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1,2-Propanediol(CAS No. 57-55-6)

1,2-Propanediol C3H8O2 (cas 57-55-6) Molecular Structure

57-55-6 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
1,2-Propanediol
【CAS Registry number】
57-55-6
【Synonyms】
1,2-propane-diol
DL-1,2-Propanediol
(RS)-1,2-Propanediol
(+-)-1,2-Propanediol
Trimethyl glycol
Propylene Glycol(PG)
alpha-Propylene glycol
2,3-Propanediol
Propylene glycol (TN)
Propylene Glycol USP
Sirlene
1,2-dihydroxypropane
alpha-Propyleneglycol
Propylene glycol (JP14/USP)
Isopropylene glycol
2-Hydroxypropanol
Sentry Propylene Glycol
Propane-1,2-diol
(+-)-Propylene glycol
Monopropylene glycol
Methylethyl glycol
Dowfrost
Methylethylene glycol
【EINECS(EC#)】
200-338-0
【Molecular Formula】
C3H8O2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
76.09
【Inchi】
InChI=1/C3H8O2/c1-3(5)2-4/h3-5H,2H2,1H3
【Canonical SMILES】
CC(CO)O
【MOL File】
57-55-6.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
clear viscous liquid
【Density】
1.036 g/mL at 25℃(lit.)
【Melting Point】
-60℃
【Boiling Point】
187℃
【Refractive Index】
n20/D 1.432(lit.)
【Flash Point】
99℃
【Water】
Miscible
【Solubilities】
Miscible
【Color/Form】
Colorless viscous liquid
【Stability】
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
【HS Code】
29053200
【Storage temp】
Store at RT.
【Spectral properties】
Index of refraction: 1.4324 at 20 deg C/D
SADTLER REFERENCE NUMBER: 267 (IR, PRISM); 92 (IR, GRATING)
IR: 5974 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 5-12 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
NMR: 45 (Varian Associates NMR Spectra Catalogue)
MASS: 95 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:76.09442 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C3H8O2
XLogP3:-0.9
H-Bond Donor:2
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:1
Exact Mass:76.05243
MonoIsotopic Mass:76.05243
Topological Polar Surface Area:40.5
Heavy Atom Count:5
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:20.9
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:1
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:2
Feature 3D Donor Count:2
Effective Rotor Count:1
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:6

Safety and Handling

【Safety Statements 】
S24/25
【Safety】
Slightly toxic by ingestion, skin contact, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, and intramuscular routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: general anesthesia, convulsions, changes in surface EEG. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. An eye and human skin irritant. Mutation data reported. Combustible liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. May react with hydrofluoric acid + nitric acid + silver nitrate to form the explosive silver fulminate. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Safety Statements: 24/25
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: TY2000000
HS Code: 29053200
【PackingGroup 】
Z01
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Mildly irritating to the eyes.
May cause primary skin irritation in some people, possibly due to dehydration, but the material is not a sensitizer.
May cause transitory stinging, blepharospasm, and lacrimation.
【Cleanup Methods】
SRP: Wastewater from contaminant suppression, cleaning of protective clothing/equipment, or contaminated sites should be contained and evaluated for subject chemical or decomposition product concentrations. Concentrations shall be lower than applicable environmental discharge or disposal criteria. Alternatively, pretreatment and/or discharge to a permitted wastewater treatment facility is acceptable only after review by the governing authority and assurance that "pass through" violations will not occur. Due consideration shall be given to remediation worker exposure (inhalation, dermal and ingestion) as well as fate during treatment, transfer and disposal. If it is not practicable to manage the chemical in this fashion, it must be evaluated in accordance with EPA 40 CFR Part 261, specifically Subpart B, in order to determine the appropriate local, state and federal requirements for disposal.
Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Wash away spilled liquid with plenty of water.
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
Water fog, alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical.
In case of fire, keep drums, etc, cool by spraying water.
【Fire Potential】
Combustible liquid when exposed to heat or flame.
【Formulations/Preparations】
GRADE: refined, technical, USP, FCC, feed
Both the industrial-grade and USP grade have at least 99.5% purity.
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Propylene glycol used as an emulsifying agent in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
Propylene glycol used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: propylene glycol is included in pediculicide drug products.
