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zinc acetate(CAS No. 557-34-6;5970-45-6)

zinc acetate C4H6O4Zn (cas 557-34-6;5970-45-6) Molecular Structure

557-34-6;5970-45-6 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
zinc acetate
【CAS Registry number】
557-34-6;5970-45-6
【Synonyms】
Zinc acetate, anhydrous
Acetic acid, zinc(II) salt
aceticacid,zinc(ii)salt
siltexcl4
Zincacetate,anhydrous
Dicarbomethoxyzinc
Zinc diacetate
zinc(ii)acetate
【EINECS(EC#)】
209-170-2
【Molecular Formula】
C4H6O4Zn (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
183.48
【Inchi】
InChI=1/2C2H4O2.Zn/c2*1-2(3)4;/h2*1H3,(H,3,4);/q;;+2/p-2
【Canonical SMILES】
CC(=O)[O-].CC(=O)[O-].[Zn+2]
【MOL File】
557-34-6;5970-45-6.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
Colourless or white efflorescent crystals
【Density】
1.84
【Melting Point】
83-86℃
【Boiling Point】
242-4°C
【Flash Point】
12 °C
【Water】
430 g/L (20 ºC)
【Solubilities】
Insol in alkalies; sol in dil mineral acids
【Color/Form】
Exists in two crystalline forms, alpha (wurtzite) and beta (sphalerite)
White to grayish-white or yellowish powder colorless cubic crystals
【Stability】
Stable. Incompatible with alkalies, strong oxidizing agents.
【HS Code】
29152900
【Storage temp】
Store at RT.
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:183.49704 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C4H6O4Zn
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:4
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:181.955755
MonoIsotopic Mass:181.955755
Topological Polar Surface Area:80.3
Heavy Atom Count:9
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:25.5
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:3

