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3-Quinolinecarboxylicacid, 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-(CAS No. 85721-33-1)

3-Quinolinecarboxylicacid, 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)- C17H18FN3O3 (cas 85721-33-1) Molecular Structure

85721-33-1 Structure

Identification and Related Records

3-Quinolinecarboxylicacid, 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-
【Iupac name】
1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-piperazin-1-ylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
【CAS Registry number】
1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-(1-piperazinyl)-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
BAY-q 3939
Cipro IV
Ciprobay 100
Ciprolet DS
Quinox XR
【Molecular Formula】
C17H18FN3O3 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
【Canonical SMILES】
【MOL File】

Chemical and Physical Properties

White Powder
1.461 g/cm3
【Melting Point】
【Boiling Point】
581.8oC at 760 mmHg
【Flash Point】
Soluble in dilute (0.1N) hydrochloric acid; practically insoluble in ethanol
In water, 30,000 mg/l @ 20 deg C
Faint to light yellow crystalline powder
【Storage temp】
Store at 0-5°C
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:331.341523 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C17H18FN3O3
H-Bond Donor:2
H-Bond Acceptor:7
Rotatable Bond Count:3
Exact Mass:331.13322
MonoIsotopic Mass:331.13322
Topological Polar Surface Area:72.9
Heavy Atom Count:24
Formal Charge:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:3
Feature 3D Donor Count:1
Feature 3D Anion Count:2
Feature 3D Cation Count:3
Feature 3D Ring Count:3
Effective Rotor Count:4.8
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.8
CID Conformer Count:5

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xi: Irritant;
【Risk Statements】
【Safety Statements 】

Safety Information of?Ciprofloxacin (CAS NO.85721-33-1):
Hazard Codes: Xi
Risk Statements: 36/37/38
36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin??
Safety Statements: 26-36
26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice?
36:Wear suitable protective clothing??
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: VB1993800

... Ciprofloxacin is commercially available for oral admin as tablets containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. ... Ciprofloxacin is commercially available as the lactate salt for iv admin. ...
Ciprofloxacin for oral suspension: U.S. 250 mg (base) per 5 ml (Cipro (sucrose); 500 mg (base) per 5 ml (10%) (Cipro (sucrose)
Ciprofloxacin tablets USP: U.S. 100, 250, 500, 750 mg (base) Cipro
Ciprofloxacin injection USP: U.S. 200 mg/20 ml Cipro I.V. (in sterile water for injection, requires dilution prior to admin; 200 mg/100 ml), Cipro I.V. (in 5% dextrose injection, premixed); Cipro I.V. 400 mg/40 ml (in sterile water for injection, requires dilution prior to admin); Cipro I.V. (in 5% dextrose injection, premixed; Cipro I.V. 1,200 mg/120 ml (in sterile water for injection, requires dilution prior to admin).
【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow = 0.28 (non-ionized)
【Disposal Methods】
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Condensation of 2,4-dichloro-5-fluorobenzoylchloride with diethyl malonate by means of magnesium ethoxide in ether gives diethyl 2,4-dichloro-5-fluorobenzoylmalonate, which is partially hydrolyzed and decarboxylated with p-toluenesulfonic acid-water, yielding ethyl 2,4-dichloro-5-fluorobenzoylacetate. Condensation of this with triethylorthoformate in refluxing acetic anhydride affords ethyl 2-(2,4-dichloro-5-fluorobenzoyl)-3-ethoxyacrylate, which is treated with cyclopropylamine in ethanol to give ethyl 2-(2,4-dichloro-5-fluorobenzoyl)-3-cycloporpylaminoacrylate. Cyclization with NaH in refluxing dioxane then yields 7-chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, which is finally condensed with piperazine in hot DMSO to yield ciprofloxacin.

