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Sodium saccharin(CAS No. 128-44-9)

Sodium saccharin C7H4NNaO3S (cas 128-44-9) Molecular Structure

128-44-9 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Sodium saccharin
【CAS Registry number】
128-44-9
【Synonyms】
1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one,1,1-dioxide, sodium salt (1:1)
Saccharine Sodium USP
1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one,1,1-dioxide, sodium salt (9CI)
1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one, 1,1-dioxide, sodiumderiv. (7CI)
1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one, 1,1-dioxide, sodium salt (8CI)
Saccharin, sodium deriv. (6CI)
1,2-Benzothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide sodiumsalt
Cristallose
Crystallose
Kristallose
Saxin
Sodium o-benzosulfimide
Sodiumo-sulfobenzimide
Sucram C 150
Sweeta
Sykose
Willosetten
o-Benzoylsulfimide sodium salt
【EINECS(EC#)】
204-886-1
【Molecular Formula】
C7H4NNaO3S (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
205.16
【Inchi】
InChI=1/C7H5NO3S.Na/c9-7-5-3-1-2-4-6(5)12(10,11)8-7;/h1-4H,(H,8,9);/q;+1/p-1
【Canonical SMILES】
C1=CC=C2C(=C1)C(=O)NS2(=O)=O
【MOL File】
128-44-9.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
White crystalline powder
【Melting Point】
>300℃
【Boiling Point】
438.9 °C at 760 mmHg
【Vapour】
1.77E-08mmHg at 25°C
【Flash Point】
219.3 °C
【Water】
>=10 g/100 mL at 20℃
【Solubilities】
>=10 g/100 mL at 20 °C in water
【Color/Form】
Monoclinic crystals
WHITE CRYSTALS OR WHITE CRYSTALLINE POWDER.
【Stability】
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
【Storage temp】
0-6°C
【Spectral properties】
MAX ABSORPTION (0.1 N NAOH): BROAD PEAK @ 267.3 NM (E= 1570)
SADTLER REF NUMBER: 322 (IR, PRISM); 110 (IR, GRATING)
IR: 5038 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 15734 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
NMR: 6667 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 4335 (National Bureau of Standards EPA-NIH Mass Spectra Data Base, NSRDS-NBS-63)
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:183.1845 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C7H5NO3S
XLogP3:0.9
H-Bond Donor:1
H-Bond Acceptor:3
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Tautomer Count:2
Exact Mass:182.999014
MonoIsotopic Mass:182.999014
Topological Polar Surface Area:71.6
Heavy Atom Count:12
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:303
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:3
Feature 3D Donor Count:1
Feature 3D Ring Count:2
Effective Rotor Count:0.2
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Safety Statements 】
S24/25
【Safety】

Safety Statements: 24/25
S24/25: Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: DE4550000
Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenic data. Moderately toxic by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. A promoter. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of SOx, Na2O, and NOx.

【Cleanup Methods】
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Formulations/Preparations】
WHILE ACID FORM OF SACCHARIN IS WELL-RECOGNIZED ARTICLE OF COMMERCE, SALTS ARE PRODUCTS ACTUALLY USED IN FORMULATION OF FOODS & BEVERAGES. ... CALCIUM ... AMMONIUM & OTHER SALTS HAVE BEEN PREPD & USED TO LIMITED EXTENT. ... CALCIUM ... MUST MEET USP SPECIFICATIONS IN TERMS OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES & IMPURITIES.
Grades: Commercial; CP /Chemically pure: A grade designation signifying a minimum of impurities, but not 100% pure/; USP /United States Pharmacopeia/; FCC /Food Chemicals Codex/.
Assugrin vollsuss (also contains sodium cyclamate).
Available in the USA as saccharin insoluble powder FCC (Food Chemicals Codex): 98-101% active ingredient on an anhydrous basis, a maximum of 100 mg/kg toluenesulphonamides, 30 mg/kg selenium, 10 mg/kg heavy metals (as lead) & 3 mg/kg arsenic ... available in the USA as a USP grade containing 98-101% active ingredient on an anhydrous basis.
【Other Preventative Measures】
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Specification】

General Information: As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear.
Extinguishing Media: Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or chemical foam.?
Handling: Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Use only in a chemical fume hood.
Storage: Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container.

