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Methylamine hydrochloride(CAS No. 593-51-1)

Methylamine hydrochloride CH6ClN (cas 593-51-1) Molecular Structure

593-51-1 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Methylamine hydrochloride
【CAS Registry number】
593-51-1
【Synonyms】
Methanamine,hydrochloride (9CI)
Methanaminium chloride
Methylamine monohydrochloride
Methylammonium chloride
【EINECS(EC#)】
209-795-0
【Molecular Formula】
CH6ClN (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
67.52
【Inchi】
InChI=1/CH5N.ClH/c1-2;/h2H2,1H3;1H
【Canonical SMILES】
CN
【MOL File】
593-51-1.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white to light tan solid
【Density】
g/cm3
【Melting Point】
228-233℃
【Boiling Point】
225-230℃ (15 mmHg)
【Flash Point】
°C
【Water】
soluble
【Solubilities】
soluble
【Color/Form】
Colorless gas [Note: A liquid below 21 degrees F. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas].
Flammable gas at ordinary temp and pressure. Fuming liquid when cooled in ice and salt mixture.
【Stability】
Stable, but may be moisture sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
【HS Code】
29211190
【Storage temp】
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Store protected from moisture.
【Spectral properties】
MAX ABSORPTION (GAS): 190.5 NM (LOG E= 3.51); 215 NM (LOG E= 2.77)
IR: 1651 (Documentation of Molecular Spectroscopy Collection)
13C NMR: 152 (Stothers, Carbon-13 NMR Spectrospcopy, Academic Press, New York)
MASS: 18831 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spetral database, 1990 version)
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:31.0571 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:CH5N
XLogP3-AA:-0.7
H-Bond Donor:1
H-Bond Acceptor:1
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:31.042199
MonoIsotopic Mass:31.042199
Topological Polar Surface Area:26
Heavy Atom Count:2
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:2
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Donor Count:1
Feature 3D Cation Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn:Harmful
【Risk Statements】
R22;R36/37/38
【Safety Statements 】
S26;S37/39
【Safety】

Hazard Codes of?Methanamine,hydrochloride (1:1) (CAS NO.593-51-1):?HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 22-36/37/38?
R22: Harmful if swallowed.?
R36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
Safety Statements: 26-37/39?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S37/39: Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: PA0603000
F: 10
HS Code: 29211190