Fluorinated quinolone antibacterial

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
- Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
【Therapeutic Uses】
Ciprofloxacin is used for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) following suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. ... It is also used for prophylaxis following ingestion of Bacillus anthracis spores. ...
Ciprofloxacin is used orally or iv in adults for the treatment of urinary tract infections, chronic bacterial prostatis, acute sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, skin & skin structure infections, ... bone & joint infections caused by susceptible gram negative & gram positive bacteria. ... /It is also/ used orally for the treatment of acute sinusitis, uncomplicated cervical & urethral gonorrhea, typhoid fever, & GI tract infections.
Ciprofloxacin ... /has/ been used in treatment of resistent /M. tuberculosis/ organisms for as long as eight years with little toxicity.
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in the treatment of infectious diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic strains of Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli, S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, or S. sonnei. /Included in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin ... /is/ indicated in the treatment of endocervical and urethral infections caused by N. gonorthoeae. /Including in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin ... /is/ indicated in the treatment of bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible organisms. /Included in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in the treatment of infections diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic strains of Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli, S boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, or S. sonnei. /Included in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin, in combination with metronidazole, is indicated in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by Bacteroides fragilis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, or P. aeruginosa. /Included in US product labeling/
Parenteral ciprofloxacin, in combination with piperacillin, is indicated for empiric therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia. /Included in US product labeling/
Parenteral ciprofloxacin is indicated in the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. /Included in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin ... /is/ indicated in the treatment of acute sinusitis caused by H. influenza, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumonia. /Included in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin ... /is/ indicated in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible organisms. /Included in US product labeling/
Oral ciprofloxacin is indicated in the treatment of typhoid fever caused by susceptible strains of S. typhi. /Included in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin ... /is/ indicated in the treatment of complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections, including cystitis, caused by susceptible organisms. /Included in US product labeling/
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in the treatment of chancroid caused by Hemophilus ducreyi. /Included in US product labeling/
Oral ciprofloxacin is indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis for the elimination of meningococci from the nasopharynx. /Included in US product labeling/
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is rapidly & well absorbed from the GI tract following oral admin. ... Presence of food in the GI tract decr the rate but not the extent absorption of ciprofloxacin admin as tablets. Food does not affect pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin admin in oral suspension. .../Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride/
The oral bioavability of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is 50-85% in healthy, fasting adults & peak serum concn of the drug ... are attained within 0.5-2.3 hr. Peak serum concn & area under the serum concn time curve (AUC) incr in proportion to the dose over the oral dose range of 240-1000 mg & are unaffected by gender. /Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride/
... Following oral admin of a single 250, 500, 750 or 1,000 mg dose of ciprofloxacin in healthy, fasting adults, peak serum concn average 0.76-1.5, 1.6-2.9, 2.5-4.3, or 3.4-5.4 ug/ml, respectively. In adults, oral admin of 500 mg of ciprofloxacin every 12 hr results in a mean peak or through serum concn at steady state of 3.97 or 0.2 ug/ml, respectively.
Peak serum concn & serum concn time curve are slightly higher in geriatric patients than in younger adults. ...
Ciprofloxacin is widely distributed into body tissues & fluids following oral or iv admin. Highest concn of the drug are ... /found/ in the bile, lungs, kidney, liver, gallbladder, uterus, seminal fluid, prostatic tissue & fluid, tonsils, endometrium, fallopian tubes & ovaries. Concn of the drug /found/ in most of these tissues & fluids substantially exceeded those in serum. /Ciprofloxacin/ is distributed into bone, aqueous humor, sputum, saliva & nasal secretions, skin, muscle, adipose tissue, cartilage & pleural, peritoneal, ascitic, blister, lymphatic & renal cyst fluids. /The drug/ is concn within neutrophils; achieving concn in these cells that may be 2-7 times greater than extracellular concn.
... Low concn of /the drug/ are distributed into the CSF; peak CSF concn may be 6-10% of peak serum concn. ... Following iv admin of ciprofloxacin, concn are several fold higher than simultaneous serum concn of the drug. ... /The drug/ is 16-43% bound to serum proteins in vitro.
Ciprofloxacin crosses the placenta & is distributed in the amniotic fluid in humans. The drug is also distributed into milk. In lactating women who received 750 mg of ciprofloxacin every 12 hr for 3 doses, concn of the drug in milk obtained 2 hr after a dose averaged 2.26-3.79 ug/ml; milk concn were higher than in concomitant serum concn for up to 12 hr after the dose. ...