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xi:Irritant;
【Risk Statements】
R36
【Safety Statements 】
S26;S39
【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Zinc salts of strong mineral acids are astringent, corrosive to skin ... /Zinc salts/
The dust is irritating to eyes, nose and throat. The solid is irritating to skin and eyes.
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be contained with a flexible impermeable membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water.
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone, or sodium bicarbonate. Add soda ash. Adjust pH to neutral (pH 7). Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates or greater concentration.
【Transport】
UN 3077 9/PG 3
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material on fire or involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material does not burn or burns with difficulty.)
【Fire Potential】
Not flammable
【Formulations/Preparations】
REAGENT, 99%; COMMERCIAL, 98.4%
USP, reagent, & technical grades /Dihydrate/
ACS, USP, technical, crystal grades; liquid grade, high purity, ready to use; crystal & anhydrous crystal form, technical grade
GALZIN, Zinc Acetate Capsules (25 mg zinc content) are #1 capsules with aqua blue opaque cap and body, imprinted "93-215." Packaged in bottles of 250 (NDC 57844-215-52). GALZIN, Zinc Acetate Capsules (50 mg zinc content) are #1 capsules with orange opaque cap and body, imprinted "93-208." Packaged in bottles of 250 (NDC 57844-208-52).
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Zinc acetate is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
Trace minerals added to animal feeds as nutritional dietary supplements are generally recognized as safe when added at levels consistent with good feeding practice. Zinc acetate is included on this list.
The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List identifies currently marketed prescription drug products, incl zinc acetate, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by FDA under sections 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: zinc acetate is included in skin protectant drug products (wound healing claims only).
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: zinc acetate is included in diaper rash products.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Incompatible with zinc salts, alkalies and their carbonates, oxalates, phosphates, and sulfides.
【Other Preventative Measures】
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Keep up wind. Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Prevention ... /of metal fume fever/ is a matter of keeping exposure of workers below level of concn currently accepted as satisfactory for working with the metal in industry, preferably by employment of proper local exhaust ventilation to collect fumes at their source. Acceptable respirators are avail commercially but should be used only under suitable conditions. /Zinc/
In all cases where zinc is heated to the point where fume is produced, it is most important to ensure that adequate ventilation is provided. Individual protection is best ensured by education of the worker concerning metal-fume fever & the provision of local exhaust ventilation, or, in some situations by wearing of supplied-air hood or mask.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
... Recommended appropriate protective equipment including protective eyewear, long-sleeved shirts and long-legged pants, rubber gloves, and boots. /zinc salts/
/NISOH certified respirator/; Rubber gloves; Chemical goggles.
【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Ultrafiltration; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Continuous flow, pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial wastewater; Results of Study: 0.38 ppm effluent concentration. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Miscellaneous sorbents; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: Final concentration reduced to 0.1 ppb; SiO2 + CaO slags used. /Zinc/
The proprietary Sulfex process (Permutit Co) has been applied to zinc wastes. The process involves addition of ferrous sulfide, which gradually releases sulfide to precipitate the zinc ... . /Zinc/
In the case where zinc removal is the only consideration and recovery is not warranted, removal by precipitation can be accomplished by standard pH adjustment through lime addition, precipitation and flocculation, and sedimentation, employing standard waste treatment equipment, operating data for existing chemical precipitation units indicate that levels of 1 mg/l or less of zinc are readily obtainable with lime precipitation, although assurance of consistent removal of precipitated zinc to lower levels from the effluent stream may require filtration. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Chemical precipitation; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 10.6% reduction by sedimentation. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Biological Treatment; Chemical Classification: Metals; 1) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 89% reduction; Activated sludge process. 2) Scale of Study: full scale; Type of Wastewater Used: domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 20-91% reduction achieved; Survey of municipal wastewater treatment plants. 3) Scale of Study: Continuous flow and pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 13-14% reduction in primary treatment. 4) Scale of Study: Laboratory scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: Biological growth inhibited; Study of nitrosomas bacteria. 5) Scale of Study: Continuous flow and full scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 60% reduction; Activated sludge process. 6) Scale of Study: Laboratory scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: Oxygen uptake inhibited. 7) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 57% reduction; Activated sludge process. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Chemical precipitation; Chemical Classification: Metals; 1) Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: 1% reduction with alum; 3 coagulants used: 220 ppm of alum at pH= 6.4. 40 ppm of ferric chloride at pH= 6.2; 415 ppm of lime at pH= 11.5; chemical coagulation was followed by dual media filtration. 2) Scale of Study: Laboratory scale, continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic wastewater; Results of Study: 100% reduction with lime; Lime dose of 50 ppm added. 3) Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater and pure compound (one solute in a solvent) Results of Study: Iron system - 63% reduction, low lime system - 85% reduction; High lime system - 76% reduction; 3 coagulant systems were used: Iron system used 45 ppm as Fe of Fe2(SO4)3 at pH= 6.0. Low lime system used 20 ppm as Fe of Fe2 (SO4)3 and 260 ppm of CaO at pH= 10.0. High lime system used 600 ppm of CaO at pH= 11.5. Chemical coagulation was followed by multimedia filtration. 4) Scale of Study: Full scale, continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic wastewater; Results of Study: 90% reduction with lime (full scale); 37% reduction with lime (continuous flow); Lime dose of 350-400 ppm as calcium oxide at pH= 11.3. 5) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 10.6% reduction by sedimentation. 6) Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 91.4% reduction with lime; Lime dose of 400 ppm added. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Reverse osmosis; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Batch flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Pure compound (one solute in a solvent); Results of Study: 1) 96.6% reduction with C/PEI membrane at pH= 8.0 100% reduction with C/PEI membrane at pH= 11.0; CA membrane operated at 400 psig and 16-22 deg C. 2) Results of Study: 96.9%-99.5% reduction with CA membrane; CA membrane operated at 400 psig and 16-22% deg C. /Zinc/
Chemical Treatability of Zinc; Concentration Process: Activated carbon; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Full scale continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: (not stated); 1) Results of Study: 81% reduction; 124 ppb effluent concentration; Carbon used as advanced treatment of biologically and chemically treated wastewater. Plant capacity 0.66 cu m/sec. Data presented for two time periods. 2) Results of Study: 61% reduction; 162 ppb effluent concentration; Carbon used as advanced treatment of biologically and chemically treated wastewater. Plant capacity 0.66 cu m/sec. Data presented for two time periods. /Zinc/
Disposal procedures for spills include ferric hydroxide precipitation and cement-based fixation processes; the latter method is very effective in rendering zinc contaminants insoluble (Dawson and Mercer 1986). Unsalvageable zinc waste may be buried in an approved landfill while salvageable zinc is typically recycled.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

