Identification and Related Records
- 【CAS Registry number】
Dinitrogen oxide (N2O)
? Nitrous oxide
- 【Molecular Formula】
- N2O (Products with the same molecular formula)
Chemical and Physical Properties
- Oxidant, strongly supports combustion. May react violently with some materials. Thermal decomposition yields toxic products. Incompatible with aluminium, boron oxides, hydrazine, strong reducing agents.
- 【Computed Properties】
- Molecular Weight:44.0128 [g/mol]
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Topological Polar Surface Area:54.5
Heavy Atom Count:3
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1
Safety and Handling
- 【Hazard Codes】
- Supports combustion, can form explosive mixture with air. Narcotic in high concentration. TLV: 50 ppm; not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
Moderately toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: general anesthetic, decreased pulse rate without blood pressure fall, and body temperature decrease. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. An asphyxiant. Does not burn but is flammable by chemical reaction and supports combustion. Moderate explosion hazard; it can form an explosive mixture with air. Violent reaction with Al, B, hydrazine, LiH, LiC6H5, PH3, Na, tungsten carbide. Also self-explodes at high temperatures.
Risk Statements: 8
R8: Contact with combustible material may cause fire
Safety Statements: 38
S38: In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment
F: 4.5-31: Do not heat over 50 °C. Do not puncture.
RIDADR: UN 1070 2.2
WGK Germany: 1
- 【Fire Potential】
- ALTHOUGH NITROUS OXIDE IS NOT FLAMMABLE, IT SUPPORTS COMBUSTION AS ACTIVELY AS DOES OXYGEN WHEN IT IS PRESENT IN PROPER CONCN WITH A FLAMMABLE ANESTHETIC.
- Entonox /is/ a mixture of equal volumes of nitrous oxide & oxygen.
Nitrous oxide ... contains not less than 99.0%, by volume, of nitrous oxide. The remainder is chiefly nitrogen.
/Various grades available/ electronic ... technical (99.0%, liquid phase) ... CP (99.0%), UHP (99.99%), atomic absorption (99.0%), USP.
Pure, 98% min, USP (97% min).
- 【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
- /GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Fire or Explosion: Substance does not burn but will support combustion. Some may react explosively with fuels. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Health: Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. Always wear thermal protective clothing when handling refrigerated/cryogenic liquids. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 500 meters (1/3 mile). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Fire: Use extinguishing agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. Small fires: Dry chemical or CO2. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Damaged cylinders should be handled only by specialists. Fire involving tanks: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Spill or Leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Allow substance to evaporate. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. CAUTION: When in contact with refrigerated/cryogenic liquids, many materials become brittle and are likely to break without warning. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Clothing frozen to the skin should be thawed before being removed. In case of contact with liquefied gas, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Nitrous oxide; Nitrous oxide, compressed; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid/
- 【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
- Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant, aerating agent, and gas. It is also used in dairy product analogs at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practices.
- 【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
- ... EXPLOSIONS HAVE OCCURRED WITH ETHER-NITROUS OXIDE MIXTURES.
Spontaneous ignition occurs when nitrous oxide & lithium hydride or hydrazine are mixed.
Powdered aluminum burns in the vapor of ... nitrous oxide ... .
Amorphous boron ignites when heated in dry nitrous oxide.
The reaction of phenyllithium produces unstable lithium phenylazoxide as a product.
Aluminum, boron, hydrazine, lithium, hydride, phosphine, sodium.
A mixture of nitrous oxide & phosphine can be exploded by a spark.
- 【Other Preventative Measures】
- If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Approach fire with caution.
Evacuation: If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from downwind area based on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
- 【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
- Wear rubber gloves, safety glasses, protective clothing, & self-contained breathing apparatus.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with the liquid or from contact with vessels containing the liquid.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.
Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating.
Nitrous oxide (CAS NO.10024-97-2), its Synonyms are Dinitrogen monoxide ; Dinitrogen oxide ; Hyponitrous acid anhydride ; Laughing gas ; Nitrogen hypoxide ; Nitrogen monoxide ; Nitrous oxide, compressed ; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid ; Oxido nitroso . It is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly sweet odor and taste.
- 【Disposal Methods】
- SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
Use and Manufacturing
- 【Use and Manufacturing】
- Methods of Manufacturing
Thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, controlled reduction of nitriles or nitrates.Consumption Patterns
ABOUT 80-90% IN COMBINATION WITH OXYGEN AS A GENERAL VOLATILE MEDICAL ANESTHETIC; 10-20% PRINCIPALLY AS A PROPELLANT FOR FOOD AEROSOLS, & ALSO AS AN AGENT IN DETECTION OF LEAKS IN NATURAL GAS PIPELINES (1972).
Biomedical Effects and Toxicity
- 【Pharmacological Action】
- - A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
- Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
- 【Therapeutic Uses】
- Aerosol Propellants; Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; Anesthetics, Inhalation
Meconium aspiration syndrome is found in 0.2-6 per 1000 lifeborn neonates. Aspiration of meconium particles may occur before, during or after delivery, associated with deep inspiratory movements due to fetal depression. Aspiration of meconium may cause mechanical obstruction of the airways, chemical pneumonitis, and surfactant inactivation. The disease is commonly associated with the development of pulmonary hypertension and severe respiratory insufficiency. Meconium aspiration syndrome may be prevented, at least in some infants, by appropriate suctioning at birth. Great progress has been made in the treatment: early administration of surfactant improves gas exchange in many neonates. High frequency oscillatory ventilation, nitrous oxide-inhalation and extracorporal membrane oxygenation have a role in severe respiratory failure. [Groneck P, Speer CP; Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 200 (4): 132-7 (1996)]
- 【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
- ... ENTERS THE BODY BY INHALATION & IS READILY ABSORBED THROUGH LUNGS & TRANSPORTED THROUGHOUT BODY.
NITROUS OXIDE ... IS CARRIED IN THE BLOOD IN PHYSICAL SOLN ONLY. IT IS EXCRETED UNCHANGED THROUGH THE LUNGS, BUT A SMALL FRACTION ... ESCAPES THROUGH THE SKIN.
PLACENTAL TRANSMISSION DATA: TIME TO APPEAR IN FETUS, 6 MINUTES; FETAL/MATERNAL CONCENTRATION RATIO, 0.6. /FROM TABLE/
CONCN FOR SURGICAL ANESTHESIA: NITROUS OXIDE-INHALED CONCN 80-85%; BLOOD LEVEL 30-50 MG/100 ML; PARTITION COEFFICIENTS: BLOOD/AIR 0.47; BRAIN/BLOOD 1.1; OIL/BLOOD 3; CLEARANCE RATE OF BLOOD PASSING LUNG (ALVEOLAR TENSION) 63%.
A NORMAL ADULT BREATHING 70% NITROUS OXIDE WILL ACHIEVE 90% EQUILIBRIUM IN ABOUT 15 MIN. DURING THIS TIME, APPROX 10 L ... WILL HAVE BEEN ABSORBED FROM ALVEOLAR GAS INTO BODY.
GASES & VAPORS KNOWN TO BE ABSORBED (OR EXCRETED) BY SKIN INCL ... NITROGEN ... .