/A study was initiated/ to determine whether specific patient factors were predictive of trough ciprofloxacin concn, 37 steady state trough ciprofloxacin samples were obtained from 28 adult patients, ages 28-93 yr, receiving 750 mg oral ciprofloxacin every 12 hr for serious infections. Stepwise multivariate linear regression revealed no /association/ between ciprofloxacin trough concn & serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, weight, height, body surface area or gender. ... Age exhibited a direct linear relationship with trough concn. ... /Results indicate that/ for patients with creatinine clearance 30 ml/min or above, age is more important predictor of ciprofloxacin trough concn than renal function. Dosage adjustment should not be arbitrary but should be guided by the minimum inhibitory concn, clinical response, & side effects.
Fluoroquinolones are widely distributed in most body fluids & tissues; high concn are attained in the kidneys, gallbladder, liver, lungs & gynecologic tissues, prostatic tissue, phagocytic cells, urine, sputum, and bile. /Fluoroquinolones/
Ciprofloxacin is also distributed in the skin, fat muscle, bone & cartilage.
Oral Dose: 500 mg, Peak Levels: 2.5 ug/ml, Absorption: 75-85%, Protein Binding: 20-40%, Urinary recovery: 30% /From table/
In a study investigating the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin, 20 pregnant women, between 19-25 wk gestation (mean 21.6 wk), were scheduled for pregnancy termination because the fetuses were affected with beta-thalassemia major. Two doses of ciprofloxacin, 200 mg IV every 12 hr, were given prior to abortion. Serum & amniotic fluid concns were drawn concomitantly at 4, 8, & 12 hr after dosing. Mean maternal serum concns at these times were 0.28, 0.09 & 0.01 ug/ml, respectively, compared to mean amniotic fluid levels of 0.12, 0.13, &0.10 ug/ml, respectively. The amniotic fluid: maternal serum ratios were 0.43, 1.44, & 10.0 respectively.
Recent pharmacokinetic data, interaction profiles, & specific tolerance problems associated with the fluoroquinolones are reviewed. Oral absorption was highest for levofloxacin (99-100%), & 500 mg oral levofloxacin achieved a much higher initial concn than either sparfloxacin (400 mg) or ciprofloxacin (500 mg, b.i.d.), with a slow drop in concn over 24 hr. The C(max) achieved after an oral 250-mg dose ranged from a low of 1.2 microg/ml/70 kg for ciprofloxacin, to 1.71 for gatifloxacin & 2.17 for moxifloxacin, to a high of 2.48 for levofloxacin (p
This study reports on the biodistribution & dosimetry of technetium-99m ciprofloxacin, a radio-ligand developed for the visualisation of bacterial infection. Whole body scans were performed up to 24 hr after iv injection of 370 MBq 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in 3 male & 3 female volunteers. Blood samples were taken at various times up to 24 hr after injection. Urine was also collected up to 24 hr after injection, allowing calculation of renal clearance & interpretation of whole body clearance. Time-activity curves were generated for the thyroid, heart, liver & whole body by fitting the organ-specific geometric mean counts, obtained from regions of interest. The ... formulation was applied to calculate the absorbed radiation doses for various organs. The images showed rapid, predominantly urinary excretion of 99mTc ciprofloxacin, with low to absent brain, lung & bone marrow uptake & low liver uptake & excretion. Accordingly, imaging conditions are excellent for both the thoracic & the abdominal region, even at early time points (60 min) post injection. In none of the volunteers was the gallbladder visualised. Approx 60% of the injected activity was recovered in urine by 24 hr post injection. The highest absorbed doses were received by the urinary bladder wall, the thyroid, the upper large intestine, the lower large intestine & the uterus. The estimated mean effective dose for the adult subject, taking into account the weight factors of the ICRP60 publication, was 0.0083 mSv/MBq. The amount of 99mTc ciprofloxacin required for adequate planar & tomographic imaging results in an acceptable effective dose to the patient. [De Winter F, et al; Eur J Nucl Med 28 (5): 570-574 (2001)] PubMed Abstract
In an open, randomized, 6-period crossover study, the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, & trovafloxacin were compared after a single oral dose in 12 healthy volunteers (6 men & 6 women). The volunteers received 250 mg of ciprofloxacin, 400 mg of gatifloxacin, 600 mg of grepafloxacin, 500 mg of levofloxacin, 400 mg of moxifloxacin, & 200 mg of trovafloxacin. The concns of the 6 fluoroquinolones in serum & urine were measured by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Blood & urine samples were collected before & at different time points up to 48 hr after medication. Levofloxacin had the highest peak concn (C(max), in ug/ml) (6.21+/-1.34), followed by moxifloxacin (4.34+/-1.61) & gatifloxacin (3.42+/-0.74). Elimination half-lives ranged from 12.12+/-3.93 hr (grepafloxacin) to 5.37+/-0.82 hr (ciprofloxacin). The total areas under the curve (AUC(tot), in ug-hr/ml) for levofloxacin (44.8+/-4.4), moxifloxacin (39.3+/-5.35), & gatifloxacin (30+/-3.8) were significantly higher than that for ciprofloxacin (5.75+/-1.25). Calculated from a normalized dose of 200 mg, the highest C(max)s (in ug/ml) were observed for levofloxacin (2.48 +/-0.53), followed by moxifloxacin (2.17+/-0.81) & trovafloxacin (2.09+/-0.58). The highest AUC(tot) (in ug-hr/ml) for a 200-mg dose were observed for moxifloxacin (19.7+/-2.67) & trovafloxacin (19.5+/-3.1); the lowest was observed for ciprofloxacin (4.6+/-1.0). No serious adverse event was observed during the study period. The 5 recently developed fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, & trovafloxacin) showed greater bioavailability, longer half-lives, & higher C(max)s than ciprofloxacin. [Lubasch A, et al; Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44 (10): 2600-2603 (2000)] PubMed Abstract