【Sensitive】
Hygroscopic
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
A severe skin irritant
Irritating to eyes, skin, respiratory tract.
【Cleanup Methods】
Liquid: Evacuate and restrict persons not wearing protective equipment from area of spill or leak until clean-up is complete. Remove all ignition sources. Especially forced ventilation to keep levels below explosive limit. Absorb liquids in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, peat, carbon, or similar material and deposit in sealed containers. Alternatively, spread heavily with sodium bisulfate and sprinkle with water. Then drain into a sewer with a large amount of water /if the sewer is designed to prevent the build up of explosive concentrations/. Keep this chemical out of a confined space, such as a sewer, because of the possibility of an explosion, unless the sewer is designed to prevent the build up of explosive concentrations. It may be necessary to contain and dispose of this chemical as a hazardous waste. If material or contaminated runoff enters waterways, notify downstream users of potentially contaminated waters. Contact your Department of Environmental Protection or your regional office of the federal EPA for specific recommendations. If employees are required to clean-up spills, they must be properly trained and equipped. OSHA 1910.120(q) may be applicable. Gas: If in a building, evacuate building and confine vapors by closing doors and shutting down HVAC systems. Restrict persons not wearing protective equipment for area of spill or leak until cleanup is complete. Remove all ignition sources. Establish forced ventilation to keep levels below explosive limit and to disperse the gas. Wear chemical protective suit with self-contained breathing apparatus to combat spills. Stay upwind and use water spray to "knock down" vapor; contain runoff. Stop the flow of gas, if it can be done safely from a distance. If source is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place, and repair leak or allow cylinder to empty. Keep this chemical out of confined spaces, such as a sewer, because of the possibility of an explosion, unless the sewer is designed to prevent the build up of explosive concentrations. If employees are required to clean-up spills, they must be properly trained and equipped. OSHA 1910.120(q) may be applicable.
Overspread /spill with/ sufficient sodium bisulfate and sprinkle /with/ water.
Releases may require isolation or evacuation. Eliminate all ignition sources. Approach release from upwind. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors, protect personnel, and dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures. Five percent sulfuric acid may be used to neutralize diluted pools. Absorb in noncombustible material for proper disposal. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
Environmental considerations?land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be contained with a flexible impermeable membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquids with fly ash, cement powder, sawdust, or commercial sorbents. Neutralize with sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4). /Methylamine, anhydrous/
Environmental considerations?water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Use surface active agent (e.g. detergent, soaps, alcohols), if approved by epa. Inject ?universal? gelling agent to solidify encircled spill and increase effectiveness of booms. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Add sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4). Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
Environmental considerations?air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment. /Methylamine, Anhydrous and Aqueous solution/
Environmental considerations?land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. Apply ?universal? gelling agent to immobilize spill. Neutralize with sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4). /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
Environmental considerations?water spill: Add sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4). If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
Methylamine is a flammable liquid or gas. If gas, stop the flow of gas if it can be done safely. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool and to protect people attempting shut-off. For water solutions, use water spray, CO2, dry chemical, and alcohol foam extinguishers. Poisonous gases are produced in fire, including oxides of nitrogen. Vapors are heavier than air and will collect in low areas. Vapors may travel long distances to ignition sources and flashback. Vapors in confined areas may explode when exposed to fire. Containers may explode in fire. Storage containers and parts of containers may rocket great distances, in many directions. If material or contaminated runoff enters waterways, notify downstream users of potentially contaminated waters. Notify local health and fire officials and pollution control agencies. Containers may explode in fire. From a secure, explosion-proof location, use water spray to cool exposed containers. If cooling streams are ineffective (venting sound increases in volume and pitch, tank discolors, or shows any signs of deforming), withdraw immediately to a secure position. If employees are expected to fight fires, they must be trained and equipped in OSHA 1910.156.
STOP FLOW OF GAS BEFORE EXTINGUISHING FIRE. USE WATER SPRAY TO KEEP FIRE-EXPOSED CONTAINERS COOL. USE WATER SPRAY, DRY CHEMICAL, OR "ALCOHOL RESISTANT" FOAM. AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS WILL BURN UNLESS DILUTED THOROUGHLY WITH SPRAY.
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use ?alcohol? foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
【Fire Potential】
FLAMMABLE GAS AT ORDINARY TEMP AND PRESSURE.
Flammable gas. Aqueous solutions are flammable unless diluted extensively.
【Formulations/Preparations】
GRADES: Technical (Anhydrous; 30-40% soln).
Available commercially as a 40% or 50% aqueous solution.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ Fire or Explosion: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. May form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Some of these materials may react violently with water. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release flammable gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled. Vapors are extremely irritating. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 (330 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 800 meters (1/2 mile). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ Fire: DO NOT EXTINGUISH A LEAKING GAS FIRE UNLESS LEAK CAN BE STOPPED. Small fires: Dry chemical or CO2. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Damaged cylinders should be handled only by specialists. Fire involving tanks: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 118: GASES - FLAMMABLE - CORROSIVE/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with liquefied gas, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Keep victim under observation. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire or Explosion: Flammable/combustible materials. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire: Some of these materials may react violently with water. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Do not get water inside containers. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers ... . Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
/GUIDE 132: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
A medium strong base. Reacts violently with strong acids, mercury, strong oxidizers, nitromethane. Corrosive to copper, zinc alloys, aluminum, and galvanized surfaces.
Forms an explosive mixture with nitromethane.
May react with acids, oxidizing materials, chlorine, hypochlorite, halogenated compounds, reactive organic compounds and some metals, and mercury and nitrosating compounds.
Mercury, strong oxidizers, nitromethane [Note: Corrosive to copper & zinc alloys, aluminum & galvanized surfaces].
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Attempt to stop leak if without hazard. /Methylamine, Anhydrous/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. Approach fire with caution. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
Evacuation: If fire becomes uncontrollable or container is exposed to direct flame?consider evacuation of one-half (1/2) mile radius. If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from downwind area based on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions. /Methylamine, anhydrous/
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. /Solution/
Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard (i.e., for liquids with a flash point less than 100 deg F).
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to disperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Methylamine, aqueous solution/
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Wear appropriate clothing to prevent any possibility of skin contact with liquid methylamine. Wear eye protection to prevent any possibility of eye contact. Employees should wash immediately when skin is wet or contaminated. Remove clothing immediately if wet or contaminated to avoid flammability hazard. Provide emergency showers and eye wash.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. /Solution/
Compressed gases may create low temperatures when they expand rapidly. Leaks ans uses that allow rapid expansion may cause a frostbite hazard. Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent the skin from becoming frozen.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. /Solution/
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact with the liquid that could result in burns or tissue damage from frostbite.
Quick drench facilities and/or eyewash fountains should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is any possibility of exposure to liquids that are extremely cold or rapidly evaporating.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 100 ppm: (APF = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern./(Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. Substance causes eye irritation or damage; eye protection needed./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern/Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus
【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow = -0.57
【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Controlled incineration (incinerator is equipped with a scrubber or thermal unit to reduce NOx emissions).
/Absorb small spills with paper and/ burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials. Large quantities can be reclaimed or collected & atomized in suitable combustion chamber equipped with appropriate effluent gas cleaning device.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Made by heating methyl alcohol, ammonium chloride, and zinc chloride to about 300 deg C; by heating ammonium chloride and formaldehyde from methanol + ammonia: Smith, U.S. pat 2,456,599 (1948 to Comm Solvents).
Interaction of methanol and ammonia over a catalyst at high temperature. The mono-, di-, and trimethylamines are all produced and yields are regulated by conditions. They are separated by azeotropic or extractive distillation.
U.S. Exports

