Phenacetin(CAS No. 62-44-2)

Phenacetin C10H13NO2 (cas 62-44-2) Molecular Structure

62-44-2 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Iupac name】
【CAS Registry number】
empirin compound
【Molecular Formula】
C10H13NO2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
【Canonical SMILES】
【MOL File】

Chemical and Physical Properties

white crystalline powder
1.099 g/cm3
【Melting Point】
【Boiling Point】
【Refractive Index】
1.505 (20 C)
【Flash Point】
355.1 °C at 760 mmHg
0.076 g/100 mL
0.076 g/100 mL
Monoclinic prisms
Crystalline scales or powder
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids.
【Storage temp】
【Spectral properties】
Index of refraction = 1.571at 25 deg C/D
MASS: 107172 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral database, 1990 version; 22 (Aldermaston, eoght Peak Index of Mass Spectra, U.K.)
IR: 5159 (Coblentz Society spectral collection)
UV: 548 (Adsorption Spectra in the UV and Visible Region, Academic Press, New York)
Raman: 519 (Sadtler Research Laboratories spectral collection)
Intense mass spectral peaks: 108 m/z, 109 m/z, 137 m/z, 179 m/z
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:179.21572 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C10H13NO2
H-Bond Donor:1
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:3
Tautomer Count:3
Exact Mass:179.094629
MonoIsotopic Mass:179.094629
Topological Polar Surface Area:38.3
Heavy Atom Count:13
Formal Charge:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:2
Feature 3D Donor Count:1
Feature 3D Ring Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:4
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.6
CID Conformer Count:8

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
【Risk Statements】
【Safety Statements 】

Confirmed carcinogen producing tumors of the kidney and bladder. A human poison by an unspecified route. Poison by intravenous and possibly other routes. Moderately toxic by several routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: cyanosis, liver damage, and methemoglobinemia-carboxyhemoglobinemia. Experimental teratogenic data. Other experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Chronic effects consist of weight loss, insomnia, shortness of breath, weakness, and often aplastic anemia. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
Hazard Codes:?T
Risk Statements: 45-22-20/21/22?
R45:May cause cancer.?
R22:Harmful if swallowed.?
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
Safety Statements: 53-45?
S53:Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.?
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: AM4375000
Hazardous Substances Data: 62-44-2(Hazardous Substances Data)

【Cleanup Methods】
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
Poisonous gases including nitrogen oxides are produced in fire. Use any extinguishing agent suitable for surrounding fire. If material of contaminated runoff enters waterways, notify downstream users of potentially contaminated waters. Notify local health and fire officials and pollution control agencies. If employees are expected to fight fires, they must be trained and equipped in OSHA 1910.156.
Grades: Technical; USP, as phenacetin.
Apcabuff contains 2.5 g phenacetin per tablet.
Pharmex Flu capsules contain 2.5 g phenacetin per tablet.
Phencaset contains 150 mg phenacetin per tablet.
Pyradyne contains 150 mg phenacetin per tablet.
It is available in 300 mg doses as tablets containing 94-106% of the stated amount of phenacetin and is also available in the USA as tablets containing 150 mg phenacetin in combination with 230 mg aspirin and 15 or 30 mg caffeine, or with 230 mg aspirin, 30 mg caffeine, and 8, 15, or 60 mg codeine phosphate and containing 90-110% of the stated amount of phenacetin. /Former in USA/
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: phenacetin is included in digestive aid drug products; weight control drug products; internal analgesic drug products; and orally administered menstrual drug products..
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Oxidizing agents, iodine and nitrating agents.
【Other Preventative Measures】
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/

?Acetamide,N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)- , its cas register number 62-44-2. It also can be called?Aceto-p-phenetidin?; N-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)acetamide ; p-Phenacetin ;?p-Ethoxyanilid kyseliny octove ;?Super anahist?;?Phenacetin?; and?4'-Ethoxyacetanilide; 4-Acetophenetidine .? Analgesics; Analgesics, non-narcotic;?Central Nervous System Agents;?Drug / Therapeutic Agent; Human Data;?Mutation data;?Peripheral Nervous;?System Agents;?Reproductive Effect;?Sensory System Agents; TSCA Flag S [Substance is identified in a proposed or final SNUR (Significant New Use Rule) under TSCA] and Tumor data.?
?Acetamide,N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)- (CAS NO.62-44-2) could be stable under normal temperatures and pressures. It should avoid the condition like incompatible materials. It is not compatible with?strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents, strong acids, strong bases. And also prevent it to broken down into hazardous decomposition products:?nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide. However, its hazardous polymerization will not occur.