Disposition kinetics of danofloxacin & ciprofloxacin were studied in broiler chickens following iv, intramuscular & oral admin in a single dose of 5 & 10 mg/kg-1 bw respectively. In addition, tissue distribution & residual pattern of both drugs were determined. The max serum concn (Cmax) after intramuscular & oral admin were 1.03 & 0.55 mu/ml for danofloxacin & 2.92 & 1.24 mu/ml for ciprofloxacin attained at 0.8 & 2.43 & 0.55 & 1.27 hr for danofloxacin & ciprofloxacin respectively. The volume of distribution & systemic bioavailability were higher for danofloxacin (Vdss 2.21 L/kg & F% 96.56 & 81.4%) as compared with ciprofloxacin (Vdss 1.41 L/kg & F% 75.5 & 29.4%). Data relating to iv injection for both drugs were analyzed using a two compartment open model curve fit. Danofloxacin & ciprofloxacin were not detected in the serum of broilers at the 5th & 3rd day respectively following the drugs withdrawal while were detected in liver, kidneys, spleen & lungs. Danofloxacin completely disappeared from all tissues at the 13th day after stopping of the drug medication but ciprofloxacin disappeared after 5 days only. [el-Gendi AY, et al; Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 108 (10): 429-434 (2001)] PubMed Abstract
Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin & its active metabolite ciprofloxacin were investigated in normal, febrile & probenecid-treated adult goats after single iv admin of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the plasma concn-time data of enrofloxacin & ciprofloxacin was performed using two- & one-compartment open models, respectively. Plasma enrofloxacin concns were significantly higher in febrile (0.75-7 hr) & probenecid-treated (5-7 hr) goats than in normal goats. The sum of enrofloxacin & ciprofloxacin concns in plasma >or=0.1 microg /mL was maintained up to 7 & 8 hr in normal & febrile or probenecid-treated goats, respectively. The t1/2beta, AUC, MRT & ClB of enrofloxacin in normal animals were determined to be 1.14 h, 6.71 microg .hr/mL, 1.5 hr & 807 mL/hr/kg, respectively. The fraction of enrofloxacin metabolized to ciprofloxacin was 28.8%. The Cmax., t1/2beta, AUC & MRT of ciprofloxacin in normal goats were 0.45 microg /mL, 1.79 hr, 1.84 microg .hr/mL & 3.34 hr, respectively. As compared with normal goats, the values of t1/2beta (1.83 hr), AUC (11.68 microg ? hr/mL) & MRT (2.13 hr) of enrofloxacin were significantly higher, whereas its ClB (430 mL/hr/kg) & metabolite conversion to ciprofloxacin (8.5%) were lower in febrile goats. The Cmax. (0.18 microg /mL) & AUC (0.99 microg .hr/mL) of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased, whereas its t1/2beta (2.75 hr) & MRT (4.58 hr) were prolonged in febrile than in normal goats. Concomitant admin of probenecid (40 mg/kg, i.v.) with enrofloxacin did not significantly alter any of the pharmacokinetic variables of either enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in goats. [Rao GS, et al; J Vet Pharmacol Ther 23 (6): 365-372 (2000)] PubMed Abstract
... To study the aqueous & vitreous penetration of ciprofloxacin after prolonged acute topical admin & to investigate the effects of inflammation on drug penetration. ... A standardized model of intraocular infection after penetrating injury was made in the right eyes of 8 rabbits. The intact left eyes were maintained as the control. Two drops of ciprofloxacin 0.3% eyedrops were instilled topically every 1 hr for 7 hr to all eyes of the rabbits. Aqueous & vitreous samples (100 microl) were obtained half an hr after the last drop. Instillation was continued for 7 hr more & samples were obtained as before. Drug concns were measured using HPLC. ... The mean aqueous humor levels of ciprofloxacin were: in control eyes 1.31 +/- 0.78 microg/ml after 7 hr & 1.85 +/- 1.69 microg/ml after 14 hr of instillation: in inflamed eyes 2.18 +/- 1.02 microg/ml after 7 hr & 2.91 +/- 2.12 microg/ml after 14 hr. The mean vitreous humor levels were: in control eyes 0.65 +/- 0.44 microg/ml after 7 hr & 0.72 +/- 0.8 microg/ml after 14 hr of instillation; in inflamed eyes 0.67 +/- 0.77 microg/ml after 7 hr & 1.01 +/- 0.43 microg/ml after 14 hr. However, the differences among the groups were not significant (P>0.05). ... Ciprofloxacin penetration into aqueous humor was higher in 14-hr topical application than that for 7 hr. Inflammation increased the penetration of topical ciprofloxacin into aqueous while administered for 7 hr & into both aqueous & vitreous humor while administered for 14 hr. [Ozturk F, et al; Int J Pharm 204 (1-2): 97-100 (2000)] PubMed Abstract
Changes in oral bioavailability & in vitro antimicrobial activity have been the focus of many previous interaction studies for metal cations & quinolones. This study is the first to examine the possibility of an interaction in the systemic circulation using ciprofloxacin & ferrous sulfate as representative interactants in a rat model, & to determine the changes, if any, in the pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic. To minimize direct physical interaction in the GI tract, the current study design required the male Sprague Dawley rats (220-240g) to be dosed with 100 mg/kg of oral ferrous sulfate & 5 mg/kg of iv ciprofloxacin. Control animals received only iv ciprofloxacin. Blood & urine samples were collected over time for quantitation of ciprofloxacin independently by both HPLC (H) & microbiological (M) assays. Results showed that the disposition of ciprofloxacin in control animals was biexponential with a mean (+/-SD) terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2,lambda z)) of 0.93+/-0.30 hr. A large apparent volume of distribution (V(d,lambda z): 6.96+/-1.56 L/kg) was observed. In addition, concn vs. time profiles generated by both assays were similar. When the antibiotic was dosed with oral iron, parameter estimates generated by HPLC appeared to show a wider distribution & a longer elimination of ciprofloxacin; mean V(d,lambda z) & t(1/2,lambda z) estimates increased by 2- & 4-fold, respectively. Relative to controls, antibiotic exposure (AUC(0-infinity) was also significantly higher (pPubMed Abstract