(1978) 9.09X10+9 G (INCL DI & TRIMETHYLAMINES)
(1982) 5.82X10+9 G (INCL DI & TRIMETHYLAMINES)
Exports of methylamines, which had been declining since their 1993 peak of 34 million pounds to 8 million in 2002 as overseas capacity has grown, were revived with the closure of the Chinook Group's methylamine plant at Sombra, Canada, in 2004. US methylamine exports increased to 15 million pounds that year and have continued climbing to 31 million pounds in 2005.
U.S. Imports

US imports declined from 103 million pounds in 2003 to only 12 million pounds last year. Traditionally, more than 90% of these imports had originated in Canada.
U.S. Production

(1978) 2.42X10+10 G
(1982) 1.90X10+10 G
(1981) 48,106X10+3 lb
(1985) 2.37X10+10 g
Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule. Year Production Range (pounds) 1986 >10 million - 50 million 1990 >50 million - 100 million 1994 >50 million - 100 million 1998 >100 million - 500 million 2002 >50 million - 100 million
This chemical is listed as a High Production Volume (HPV) (65FR81686). Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U.S. in >1 million pounds in 1990 and/or 1994. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule. (IUR) (40 CFR part 710 subpart B; 51FR21438).
Consumption Patterns

CHEM INT FOR: WATER GEL EXPLOSIVES, 49.2%; FOR PESTICIDES, 24.6%; FOR N-METHYLPYRROLIDONE, 11.5%; FOR METHYLALKANOLAMINES, 6.6%; FOR N-METHYLTAURINE SURFACTANTS, 4.9%; FOR PHARMACEUTICALS; 1.6%; FOR OTHER CHEMICALS (EG, PHOTOGRAPHIC DEVELOPER), 1.6% (1982)
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Methylamines. Mono: explosives, 28%; insecticides, 25%; N-methyl pyrrolidone, 25%; other, 22%.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Methylamines. Demand: 1987: 190 million lb; 1988: 195 million lb; 1992 /projected/: 205 million lb (Foreign trade is small). /Methylamines/
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Methylamines. Demand: 310 million pounds in 1996; 318 million pounds in 1997; projected 370 million pounds in 2001.
CHEMICAL PROFILE: Methylamines. Uses: Mono: N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), 37%; pesticides, 28%; alkyl alkanolamines, 25%; surfactants, 7%; miscellaneous, including explosives and pharmaceuticals, 3%.
Chemical Profile: Methylamines. Demand: 2004: 442 million pounds of mono-, di- and trimethylamines; 2005: 450 million pounds; 2009: 500 million pounds, projected. Market demand in 2005 was apparently split between the different products as: monomethylamine, 89 million pounds (20%); dimethylamine, 288 million pounds (64%); trimethylamine, 74 million pounds (16%).
Chemical Profile: Methylamines. Uses: monomethylamine: pesticides, 38% (methamsodium, 22%; methyl isocyanate based 16%); n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), 33%; alkylalkanolamines, 24%; surfactants, 3%; miscellaneous, including explosives and pharmaceuticals, 2%.
【Usage】

Chemical synthesis, buffering agent. The dea lists methylamine as a precursor for many illicit drugs.