Ophthalmic demulcents. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of the following, within the established concentrations for each ingredient: Propylene glyol, 0.2 to 1 percent.
The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). The Food and Drug Administration also has determined that this use of propylene glycol is not prior sanctioned.
The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food has not been shown by adequate scientific data to be safe for use. Use of propylene glycol in or on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), in the absence of a regulation providing for its safe use as a food additive under section 409 of the act, unless it is subject to an effective notice of claimed investigational exemption for a food additive under part 570.17 of this chapter, or unless the substance is intended for use as a new animal drug and is subject to an approved application under section 512 of the act or an effective notice of claimed investigational exemption for a new animal drug under part 511 of this chapter.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Reacts with strong oxidants, causing fire hazard.
Propylene glycol is incompatible with oxidizing reagents such as potassium permanganate.
No significantly dangerous substances are produced after contact with light, humidity or commonly available chemicals. Propylene glycol may react with hydrofluoric acid + nitric acid + silver nitrate to form the explosive silver fulminate.
A chemical polishing mixture of hydrofluoric acid, propylene glycol, and silver nitrate was put into a closed glass bottle which burst 30 min later, and formation of silver fulminate was suggested. However, in absence of the silver salt such mixtures evolve gas and should not be stored in any event, especially after use for metal polishing, when the dissolved metal(s) tend to further destabilize the mixture.
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses by industrial workers is inconsistent. The benefits or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants. Ensure that the local ventilation moves the contaminant away from the worker.
Above 99 deg C use a closed system, ventilation.
Propylene glycol should be handled in a well-ventilated environment; eye protection is recommended.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Mildly irritating to the eyes.
May cause primary skin irritation in some people, possibly due to dehydration, but the material is not a sensitizer.
May cause transitory stinging, blepharospasm, and lacrimation.
【Specification】
Propylene Glycol (CAS NO.57-55-6) is also named as (+-)-1,2-Propanediol ; (+-)-Propylene glycol ; (RS)-1,2-Propanediol ; 1,2-Dihydroxypropane ; 1,2-Propylene glycol ; 1,2-Propylenglykol ; 1,2-Propylenglykol [German] ; 2,3-Propanediol ; 2-Hydroxypropanol ; 3-01-00-02142 (Beilstein Handbook Reference) ; AI3-01898 ; BRN 1340498 ; CCRIS 5929 ; Caswell No. 713 ; DL-1,2-Propanediol ; Dowfrost ; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 068603 ; FEMA No. 2940 ; HSDB 174 ; Isopropylene glycol ; Methylethyl glycol ; Methylethylene glycol ; Monopropylene glycol ; Sirlene ; Solar Winter BAN ; Solargard P ; Trimethyl glycol ; UNII-6DC9Q167V3 ; Ucar 35 ; alpha-Propyleneglycol ; dl-Propylene glycol . Propylene Glycol (CAS NO.57-55-6) is clear viscous liquid. It is mixes with water and dissolves many essential oils. Propylene Glycol is sensitive to excessive heat (tends to oxidize at high temperatures). It can react with oxidizing materials. And it is incompatible with acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, chloroformates, and reducing agents.Liquid may irritate eyes. Propylene Glycol is combustible.
【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow = -0.92
【Report】
Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.
【Disposal Methods】

SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational harm/injury/toxicity or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing
Preparation of levorotary propylene glycol from hydroxyacetone by yeast reduction.
Propylene glycol is produced by the non-catalytic liquid-phase hydration of propylene oxide at 100-200 deg C
Manufactured by treating propylene with chlorinated water to form the chlorohydrin, which is converted to the glycol by treatment with sodium carbonate solution. It is also prepared by heating glycerol with sodium hydroxide.