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an experimentally-derived Koc of 61,000(2) indicates that ciprofloxacin is expected to be immobile in soil(SRC). Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 5.1X10-19 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), developed using a fragment constant estimation method(3). Results of a single OECD closed bottle biodegradation study(9), 0% degradation over a 40-day incubation period, indicate ciprofloxacin is not readily biodegradable.
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an experimentally-derived Koc of 61,000(2) indicates that ciprofloxacin is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(3) based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 5.1X10-19 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), developed using a fragment constant estimation method(4). According to a classification scheme(5), an estimated BCF of 3.2(SRC), from a log Kow of 0.28(6), and a regression-derived equation(6) suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Aqueous ciprofloxacin solutions are susceptible to photolysis in sunlight(8); exposure of aqueous solutions (pH 5.0) to daylight for 15 days in Finland (March 1995) resulted in ciprofloxacin losses of 2-15.7%(8). Results of a single OECD closed bottle biodegradation study(9), 0% degradation over a 40-day incubation period, indicate ciprofloxacin is not readily biodegradable.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), ciprofloxacin, which has an estimated vapor pressure of 1.65X10-12 mm Hg at 25 deg C(SRC), determined from a fragment constant method(2)), will exist solely in the particulate phase in the ambient atmosphere. Particulate-phase ciprofloxacin may be removed from the air by wet and dry deposition(SRC).

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