【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow= 0.91.
【Report】

IARC Cancer Review: Group 2B IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 7 ,1987,p. 334.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 22 ,1980,p. 111.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) . EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

【Disposal Methods】
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U202, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
A potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids. A potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and longer for solids.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

TOLUENE IS REACTED WITH CHLOROSULFONIC ACID TO FORM O-TOLUENESULFONYL CHLORIDE, WHICH IS CONVERTED TO THE SULFONAMIDE WITH AMMONIA. THE METHYL GROUP IS THEN OXIDIZED WITH DICHROMATE YIELDING O-SULFAMYLBENZOIC ACID WHICH, WHEN HEATED, FORMS THE CYCLIC IMIDE.
A mixture of toluenesulfonic acids is converted into the sodium salt then distilled with phosphorus trichloride & chlorine to obtain the o-toluene sulfonyl chloride which, by means of ammonia, is converted into o-toluenesulfamide. This is oxidized with permanganate, treated with acid, & saccharin crystallized out.
Saccharin and sodium saccharin are produced commercially in the USA only by the Maumee process. Methyl anthranilate (made either by the methylation of anthranilic acid, the reaction of phthalic anhydride with ammonia, sodium hypochlorite and methanol, or the reaction of isatoic anhydride with methanol) is diazotized by treatment with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid to form 2-carbomethoxybenzenediazonium chloride. Sulfonation of this produces 2-carbomethoxybenzenesulfinic acid, which is converted to 2-carbomethoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride with chlorine. Amidation of this sulfonylchloride, followed by acidification, forms saccharin, which is treated with either sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate to produce sodium saccharin. Calcium saccharin can be produced by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with saccharin.
U.S. Imports

(1977) 1.35X10+9 G
(1982) 1.34X10+9 G
(1985) 8.07X10+8 g.
U.S. Production

(1977) AT LEAST 2.18X10+9 G (EST-INCL SALT)
(1982) AT LEAST 2.00X10+9 G (EST)
(1985) Not reported
Consumption Patterns

The USA consumption pattern for saccharin (all forms) in 1976 has been estimated as follows: 77% in food uses: 45% in soft drinks, 18% in 'tabletop' sweetener, and 14% in other foods such as fruits, premixes, juices, sweets, chewing gum and jellies; and 23% in nonfood items: 10% in cosmetics such as toothpaste, mouthwash and lipstick, 7% in pharmaceuticals such as coatings on pills, 2% in smokeless tobacco products such as chewing tobacco and snuff, 2% in electroplating, 1% in cattle feed and 1% in miscellaneous uses. /Saccharin and its salts/
In 1976, 23% of all forms of saccharin consumed in the US was added to non-food items. In particular, 10% was used in cosmetics such as toothpaste, mouthwash and lipstick; 7% in pharmaceuticals such as coatings on pills; 2% in smokeless tobacco such as chewing tobacco and snuff; 2% in electroplating; 1% in cattle feed and 1% in miscellaneous uses.
【Usage】