The only industrial process for manufacturing propylene glycol is direct hydrolysis of propylene oxide with water. Dipropylene glycol and tripropylene glycol are formed by sequential addition of propylene oxide to propylene glycol. Consequently, all three products are produced simultaneously and separated by distillation.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. Commercial production of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol ) (PG) is by hydration of propylene oxide. Di- and tripropylene glycols, plus small quantities of higher glycols, are also produced in the reaction.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. Propylene glycol (PG) is produced commercially by the hydration of propylene oxide (PO). DiPG and TriPG, and small volumes of higher glycols, are also produced. PG production is driven by PO availability and extra PG can be produced to balance PO. The reaction between PO and water takes place at a temperature of 200 deg C and 12 bar pressure. The amount of water is controlled to favor PG production. The reaction mixture is dehydrated by evaporation and the various glycols are separated by distillation. PG processes are being developed based on carbohydrates and glycerols, which are cheaper than petroleum-based feedstocks.

U.S. Exports
(1972) 4.90 X 10+10 g
(1976) 2.91 X 10+10 g
(1984) 2.18 X 10+11 g
(1986-1989) avg 75,000 tons/yr
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Exports: 1992: 160 million pounds.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Exports: 1994: 174 million pounds.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Exports: 1996: 162 million pounds; averaged 182 million pounds per year for the five year period 1992-1996.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Exports: 1999: 274 million pounds; 2000: 262 million pounds.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Exports: 2002: 375 million pounds; 2003: 340 million pounds.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Exports: 2005: 272 million pounds; 2006: 310 million pounds.

U.S. Imports
(1984) 2.56 X 10+11 g
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Imports: 1994: 12 million pounds.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Imports: 1996: 31 million pounds; averaged 10 million pounds per year for the five year period 1992-1996.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Imports: 1999: 43 million pounds; 2000: 32 million pounds.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Imports: 2002: 52 million pounds; 2003: 59 million pounds.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Imports: 2005: 89 million pounds; 2006: 46 million pounds.

U.S. Production
(1972) 2.60 X 10+11 g
(1975) 1.77 X 10+11 g
(1984) 2.10 X 10+10+11 g
(1989) Western Europe produced 708 million pounds (325 kilotons) and consumed 660 million pounds (300 kilotons).
(1992) US sales of propylene glycol amounted to 231,086,000 kg
(1991) 301,902,000 kg
(1990) 342,200 tons
(1998) Capacity: 1312 million pounds (596 kilotons). Domestic demand: 1050 million pounds (477 kilotons).
(1999) 1,083 million pounds
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 1986: 820 million pounds/year.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 1989: 875 million pounds/year.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 1992: 910 million pounds/year.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 1995: 1,050 million pounds/year.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 1998: 1,312 million pounds/year.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 2001: 1,280 million pounds/year.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 2004: 1,410 million pounds/year.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Production Capacity: 2007: 1,590 million pounds/year.
PRODUCT FOCUS: Monopropylene glycol. European Production Capacity in 2000: 559,000 tonnes/year. European propylene glycol capacity in 2000 (thousand tonnes/year) Location Capacity France 80 Garmany 318 Italy 23 Netherlands 80 Poland 4 Slovak Republic 2 Spain 52
PRODUCT PROFILE: Propylene glycol. Global Production Capacity in 2002: 1.294 million tonnes/year. Global propylene glycol capacity in 2002 (thousand tonnes/year) Location Capacity Europe 568 USA 540 Asia 186
PRODUCT PROFILE: Propylene glycol. Global Production Capacity in 2006: 1.805 million tonnes/year. Global propylene glycol capacity in 2006 (thousand tonnes/year) Location Capacity Australia 15 Brazil 85 China 80 France 80 Germany 388 India 15 Japan 165 Mexico 25 Netherlands 80 Poland 4 Romania 9 Singapore 65 Slovakia 2 South Korea 50 Spain 97 USA 645
1,2-Propanediol is listed as a High Production Volume (HPV) chemical (65FR81686). Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U.S. in >1 million pounds in 1990 and/or 1994. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule. (IUR) (40 CFR part 710 subpart B; 51FR21438).
Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule. Year Production Range (pounds) 1986 >500 million - 1 billion 1990 >1 billion 1994 >500 million - 1 billion 1998 >1 billion 2002 >1 billion
Production volume for non-confidential chemicals reported under the 2006 Inventory Update Rule. Chemical: 1,2-Propanediol. Aggregated National Production Volume: 1 billion lbs and greater.

