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Germanium oxide (GeO2)(CAS No. 1310-53-8)

Germanium oxide (GeO2) GeO2 (cas 1310-53-8) Molecular Structure

1310-53-8 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Germanium oxide (GeO2)
【CAS Registry number】
1310-53-8
【Synonyms】
Germania
Germania (GeO2)
Germanium dioxide
Germanium dioxide (GeO2)
Germanium(IV) oxide
J 005 (oxide)
NSC 294212
【EINECS(EC#)】
215-180-8
【Molecular Formula】
GeO2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
104.64
【Inchi】
InChI=1/GeO2/c2-1-3
【InChIKey】
YBMRDBCBODYGJE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
O=[Ge]=O
【MOL File】
1310-53-8.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white powder or colourless crystals
【Density】
6.239
【Melting Point】
1115℃
【Boiling Point】
1200 °C
【Refractive Index】
1.99
【Flash Point】
°C
【Water】
0.4 g/100 mL
【Solubilities】
0.4 g/100 mL in water
【Color/Form】
COLORLESS, HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS
WHITE POWDER; HEXAGONAL, TETRAGONAL & AMORPHOUS
【Spectral properties】
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.650
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:104.6388 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:GeO2
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:105.911007
MonoIsotopic Mass:105.911007
Topological Polar Surface Area:34.1
Heavy Atom Count:3
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:18.3
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn:Harmful;
【Risk Statements】
R22
【Safety Statements 】
22-24/25
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
IF DUST OF DIOXIDE COMES INTO CONTACT WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF EYE, IT COMBINES WITH MOISTURE TO FORM GERMANIC ACID, WHICH IS AN IRRITANT.
【Formulations/Preparations】
GRADES: TECHNICAL; SEMICONDUCTOR 99.999% PURE.
【Other Preventative Measures】
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
VENTILATION CONTROL: ...EXHAUST VENTILATION SHOULD BE PROVIDED...WHERE DUST OF...DIOXIDE...IS DISPERSED. LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION...NEAR MELTING FURNACES DURING MANUFACTURE OF SEMI-CONDUCTORS & DURING CLEANING OF FURNACES.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
IF DUST OF DIOXIDE COMES INTO CONTACT WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF EYE, IT COMBINES WITH MOISTURE TO FORM GERMANIC ACID, WHICH IS AN IRRITANT.
【Specification】

The Dioxogermane, with the cas registry number 1310-53-8, is a kind of white powder. This kind of chemical is insoluble in water and muriatic acid while soluble in ethylene glycol. As to its usage, it is widely applied in many ways. It could be used in producing germanium and also in the spectral analysis and semiconductor [semiconducting] material; It could alse be usually used in electronic industry.
 
The physical properties of this chemical are below: (1)#H bond acceptors: 2; (2)#H bond donors: 0; (3)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 0; (4)Polar Surface Area: 34.14; (5)Exact Mass: 105.911007; (6)MonoIsotopic Mass: 105.911007; (7)Topological Polar Surface Area: 34.1; (8)Heavy Atom Count: 3; (9)Complexity: 18.3; (10)Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1; (11)Melting Point: >400 °C(lit.); (12)Density: 6.239 g/mL at 25 °C; (13)Refractive index: 1.99.

The production method of this chemical is below: add 6.5 volume of water into the germanium tetrachloride and then stir to keep for one night to get germanium dioxide sediment; Next wash with cold water untill it do not contain any Cl-; Lastly dry to 200℃ to get this product. The chemical equation is as below: GeCl4+2H2O→GeO2+4HCl.
 
When you are using this chemical, you should be very cautious. Being among the harmful chemicals, it may cause damage to health. If swallowed, it will be very dangerous. Therefore, you should avoid contacting with skin and eyes and then do not breathe dust.

Additionally, you could convert the following datas into the molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: O=[Ge]=O
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/GeO2/c2-1-3
(3)InChIKey: YBMRDBCBODYGJE-UHFFFAOYSA-N 

Below are the toxicity information of this chemical:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LDLo intraperitoneal 400mg/kg (400mg/kg)   Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
 
man TDLo oral 1614mg/kg/22W (1614mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ANOREXIA (HUMAN

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"
Nephron. Vol. 54, Pg. 53, 1990.
 
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 1550mg/kg (1550mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 16, Pg. 671, 1978.
mouse LD50 oral 1250mg/kg (1250mg/kg)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 71, 1982.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 2550mg/kg (2550mg/kg)   Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 21, Pg. 773, 1981.
rabbit LD50 subcutaneous 845mg/kg (845mg/kg)   Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
 
rat LC50 inhalation > 1420mg/m3/4H (1420mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 32, Pg. 1037, 1994.
 
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 750mg/kg (750mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 8, Pg. 466, 1953.
rat LD50 oral 1250mg/kg (1250mg/kg)   "Investigations in the Field of Organogermanium Chemistry," Rijkens, F., and G.J.M. Van Der Kerk, Utrecht, Netherlands, Schotanus & Jens Utrecht N.V., 1964Vol. -, Pg. 95, 1964.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 1910mg/kg (1910mg/kg)   Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 21, Pg. 773, 1981.
women TDLo oral 1660mg/kg/17W (1660mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ANOREXIA (HUMAN

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"
Nephron. Vol. 54, Pg. 53, 1990.
 

