 】
Z01
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Mild skin and respiratory system irritant.
Dust: Irritating to eyes, nose and throat. Solid: Irritating to skin and eyes.
Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; cough, dyspnea, pulmonary sensitization.
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations- land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water.
Environmental considerations- water spill: Neutralize with dilute acid.
【Transport】
UN 9085
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.)
【Formulations/Preparations】
Contains 99.5-99.8% ammonium chloride; principal impurity is sodium chloride; exists in two temperature dependent crystal modifications. Prepn and properties: Gmelin's, ammonium (8th ed) 23, pp 150-184 (1936); Kane, "Ammonium Chloride" in Mellor's Vol VIII, Supplement 1, Nitrogen (Part 1), 378-432F(1964).
Dosage forms--injection NF: 160 mg/30 mL, 600 mg/100 mL, 10.7 g/500 ml, 21.4 g/1000 mL; tablets NF: 500 mg and 1 g.
Grades: Technical (lump or granulated); CP; USP; FCC
99-100% purity in several commercial forms marketed.
Parenteral: For injection, concentrate: 26.75% (5 mEq of NH4+ and Cl- per mL) Ammonium Chloride Injection, (Hospira).
Ammonium chloride contains not less than 99.5% and not more than 100.5% of NH4Cl ... Ammonium Chloride Injection ... contains not less than 95.0% and not more than 105.0% of the labeled amt of ammonium chloride ... Ammonium Chloride Tablets contains not less than 94.0% and not more than 106.0% of the labeled amt of ammonium chloride.
ACS grades; -10 mesh particle size, 99.999% purity grade; technical R (rods), granular C grades, FW and FWN powder grades; technical, treated grades
Free-flo fine granular and crystal grades; ACS reagent crystal grades
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List identifies currently marketed prescription drug products, incl ammonium chloride, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by FDA under sections 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: ammonium chloride is included in cold, cough, allergy, bronchodilator and antiasthmatic drug products.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Can react violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate.
The decomposition of ammonium nitrate in the presence of ammonium chloride (0.1%) becomes violent around 175 deg C. The gases liberated contain chlorine. /Ammonium nitrate:ammonium chloride/
It should never be combined with potassium chlorate, mixture that in dry state may explode, especially at elevated temp.
Explosive reaction. /Bromine trifluoride: ammonium halides/
Addition of ammonium chloride to a drum of weed-killer was suspected as the cause of a violent explosion (involving formation of ammonium chlorate). Mixtures, used for smoke compositions, are hazardous. /Potassium chlorate: ammonium chloride/
Cyanogen halides may be prepared by electrolysis of hydrogen cyanide or its salts mixed with halides salts. If ammonium chloride is used as the halide salts, precautions to prevent formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride are necessary.
Bromine pentafluoride ... /contacts/ with ... /ammonium chloride/ at ambient or slightly elevated temp is violent, ignition often occurring ... /Bromine pentafluoride: Acids, et al/
Alkalis & their carbonates, lead & silver salts, strong oxidizers, ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, bromine trifluoride [Note: Corrodes most metals at high (i.e., fire) temperatures].
Iodine heptafluoride reacts violently with ... ammonium chloride ... /Iodine heptafluoride :Ammonium bromide/
Explosive mixtures may result if ammonium chloride is compounded with potassium chlorate or other strong oxidizing agents.
In the manufacture of signaling smokes this combination /of potassium chlorate and ammonium chloride/ is hazardous because of metathetical interaction to form unstable ammonium perchlorate. /Potassium chlorate: ammonium chloride/
Attacks copper and its compounds.
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ to contain flow as necessary.
Keep upwind. Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Wear appropriate chemical protective gloves, boots and goggles.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.z
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
【Specification】

?Ammonium chloride , its cas register number is 12125-02-9. It also can be called?Ammonium chloride [USAN] ; Ammonium muriate ; Sal ammoniac ;?Amchlor ; Ammon Chlor ; Ammonchlor? Ammoneric ; Ammonium Chloratum ; Ammonium Chloride Injection .It?is a white crystalline solid and?soluble in water(37%). The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Its immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Pretreatment involves addition of sodium hydroxide to liberate ammonia and form the soluble sodium salt. The liberated ammonia can be recovered and sold. After dilution to the permitted provisional limit, the sodium salt can be discharged into a stream or sewer.
Group III Containers (both combustible and non-combustible) that previously held organic mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, or inorganic pesticides should be triple rinsed, punctured and disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Non-rinsed containers should be encapsulated and buried at a specially designated landfill site. /Organic mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, or inorganic pesticides/

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Reaction of sodium chloride with ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water, followed by crystallization and removal of sodium bicarbonate (Solvay Process); reaction of sodium chloride with boiling ammonium sulfate solution, followed by crystallization.
1. Ammoniacal liq obtained from gas works during destructive distillation of coal is neutralized with hydrochloric acid and crude product is subsequently purified. 2. Vapors of ammonia from synthetic processes are absorbed in hydrochloric acid. 3. It is also obtained as by product in Solvay process for sodium bicarbonate ... .
Ammonium chloride, produced from double decomposition reactions of NaCl ...
Ammonium chloride has been produced by the reaction of ammonium sulfite, NH4SO3, and sodium chloride ... . This process is only practical when the raw materials are readily available with high purity ... /and gives/ a product said to analyze well over 99%.
U.S. Imports