Consumption Patterns
52% for polyester resins; 11% exported(1973); 8.5% for cellophane; 7.5% as a tobacco humectant; 7% for synthesis of polymeric plasticizers; 4% as a component of brake and other functional fluids; 10% for misc applications (1973)
Unsaturated polyester resins, 47%; Foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, 11%; Pet foods, 10%; Tobacco, 6%; Plasticizers, 3%; Cellophane, 3%; Functional fluids, 8%; Coatings, 6%; Miscellaneous and other, 6% (1983)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 1986. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 1986 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins 46 Exports 18 Pharmaceuticals and food 8 Semi-moist pet food 7 Humectant for tobacco 5 Polymeric plasticizers 5 Paint and coatings 4 Functional fluids 3 Cellophane 2 Miscellaneous 2
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 1989. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 1989 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins 41 Exports 29 Food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics 11 Semi-moist pet food 7 Humectant for tobacco 4 Functional fluids 4 Miscellaneous 4
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 1992. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 1992 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins 40 Liquid laundry detergent 15 Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics 12 Antifreeze and deicers 10 Functional fluids 6 Semi-moist pet foods 6 Paint and coatings 4 Tobacco 3 Miscellaneous 4
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 1995. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 1995 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs) 40 Liquid laundry detergent 15 Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics 12 Antifreeze and deicers 10 Functional fluids 6 Semi-moist pet foods 6 Paint and coatings 4 Tobacco 3 Miscellaneous 4
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 1998. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 1998 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins 26 Antifreeze and de-icing fluids 22 Food, drug and cosmetic uses 18 Liquid detergents 11 Functional fluids 4 Pet foods 3 Paints and coatings 5 Tobacco 3 Miscellaneous, including plasticizer use 8
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 2001. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 2001 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins 27 Functional fluids (antifreeze, de-icing, heat transfer) 20 Food, drug and cosmetic uses 20 Liquid detergents 17 Paints and coatings 5 Tobacco humectant 2 Miscellaneous, including plasticizer use 9
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 2004. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 2004 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins 26.6 Functional fluids 22.5 - Deicing - 12.2 - Engine antifreeze - 6.6 - Heat transfer - 3.7 Food, drug and cosmetic uses 19.6 Liquid detergents 15.8 Paints and coatings 4.4 Tobacco humectant 2.5 Miscellaneous, including plasticizer use 8.6
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene Glycol. US End-use Pattern for Propylene Glycol in 2007. End-use pattern for propylene glycol in 2007 End-use Percent Unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) 26.4 Functional fluids 22.2 - Deicing - 12.1 - Engine antifreeze - 6.4 - Heat transfer - 3.7 Food, drug and cosmetic uses 20.4 Liquid detergents 15.4 Paints and coatings 4.4 Tobacco humectant 2.3 Miscellaneous, including plasticizer use 8.9
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 1986: 568 million pounds; 1987: 582 million pounds; 1991: 640 million pounds /projected/.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 1989: 840 million pounds; 1990: 860 million pounds /projected/; 1994: 975 million pounds /projected/.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 1992: 780 million pounds; 1993: 800 million pounds /projected/; 1996: 900 million pounds /projected/.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 1995: 1,005 million pounds; 1996: 1,055 million pounds /projected/; 2000: 1,280 million pounds /projected/.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 1997: 1.025 billion pounds; 1998: 1.05 billion pounds; 2002: 1.25 billion pounds /projected/.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 1999: 854 million pounds; 2000: 871 million pounds; 2004: 943 million pounds /projected/.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 2002: 820 million pounds; 2003: 845 million pounds; 2007: 915 million pounds /projected/.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Propylene glycol. US Demand: 2005: 895 million pounds; 2006: 885 million pounds; 2010: 960 million pounds /projected/.
(1992) Uses of propylene glycols in US: unsaturated polyester resins 37%, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, foods 17%, pet food 3%, tobacco humectant 4%, functional fluids 16%, paints and coatings 5%, liquid detergents 11%, others 7%.
(1994) Unsaturated polyester resins, 26%; antifreeze and de- icing fluids, 22%; food, drug and cosmetics uses, 18%; liquid detergents, 11%; functional fluids (inks, specialty anti-freeze, de-icing lubricants), 4%; pet foods, 3%; paints and coatings, 5%; tobacco, 3%; miscellaneous, including plasticizer use, 8%.