【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow = 1.58

NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens. IARC Cancer Review: Group 2A IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 7 (1987),p. 310.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 13 (1977),p. 141.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 13 (1977),p. 141.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 24 (1980),p. 135.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 24 (1980),p. 135.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 24 (1980),p. 135.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) . Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

【Disposal Methods】
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U187, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
A potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids. A potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and longer for solids.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Condensation of p-nitrophenol in a sodium hydroxide solution with ethyl bromide followed by reduction with sodium sulfide and acetylation with acetic anhydride.
Obtained by reacting p-nitrophenol with sodium hydroxide & ethyl sulfate, reducing nitrite to amine with iron & acid, & then acetylating by boiling with glacial acetic acid.
By interaction of para-phenetidin & glacial acetic acid, or of ethyl bromide & para-acetaminophenol. Method of purification: crystallization.
Preparation: ... Eaker, Campbell, US 2887513 (1959 to Monsanto).
U.S. Imports

(1976) 2.32X10+8 GRAMS
(1984) 3.75X10+7 g
U.S. Production



Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
【Therapeutic Uses】
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; Enzyme Inhibitors
MEDICATION (VET): Analgesic & antipyretic (eg, for treatment of muscle pain); analgesic & antipyretic in veterinary medicine.
Medication: It is mainly used for mild to moderate pain associated with the musculo-skeletal system.
The so-called coal tar analgesics, phenacetin and its active metabolite acetaminophen, are effective alternatives to aspirin as analgesic-antipyretics; however, unlike aspirin, their anti-inflammatory activity is weak and seldom clinically useful.
Acetaminophen and phenacetin have analgesic and antipyretic effects that do not differ significantly from those of aspirin. However ... They have only weak anti-inflammatory effects. The pharmacological effects of phenacetin are a combination of its inherent activity and those of acetaminophen, its major metabolite.
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
... Oral absorption of phenacetin is markedly influenced by particle size in the preparation, & plasma concentration of phenacetin & acetaminophen are correspondingly variable.
Peak concentration of phenacetin in plasma usually occurs in about 1 hr, & that of acetaminophen derived there from in 1-2 hr.
Absorption following oral administration is rapid ... duration of effect is about 4 hr.
Up to 45% of (14)C was recovered in 16 hr urine & 1% in feces of rats given [acetyl-(14)C]phenacetin per oral.
After oral administration of 250 mg of phenacetin to two male subjects, phenacetin was detected in plasma for 12 hr, with peak concentration of 222 & 92 ng/mL occurring at 1.0 and 1.67 hr in two persons, respectively. [Findlay J et al; J Pharmacol Exp Ther 210 (1): 127 (1979)] PubMed Abstract
Phenacetin is excreted into breast milk, appearing along with its major metabolite, acetaminophen.
... Less than 1% of phenacetin is excreted unchanged in urine.
No transient increase in renal clearance of phenacetin was observed in dogs following onset of diuresis induced by rapid injection of mannitol, which is consistent with failure of drug to accumulate within medulla. [Duggin G et al; J Pharmacol Exp Ther 207 (2): 584 (1978)] PubMed Abstract
The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the analgesic phenacetin have been determined in six healthy adults. After rapid i.v. injection of 250 mg phenacetin, the log plasma concentrations versus time curves were evaluated according to the rules of a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life (t1/2)beta varied from 37 to 74 minutes. The volume of distribution (Vd)beta ranged from 1.0 to 2.1 L per kg body weight. The total clearance of the drug was high and approximated the average value of hepatic blood flow in normal adults. In agreement with this finding, the bioavailability of a small oral dose of phenacetin (0.25 g) was almost nil, as the bulk of the drug was cleared during its first pass through the liver. With large oral doses (1.0 g) the first-pass effect decreased and availability increased. The results are discussed and related to current general views of the liver-first-pass phenomenon. [Raaflaub J et al; Eur J Clin Pharmacol 8 (3-4): 261-5 (1975)] PubMed Abstract

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 170(SRC), determined from a log Kow of 1.58(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that phenacetin is expected to have moderate mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of phenacetin from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(SRC) given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 2.1X10-10 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 6.92X10-7 mm Hg(3), and water solubility, 766 mg/L(4). Phenacetin is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon its vapor pressure(3). A theoretical BOD of 8.4% in activated sludge and using the Japanese MITI test(5), suggests that biodegradation is not a fast environmental fate process in soil(SRC).
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), an estimated Koc value of 170(SRC), determined from a log Kow of 1.58(2) and a regression-derived equation(3), indicates that phenacetin is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(3) based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 2.1X10-10 atm-cu m/mole(SRC), derived from its vapor pressure, 6.92X10-7 mm(Hg(5), and water solubility, 766 mg/L(6). According to a classification scheme (7), a BCF of
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), phenacetin, which has a vapor pressure of 6.92X10-7 mm Hg at 25 deg(2), will exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase phenacetin is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 22 hrs(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 1.75X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(SRC) that was derived using a structure estimation method(3). Particulate-phase phenacetin may be removed from the air by wet or dry deposition(SRC). Phenacetin does not absorb at wavelengths >290 nm(4) and therefore is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight(SRC).

Supplier Location

Top Suppliers

Diamond member Nanjing Bangnuo Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member Nanjing Bangnuo Biotechnology Co., Ltd
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member Yichang yongnuopharm co.,ltd
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member Hangzhou Dayangchem Co., Ltd.
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member Hubei XinRunde Chemical Co., Ltd
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member Wuhan H.X.K Fine Chemicals Co.,LTD
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member chengdu yancey import& export trade co.,ltd
Business Type:Trading Company
Diamond member Wuhan Fortuna Chemical Co., Ltd.
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member AOPHARM
Business Type:Manufacturer
Diamond member Shulin Li
Business Type:Manufacturer

Quick Search

Cas    Name

Related products