【Sampling Procedures】
ANALYTE: ALIPHATIC AMINES; MATRIX: AIR; PROCEDURE: ADSORPTION ON SILICA GEL; ELUTION WITH ACID /ALIPHATIC AMINES/
Collection by impinger or fritted bubbler ...
Analyte: Methylammmonium ion; Matrix: air; Procedure: adsorption on silica gel, desorption with deionized, distilled water
A sampling and analytical procedure for methyl-, dimethyl-, ethyl-, and diethylamine was developed in order to avoid problems typically encountered in the sampling and analysis of low molecular weight aliphatic amines. Samples are collected with adsorbent tubes containing Amberlite XAD-7 resin coated with the derivatizing reagent, NBD chloride (7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole). Analysis is performed by HPLC with the use of a fluorescence and/or UV/visible detector. All four amines can be monitored simultaneously, and neither collection nor storage is affected by humidity. Samples are stable at room temperature for at least two weeks. The methodology has been tested for each amine at sample loadings equivalent to air concn ranges of 0.5 to 30 ppm for a sample volume of 10 liters. The method shows promise for determining other airborne primary and secondary low molecular weight aliphatic amines.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Methylamine ... is not oxidized by amine oxidases yet it is rapidly absorbed and is not excreted in the urine to any appreciable extent.
Identified as a normal constituent of mammalian and human urine.
Various amines were administered orally in the form of hydrochlorides to study the decomposition mechanisms of these compounds as well as their elimination conditions. The volatile alkyl amine nitrogen was measured daily in the urine. Alkyl amines which were eliminated were isolated as picrolonates and identified by melting point and nitrogen content. Only 1.74% to 1.93% of the administered methylamine was passed in the urine. /Amine hydrochlorides/
... this study ... measured the concentrations of mono-, di- and trimethylamine (MMA, DMA and TMA) in gastric fluid from humans, rats, dogs and ferrets, as well as in saliva, blood and urine from humans. Human gastric fluid contained 3.7 +/- 0.4 (SEM) nmol/mL MMA, 12.6 +/- 1.4 nmol/mL DMA and 2.0 +/- 0.4 nmol/mL TMA. MMA, DMA and TMA concentrations in human gastric fluid were similar to those present in human saliva and blood, but were much lower than those present in human urine. The concentrations of these amines in human gastric fluid were lower than those measured in gastric fluid from experimental animals. When ...sodium nitrite /was added/ to human gastric fluid, nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was formed /showing/...that DMA is normally present in human gastric fluid, and that it can be nitrosated to form NDMA. [Zeisel SH et al; Carcinogenesis 9 (1): 179-81 (1988)] PubMed Abstract

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), Koc values of 389 and 449(2), indicate that methylamine is expected to have moderate mobility in soil(SRC). The pKa of methylamine is 10.62(3), indicating that this compound will exist almost entirely in the cation form in the environment; volatilization of methylamine from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process given its cationic state(SRC). Methylamine is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces(SRC) based upon a vapor pressure of 2650 mm Hg(4). Biodegradation of methylamine in soil is expected to be an important fate process(SRC) based upon its biodegradation in aqueous screening tests(5).
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), Koc values of 389 and 449(2), indicate that methylamine is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). A pKa of 10.62(3) indicates methylamine will exist almost entirely in the cation form at pH values of 5 to 9 and therefore volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process(4). According to a classification scheme(5), an estimated BCF of 3(SRC), from its log Kow of -0.57(6) and a regression-derived equation(7), suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Under anaerobic conditions, mixed cultures from anaerobic marine sediments degraded methylamine(8). Using aerobic mixed cultures, methylamine biodegradation was 96% and 107% in the OECD screening test and the closed bottle test, respectively(9).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), methylamine, which has a vapor pressure of 2650 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), is expected to exist solely as a gas in the ambient atmosphere. Gas-phase methylamine is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 18 hours(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 2.2X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 26 deg C(3). Gas-phase methylamine is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with ozone(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 540 days(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 2.13X10-20 cu cm/molecule-sec(4). Methylamine does not contain chromophores that absorb at wavelengths >290 nm(5) and therefore is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight(SRC).

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