(1999) Chemical intermediate in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins (228 million pounds, 26.7%), cosmetics and personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and human food (170 million pounds, 19.9%), liquid detergents (135 million pounds, 15.8%, deicing fluids (85 million pounds, 10%), antifreeze/engine coolant (55 million pounds, 6.4%), paints and coatings (40 million pounds, 4.7%), tobacco humectant (25 million pounds, 2.9%), other fluids (32 million pounds, 3.8%), and other applications (84 million pounds, 9.8%).
【Usage】
Component of cellophane.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
- Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
【Therapeutic Uses】
Propylene glycol is used as a vehicle for IV administration of drugs such as lorazepam, etomidate, phenytoin, diazepam, digoxin, hydralazine, esmolol, chlordiazepoxide, multivitamins, nitroglycerin, pentobarbital sodium, phenobarbital sodium, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
As an antiseptic it is similar to ethanol, and against molds it is similar to glycerin and only slightly less effective than ethanol.
Hydroscopic agents (eg, propylene glycol) are added /to respiratory inhalants/ to reduce viscosity of bronchial secretions.
Ointment containing approx 70% propylene glycol has been used as osmotic agent with good results in treatment of edema of cornea.
Orally admin propylene glycol (1-1.5 g/kg) has reduced intraocular pressure by raising osmotic pressure of blood in human.
Topical application of 40-60% aqueous solution of propylene glycol with occlusion has been reported to clear skin in x-linked ichthyosis and ichthyosis vulgaris.
Propylene glycol, a widely used vehicle in dermatologic formulations, is isotonic in 2% concentrations. Concentrations up to 70% alter keratin to hydrate and soften the skin and cause desquamation of scales, particularly when used under occlusive dressings. Propylene glycol and other hydroalcoholic gels augment the keratolytic action of salicylic acid; this combination may be effective in ichthyosis.
Medication (Veterinary): Propylene glycol is commonly used in the veterinary profession for treatment of bovine ketosis and equine impactions, respectively. [McClanahan S et al; Vet Hum Toxicol 40 (5): 294-296 (1998). Available from, as of December 16, 2009:]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Absorption of orally administered propylene glycol from the gastrointestinal tract, and its removal from the body, follow first order kinetics. Clearance from blood is rapid in humans, with a mean half-life of approx. 2 hr. Its metabolism is inhibited by pyrazole, indicating a role for alcohol dehydrogenase in this process. Once absorbed it is readily converted into lactic and pyruvic acids, which then enter the general metabolic pool.
Propylene glycol is readily absorbed from the GI tract and distributed throughout total body water. Propylene glycol accumulation is reported to differ significantly among people maintained on a repetitive oral dosing schedule, due to intersubject variability in clearance.
The uptake of propylene glycol mist by humans was studied using 10% solution in labeled deionized water nebulized into a mist tent. Less than 5% of the mist entered the body, and of this 90% lodged in the nasopharynx and rapidly disappeared into the stomach. Very little was found in the lungs.
Intravenous administration of propylene glycol in amounts of 3-15 g/sq m is followed by plasma concentration of 60 to 425 ug/mL, respectively, with a volume of distribution of 0.51 to 0.88 L/kg, and a clearance rate of about 300 mL/min/1.73 sq m. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations are as high as 85% of the serum concentrations.
From 1/4 to 1/2 of an oral dose given to rats, dogs, or human beings appears unchanged in the urine within 24 hr.
It is extensively metabolized in the liver, mainly to lactic and pyruvic acids, and is also excreted unchanged in the urine.
The route of elimination depends on the dose administered, not on the route of exposure. It is mainly excreted in the urine as the glucuronide conjugate but 12-45% is excreted unchanged. Renal clearance decreases with dose (390 mL/min/1.73 sq m at a dose of 5 g/day, but only 144 mL/min/1.73 sq m at a dose of 21 g/day).
About one-third is excreted via the kidneys as a conjugate with glucuronic acid and the rest is metabolized or excreted in the urine unchanged. This suggests that the organic injury and the central nervous system depressing action are probably due to the excessive presence of the propylene glycol and not to its metabolites or its glucuronide.