... Anhydrous salt from zinc nitrate and acetic anhydride.
Action of acetic acid on zinc oxide
U.S. Production

(1985) 408X10+3 lb
(1986) >500 thousand-1 million pounds
(1990) >500 thousand-1 million pounds
(1994) >1 million-10 million pounds
(1998) >500 thousand-1 million pounds
(2002) >500 thousand-1 million pounds
Consumption Patterns

(2001) 1410 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2002) 1420 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2003) 1340 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2004) 1400 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/
(2005) 1370 thousand metric tons zinc. /Apparent, all forms/

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Therapeutic Uses】
/Zinc acetate USP is used as/ an astringent in low concentrations and an irritant at high concentrations. It also has mild antibacterial actions similar to those of zinc sulfate. When applied to cuts, it exerts styptic action. After oral ingestion ... .
THERAP CAT: Styptic, astringent
THERAP CAT (VET): Antiseptic, astringent, protective (topical)
Orally administered zinc inhibits copper absorption through the intestine. Oral zinc /acetate/ therapy /for Wilson's disease/ is probably a safe and effective maintenance treatment for patients who were initially treated with chelating agents, and seems to be an appropriate first-line therapy for presymptomatic and pregnant patients. Combination drug therapy of a chelating agent and zinc has no advantages when compared with zinc only, during maintenance therapy.
Zinc acetate has been developed for the treatment of Wilson's disease, an inherited disease of copper accumulation and copper toxicity in brain and liver. Zinc acetate has been approved by the US FDA for maintenance therapy of adult and pediatric Wilson's disease patients but also has efficacy in the treatment of pregnant patients and presymptomatic patients from the beginning. It also has value as adjunctive therapy for the initial treatment of symptomatic patients. Zinc's mechanism of action involves induction of intestinal cell metallothionein (Mt), which blocks copper absorption from the intestinal track. A negative copper balance is caused by blockade not only of absorption of food copper but the blockade of reabsorption of the considerable amount of endogenously secreted copper in saliva, gastric juice and intestinal secretions. Zinc is completely effective in controlling copper levels and toxicity in Wilson's disease, as are other anticopper agents. Zinc's major advantage over other anticopper agents is its extremely low level of toxicity. The only side effect is some degree of initial gastric irritation in approximately10% of patients, which usually decreases and becomes insignificant over time. As with all long-term therapies, compliance is a problem in some patients and dictates regular monitoring with 24 hr urine copper and zinc measurements. As with all anticopper therapies, over a long period of time, overtreatment and induction of copper deficiency can occur. This is to be avoided particularly in children because copper is required for growth. [Brewer GJ; Expert Opin Pharmacother 2 (9): 1473-7 (2001)]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Zinc salts are not equal in solubility, which is important in zinc absorption. The solubility of zinc salts is affected by gastric pH. Healthy subjects were given a single oral dose of 50 mg elemental zinc as the acetate ... under either high (pH > 5) or low (pH
Absorption /of zinc acetate/ by the GI tract is variable in animals and poor in humans. Accumulation occurred in the liver and pancreas. Some regulation of intake and output of zinc probably takes place in the intestines. In rats and mice, metallothionein, a low-molecular-mass cytoplasmic metalloprotein, takes considerable part in this process. Excreted predominantly with feces. Urinary excretion is negligible.
In a study with human volunteers, most of the zinc in a zinc acetate solution (0.1 mmol/L) administered by intestinal perfusion was absorbed from the jejunum, followed by the duodenum and the ileum (357, 230 or 84 nmol/ liter per min per 40 cm respectively). The absorption showed a linear increase at concentrations of 0.1- 1.8 mmol/ L.
The absorption of zinc from soluble zinc acetate, zinc sulfate ... and insoluble zinc oxide was compared in ten human volunteers who were dosed orally with 50 mg Zn in various forms separated by two weeks intervals. Bioavailability of zinc from the various forms was compared on the basis of plasma zinc levels and area under the plasma curve (AUC) analysis. Plasma peak levels were observed after about 2.5 hours for all forms, but maximal plasma Zn concentration amounted to 221 and 225 ug/dL for the acetate and the sulphate form while the peak plasma level for Zn from the oxide was only 159 ug/dL. When AUC values for the different zinc forms were compared, it appeared that the bioavailability of zinc oxide was about 60% of the bioavailability of the soluble forms. /Zinc salts/

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