Artificial sweetner.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
TRANSPLACENTAL TRANSFER OF ... (14)C-SACCHARIN ADMIN BY IV INFUSION TO RHESUS MONKEYS IN LATE PREGNANCY, WAS RAPID, BUT SLIGHT. (14)C WAS CLEARED MORE SLOWLY FROM FETAL THAN FROM MATERNAL BLOOD, & WAS DISTRIBUTED IN ALL FETAL TISSUES EXAMINED ... WAS ONLY BIOTRANSFORMED TO LIMITED EXTENT & WAS RAPIDLY EXCRETED ... .
... SACCHARIN IS RAPIDLY EXCRETED UNCHANGED: ALMOST ENTIRELY IN URINE OF TREATED GUINEA PIGS, & 70% IN URINE, 30% IN FECES OF TREATED RATS.
IN 3 VOLUNTEERS, 85-92% OF DOSES OF 1 G 3(14)C-SACCHARIN ADMIN ORALLY FOR 21 DAYS WAS EXCRETED UNCHANGED IN THE URINE WITHIN 24 HR; NO METABOLITES WERE FOUND. WITHIN 48 HR, 92.3% OF A DOSE OF 500 MG (14)C-SACCHARIN WAS EXCRETED IN THE URINE & 5.8% IN THE FECES.
TISSUE LEVELS, INCLUDING BLADDER, KIDNEY, & LIVER, OF SACCHARIN WERE DETERMINED IN RATS DURING TWO-GENERATION FEEDING STUDIES. [SWEATMAN TW, RENWICK AG; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 62 (3): 465 (1982)] PubMed Abstract
THE KINETICS OF DIETARY SACCHARIN WERE DETERMINED IN 6 HEALTHY WOMEN WHO USED SACCHARIN CONTAINING PRODUCTS IN THEIR DIET & WERE ASKED TO TAKE DIVIDED EQUAL DOSES OF SACCHARIN EVERY 6 HR TO MAINTAIN THEIR AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE (100-300 MG) FOR 3 DAYS. AT THE END OF THIS PERIOD, EACH SUBJECT TOOK A SINGLE DOSE THAT WAS EQUAL TO ONE DIVIDED DOSE. SACCHARIN CONCN IN PLASMA & URINE SAMPLES WERE USED TO ASSESS THE KINETIC PROFILE. SACCHARIN ABSORPTION WAS RAPID WITH MAXIMUM CONCN IN PLASMA IN 0.5-1.0 HR. MAXIMUM PLASMA CONCN & AREAS UNDER THE PLASMA CONCN-TIME CURVES WERE PROPORTIONAL TO DOSE. RENAL CLEARANCE EXCEEDED GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN ALL CASES & APPROXIMATED RENAL PLASMA FLOW WHEN CORRECTED FOR THE SACCHARIN FREE FRACTION IN PLASMA. MEAN ELIMINATION T/2 WAS 7.5 HR & MEAN APPARENT VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION WAS 264 LITERS. THE KINETIC PARAMETERS INDICATE THAT SACCHARIN IS DISTRIBUTED AS A FUNCTION OF LEAN RATHER THAN TOTAL BODY MASS; THIS OBSERVATION SUGGESTS THAT THERE MAY BE ONE OR MORE HIGH RETENTION COMPARTMENTS FOR SACCHARIN. [COLBURN WA ET AL; CLIN PHARMACOL THER 30 (OCT): 558 (1981)] PubMed Abstract

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 75(SRC), determined from a log Kow of 0.91(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that saccharin is expected to have high mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of saccharin from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC) given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.2X10-9 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), using a fragment constant estimation method(4). Saccharin is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon an estimated vapor pressure of 6.4X10-7 mm Hg(SRC), determined from a fragment constant method(5). The importance of biodegradation in soil and water is unkown, but amides are usually susceptible to microbial metabolism(6).
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 75(SRC), determined from a log Kow of 0.91(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that saccharin is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in water(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(3) based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.2X10-9 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), developed using a fragment constant estimation method(4). According to a classification scheme(5), an estimated BCF of 3(3,SRC), from its log Kow(2) suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). This compound has the potential to chemically hydrolyze in aqueous environments to o-sulfamoylbenzoic acid and ammonium o-sulfolbenzoic acid(6), but the kinetics of the potential hydrolysis are unknown(SRC). The importance of biodegradation in soil and water is unkown, but amides are usually susceptible to microbial metabolism(7).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), saccharin, which has an estimated vapor pressure of 6.4X10-7 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), is expected to exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase saccharin is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 3 days(SRC) from its estimated rate constant of 5.9X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(3). Particulate-phase saccharin may be removed from the air by wet and dry deposition(SRC).

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