Percutaneous absorption may occur following application to damaged skin.
/Child/ Propylene glycol is an excipient and various pharmaceutical preparations. The pharmacokinetics after rectal administration are studied, followed by a consideration on local and systemic side-effects for a solution of paracetamol in a mixture of propylene glycol and water. After administration of 8.64 g propylene glycol to 10 adults and 173 mg/kg bw to 4 children, peak concentrations (Cmax) of 199 mg/L and 171 mg/L respectively were reached (tmax) after 1.5 hr and 1.0 hr. The average terminal half-lives (t1/2) in adults and children were respectively 2.8 hr and 2.6 hr, total body clearance (CI/F) 0.20 L/hr/kg and 0.21 L/hr/kg and apparent volume of distribution (VD/F) 0.79 L/kg and 0.77 L/kg. [Kolloffel WJ et al; Pharm World Sci 18 (3): 109-13 (1996). Available from, as of December 16, 2009:] PubMed Abstract
The pharmacokinetic profile of propylene glycol during multiple oral-dosing regimens was examined. The 22 subjects were outpatients who participated in a phenytoin bioavailability study where propylene glycol was used as a solvent. In one study, 16 adults received a 20.7 g/dose 3 times daily for a minimum of 3 days. In another study, 6 individuals received a 41.4 g/dose twice daily for a period of 3 days. These oral doses were given in conjunction with 100 mg phenytoin in 7.25 mL of alcohol USP, 6 uL of Peach Flavor, 5 mL of glycerin USP, and 8 mL of 70% (w/w) fructose. Propylene glycol was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with maximum plasma concentrations obtained within 1 hour of dosing. The average serum half-life of propylene glycol for the study with 16 and 6 individuals was determined by the authors to be 3.8 and 4.1 hours, respectively. The average total body clearance was determined by the authors to be approximately 0.1 L/kg/hr, although there was significant variability in clearance rate among individuals. The apparent volume of distribution was determined by the authors to be approximately 0.5 L/kg, which approximates the volume of distribution of total body water
/Infant; Child; Child, preschool; Adolescent; Aged, 80 yrs and over/ There is limited information on the absorption of propylene glycol through intact human skin. In a study of human skin biopsy specimens from adults 19-50 years of age, no penetration of radioactive tracer materials was found after up to 1 hour permeation time using propylene glycol alone as a vehicle [visual evidence of tracer uptake into biopsied skin, but no analytical confirmation provided]. Enhancers, such as surfactants, increased absorption. Three studies involved patients with significant medical complications. In 45 patients (0.5-87 years old) with second- and third-degree burns on 21-95% of their body, propylene glycol was absorbed through skin following dermal treatment with sulfadiazine in a propylene glycol vehicle; serum levels of propylene glycol in those patients ranged from 0 to 0.98 g/dL [0 to 129 mM]. In an 8-month-old infant with second- and third-degree burns and complicating toxic epidermal necrolysis over 78% of his body, dermal treatment with silver sulfadiazine in propylene glycol resulted in a peak propylene glycol blood level of 1.059 g/dL (139 mM). A blood propylene glycol level of 0.070 g/dL (9.2 mM) in an infant was attributed to Mycostatin cream usage for diaper rash.
In most mammals, part of the absorbed propylene glycol is eliminated unchanged by the kidney, while another portion is excreted by the kidneys as a glucuronic acid conjugate. The amount of propylene glycol eliminated by the kidneys has been estimated for humans at 45%, for dogs at 55-88%, and for rabbits at 2.4-14.2%
The pharmacokinetics of propylene glycol in humans in conjunction with the IV administration of medications was studied. Propylene glycol concentrations were measured in sera and cerebral spinal fluids (CSFs) from five patients receiving medication containing propylene glycol as a vehicle; lactate and pyruvate concentrations were also measured. All patients had normal hepatic and renal function based upon laboratory tests. In the rabbit, metabolic clearance accounts for 85.8-97.6% of total clearance at lower doses.