【Report】

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

MADE BY THE IGNITION OF GERMANIUM DISULFIDE
Germanium concentrates and hydrochloric acid (salt formation/hydration)
The hexagonal form is obtained when germanium tetrachloride is hydrolyzed with water ... . The transformation to the tetragonal form occurs only on heating at 300-900 deg C in the presence of a catalyst ... . The amorphous form is obtained by rapid solidification of molten GeO2 or be reaction of GeCl4 or GeO with oxygen in the gas phase ... .

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Germanium in various forms is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and excreted in the urine (68%) and the feces (9.7%) within 24 hours of administration. It is fairly equally distributed between plasma and red blood cells but is not bound to plasma proteins. Germanium may be transported in the blood, unbound to protein, since it leaves the bloodstream in a few hours. It is widely distributed in body tissue and not selectively retained by any single tissue. Often, within a week it has even disappeared from the tissues in which it was detected. /Germanium/
... EXCRETION OF ... (71)GERMANIUM DIOXIDE IN RABBIT & DOG SHOWED ELIMINATION CHIEFLY VIA THE URINE AS WAS FOUND IN RAT. ESSENTIALLY SAME TYPE OF METABOLIC ACTIVITY OCCURRED WITH NEUTRON-ACTIVATED ... (71)GERMANIUM DIOXIDE DUSTS BY INHALATION.
(71)GERMANIUM DIOXIDE WAS CLEARED ... MORE RAPIDLY FROM LUNGS, KIDNEYS, & LIVER (79% IN 1 DAY), & ONLY TRACER AMT REMAINED IN THESE ORGANS @ 4 & 7 DAYS.
... NEUTRALIZED GERMANIUM DIOXIDE IS READILY ABSORBED FOLLOWING SMALL ... ORAL, SC, IM, OR IP DOSES IN RAT. BLOOD LEVELS ATTAINED SOMEWHAT LESS THAN 10 UG/G WITHIN FEW HR AFTER ... SINGLE SMALL DOSE, GERMANIUM LEAVES BLOODSTREAM WITHIN FEW HR. ... GERMANIUM ... DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT BODY ... NOT SELECTIVELY RETAINED IN ANY TISSUE ... .
EFFECTS OF DUST OF ... GERMANIUM DIOXIDE ... RATS WERE EXPOSED FOR 1 HR & KILLED AT DIFFERENT PERIODS ... . RESULTS SHOWED THAT CLEARANCE FROM LUNGS IS RAPID ... APPEARING WITHIN LIVER & KIDNEYS WITHIN 1 HR ... 52% DISAPPEARING FROM LUNGS WITHIN 24 HR ... . LIVER & KIDNEYS ... SHOWED RAPID ELIMINATION, ONLY TRACE QUANTITIES ... FOUND AFTER 4-7 DAYS.
IN DOGS 90% OF RADIOGERMANIUM OXIDE IS EXCRETED IN URINE IN 72 HR. ... INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO...GERMANIUM OXIDE REVEALED RAPID REMOVAL FROM LUNG TISSUE.
...FOUND THAT CONCN OF GERMANIUM IN HUMAN URINE WERE ABOUT THE SAME AS CONCN IN DIET.../IT WAS/ CONCLUDED THEREFORE THAT DIETARY GERMANIUM IS WELL ABSORBED... ABSORBED GE IS DISTRIBUTED...BETWEEN ERYTHROCYTES & PLASMA (2:3 RATIO) & IS NOT BOUND TO PROTEINS. /GERMANIUM & CMPD/
GERMANIUM DIOXIDE IS RAPIDLY EXCRETED ... .
The clearance /following inhalation/ of germanium dioxide particles (mean size 0.4 um) was even more rapid (79% within 24 hr) /than elemental germanium/ ... .
Neutralized germanium dioxide was rapidly absorbed in rats after gavage (73.4% in 4 hr; 96.4% in 8 hr) ... .
In exposed rabbits and dogs (iv injection germanium dioxide), the highest conc were identified in the kidney, liver, spleen, GI tract, and bone ... .
Excretion of germanium by rabbits in urine after an iv injection of germanium dioxide (13.5 mg in terms of Ge) amounted within 72 hr to 60-77% of the dose and 6-12% was excreted in feces ... . In dogs, 90% in an injection germanium dioxide dose (3.4 mg/kg in terms of Ge) was excreted in urine within 72 hr ... .
IN MICE CONTINUOUS FEEDING OF GERMANIUM CAUSES ACCUMULATION IN THE SPLEEN; HOWEVER SAME IS NOT TRUE FOR RATS. INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO GERMANIUM AND GERMANIUM OXIDE ... REVEALED RAPID REMOVAL FROM THE LUNG TISSUE.

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