(1975) 7.99X10+8 G
(1975) 7.99X10+8 G
(1984) 1.47X10+9 g
(1986) 4,432,231 lb
U.S. Production

(1984) 1.09X10+10 g
(1986) >1 million-10 million pounds
(1990) 10 thousand-500 thousand pounds
(1994) 10 thousand-500 thousand pounds
(1998) 10 thousand-500 thousand pounds
(2002) 10 thousand-500 thousand pounds
Consumption Patterns

Electrolyte for dry cell batteries, 35%; Soldering, metal & refinishing flux, 30%; Galvanizing, 15%; and Misc, 20% (1984)
【Sampling Procedures】
Determination in air: Collection on a filter ... .
Ammonium chloride loading test. Dose: ammonium chloride 0.1 g/kg orally, at 0800 hr after complete midnight fast. Collect hourly between 1000 and 1600 hr.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Therapeutic Uses】
Mesh Heading: diuretics, expectorants
Ammonium chloride is used as a systemic acidifier in patients with metabolic alkalosis resulting from chloride loss following vomiting, gastric suction, gastric fistula drainage, and pyloric stenosis. Ammonium chloride also has been used in the treatment of diuretic-induced chloride depletion. A solution containing isotonic or hypotonic sodium chloride with potassium chloride usually has been more effective than ammonium chloride in hypokalemic patients. Ammonium chloride also has been used to treat alkalosis resulting from excessive use of alkalinizing drugs.
Ammonium chloride has been used in a variety of conditions to induce incipient acidosis for the purpose of promoting diuresis, particularly in edematous conditions associated with hypochloremia. Ammonium chloride had limited value as a diuretic when used alone because of its limited period of effectiveness, but the drug has been useful when administered alone or in combination with a xanthine diuretic (e.g., caffeine, pamabrom) for short-term therapy to relieve temporary water-weight gain, edema, bloating, and/or full feeling associated with premenstrual and menstrual periods. Ammonium chloride also has been used for its diuretic effect in Meniere's syndrome.
MEDICATION (VET): As urinary acidifier, and to increase its rate of flow when it is given in large doses. Reduces incidence of urinary calculi in cattle and sheep. Increases intestinal tract acidity, thus increases calcium absorption and this is utilized in preventing milk fever in cattle. Stimulant and liquefier of bronchial secretions.
Clinically, 5% to 10% aqueous solution has occasionally been used to irrigate surface of eye in treatment of chemical burns, and no injury has been attributed to treatment ... .
Ammonium chloride also has been used as an expectorant, usually in combination with other expectorants and cough mixtures.
Ammonium chloride also has been used as an adjunct in the treatment of urinary tract infections when a low urinary pH is desired. During therapy with methenamine salts, ammonium chloride is used to acidify the urine to ensure the dissociation of formaldehyde from methenamine. Some clinicians, however, discourage the use of the drug in this manner because of the occurrence of concurrent systemic acidosis; acidosis can be avoided by administering other acidifying agents such as ascorbic acid.
Ammonium chloride also has been used to increase the solubility of calcium and phosphate ions in the management of patients with phosphatic calculi in the urinary tract and to increase calcium inization in alkalotic tetany. The drug also has been used in the treatment of lead poisoning to solubilize calcium and facilitate excretion of the lead-calcium complex; but more effective treatments (e.g., edetate calcium disodium, dimercaprol) are currently available. Ammonium chloride also has been used in the treatment of bromism.
Ammonium chloride loading test. Dose: Ammonium chloride 0.1 g/kg orally, at 0800 hr after complete midnight fast. Collect hourly between 1000 and 1600 hr. Measure pH immediately. Reference range (coventional or international recommended): pH /of urine/ should fall to < or = between 2 and 8 hr after the dose.
Ammonium chloride ... given orally (1 to 2g four times a day) is effective in mobilizing radiostrontium deposited in the body. ... An estimated reduction in the body burden of radiostrontium between 40 and 75% may be obtained if started soon after exposure.
EXPL THER: Ammonium chloride and chloroquine protected a variety of cell lines against diphtheria toxin and modeccin. [SANDVIG ET AL; BIOCHEM BIOPHYS RES COMMUN 90 (2): 648-55 (1979)]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Ammonium chloride is effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract ... . In healthy persons, absorption of ammonium chloride given by mouth was practically complete. Only 1 to 3% of the dose was recovered in the feces.
Following oral administration, ammonium chloride is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract, complete absorption occurring within 3-6 hours. However, an oral dosage form of ammonium chloride is no longer commercially available in the US.
Oral administration of ammonium chloride to healthy male and female volunteers at 9 mg/kg bw produced transient increases in blood ammonia in about half of the subjects. Patients with cirrhosis showed a greater and more prolonged increase over a higher baseline. This confirms substantial first pass metabolism in the liver.

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