The rate-determining step in the metabolic clearance of propylene glycol in the rat is the NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase. Using the dehydrogenase inhibitor pyrazole, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of the dehydrogenase leading to a dose-dependent increase in urinary excretion of propylene glycol. The maximum metabolizing capacity in the rat was 8.33 mmol of propylene glycol/kg bw/hr, which would extrapolate to 1.06 kg bw/day for a 70 kg human.
In mammals, part of the propylene glycol dose is eliminated unchanged by the kidney and part is metabolized by the liver to lactic acid and further metabolized to pyruvic acid; in mammals, with the exception of cats, the remainder is conjugated with glucuronic acid and eliminated in the urine. The amount of propylene glycol eliminated by the kidneys has been estimated for humans at 45%, for dogs at 55-88%, and for rabbits at 2.4-14.2%. In the rat, increasing doses of propylene glycol increased elimination by the kidneys. Dosages of 19, 38, and 77 mmol/kg bw resulted in 2.3, 7, and 17% renal excretion of propylene glycol. Maximum urinary excretion of propylene glycol was determined using pyrazole (1.0 mmol/kg bw), a competitive inhibitor of propylene glycol. High urinary clearance was observed with 75% excretion of the ingested dose within 24 hours.
In human adults receiving 20.7 or 41.4 g propylene glycol 2-3 times daily for a minimum of 3 days, the total body clearance was dependent on serum concentration and was approximately 0.1 L/kg bw/hr; elimination half-life in those same subjects was about 4 hours. [The influence of ethyl alcohol administration must be considered when interpreting results since it will compete with propylene glycol for the dehydrogenase enzymes.]
/Infant, Child/ In a study where adults and children were rectally exposed once to 123-173 mg/kg bw propylene glycol [blood levels 1.6-2.2 mM], the clearance rate was 0.2 L/hour/kg and half-life was 2.6-2.8 hours. In 6 adults receiving propylene glycol intravenously, blood levels of propylene glycol were measured at 48-425 ug/mL [0.63-5.6 mM] and an average half-life of 2.3 hours was estimated. A small number of studies suggest that elimination of propylene glycol in infants is slower than in adults. In an 8-month-old infant exposed to propylene glycol through medication applied to burns, the propylene glycol blood level was 1.059 g/dL [139 mM] and the elimination half-life was measured at 16.9 hours. Ten infants exposed to 10 mL [10.36 g] propylene glycol in a parenteral vitamin solution daily for 5 days had propylene glycol blood levels of 65.950 mg/dL [8.5-125mM] and elimination half-lives of 10.8-30.5 hours, with a mean of 19.3 hours.
/Infant/ A good correlation between osmolality gap and serum propylene glycol concentrations was reported in ten infants. The half-life was reported as 19.3 hours (range 10.8-30.5 hours), which is about 10 times longer than in adults. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity is up to 10 times lower in infants than in adults providing an explanation for the prolonged half-life in the latter and at the same time further evidence that this enzyme is the rate-determining enzyme in the clearance of propylene glycol.

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 1(SRC), determined from a log Kow of -0.92(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that propylene glycol is expected to have very high mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of propylene glycol from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC) given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.3X10-8 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 0.13 mm Hg(4), and assigned value for water solubility of 1X10+6 mg/L (miscible)(5). Propylene glycol is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon its vapor pressure(4). Laboratory experiments using agricultural soils from South Carolina conducted at 22 deg C and a fortification of 1,000 ppm propylene glycol, yielded 73-78% mineralization during a 51 day incubation period(6), suggesting that biodegradation will be an important fate process in soils(SRC).
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 1(SRC), determined from a log Kow of -0.92(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that propylene glycol is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(3) based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.3X10-8 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 0.13 mm Hg(5), and assigned value for water solubility of 1X10+6 mg/L (miscible)(6). According to a classification scheme(7), an estimated BCF of 3(SRC), from its log Kow(2) and a regression-derived equation(8), suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Numerous screening studies using wastewater or sewage inoculum as seed, suggests that propylene glycol will be degraded readily under aqueous environments(9-11).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), propylene glycol, which has a vapor pressure of 0.13 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase propylene glycol is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 32 hours(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 1.2X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(3). Propylene glycol does not contain chromophores that absorb at wavelengths >290 nm and therefore is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight(4).

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