Trisodium Citrate 68-04-2 Purity99%

Trisodium Citrate

  • CAS: 68-04-2
  • FOB Price:  Get Latest Price
  • Port:According to the request of customer
  • Minimum Order Quantity:1/Metric Ton
  • Supply Ability:4000 Kilogram/Year
  • Payment Terms:L/C,T/T,Western Union,
  • Updatetime:Oct 25 2017
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MOSINTER GROUP LIMITED [Audited]

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1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylicacid, 2-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:3)Quick Details

  • Classification:Food Additives
  • Cas NO.:68-04-2
  • EINECS:200-675-3
  • Molecular Formula:C6H5Na3O7
  • Melting Point:300°C
  • Boiling Point:309.6°C at 760 mmHg
  • Stability:Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
  • Flash Point:155.2°C
  • Purity:99%
  • Appearance:White crystals
  • usage:used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative
  • Brand Name:MOSINTER
  • Chloride % ≤:0.005
  • Sulfate %≤:0.03
  • As %≤:0.0001

Packaging & Delivery

  • Packaging Detail:According to the request of customer
  • Delivery Detail:within 7 days

Detailed Description

  Trisodium Citrate (CAS: 68-04-2 )

Item

Index

Appearance

White crystals

Purity %≥

99

Sulfate %≤

0.03

Heavy metals (Pb) %≤

0.0005

As %≤

0.0001

Fe %≤

0.001

Oxalate %≤

0.03

Chloride %≤

0.005

Moisture %≤

1.0

Trisodium citrate  has the chemical formula of Na 3C 6H5O7. It is sometimes referred to simply as sodium citrate, though sodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. It possesses a saline, mildly tart flavor. For this reason, citrates of certain alkaline and alkaline earth metals (e.g. sodium and calcium citrates) are commonly known as "sour salt" (occasionally citric acid is erroneously termed sour salt).

Applications

Food   used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative.

Sodium citrate is chiefly used as a food additive, usually for flavor or as a preservative. Its E number is E331. Sodium citrate is employed as a flavoring agent in certain varieties of club soda. Sodium citrate is common as an ingredient in Bratwurst, and is also used in commercial ready to drinkbeverages and drink mixes, contributing a tart flavor.

Buffer

As a conjugate base of a weak acid, citrate can perform as a buffering agent or acidity regulator, resisting changes in pH. Sodium citrate is used to control acidity in some substances, such as gelatin desserts. It can be found in the mini milk containers used with coffee machines. The compound is the product of antacids, such as Alka-Seltzer, when they are dissolved in water.

Medical uses

In 1914, the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin and the Argentine physician and researcher Luis Agote successfully used sodium citrate as an anticoagulant inblood transfusions. It continues to be used today in blood collection tubes and for the preservation of blood in blood banks. The citrate ion chelatescalcium ions in the blood by forming calcium citrate complexes, disrupting the blood clotting mechanism.

In 2003, Oöpik, et al., showed the use of sodium citrate (0.5 grams per kg of body weight) improved running performance over 5 km by 30 seconds.

Sodium citrate is used to relieve discomfort in urinary tract infections, such as cystitis, to reduce the acidosis seen in distal renal tubular acidosis, and can also be used as an osmotic laxative. It is a major component of the WHO Oral Rehydration Solution.

It is used as an antacid, especially prior to anaesthesia, for caesarian section procedures to reduce the risks associated with the aspiration of gastric contents.

Boiler descaling

Sodium citrate is a particularly effective agent for removal of carbonate scale from boilers without removing them from operation and for cleaning automobile radiators.

Company Related Products

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Tamoxifen citrate

Tamoxifen citrate

  • Min. Order: 10 Kilogram
  • Purity: 98%
  • Packaging Detail: As per request of clients
  •   Tamoxifen citrate (CAS: 54965-24-1)

    Item

    Index

    Molecular Formula

    C32H37NO8

    Molecular Weight

    563.64

    Specification

    CP/USP/EP

    Melting point

    140-144 °C

     Storage Condition

    Tamoxifen citrate (CAS: 54965-24-1)

    Solubility

    slightly soluble

     

    Tamoxifen  is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue via its active metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. In other tissues such as theendometrium, it behaves as an agonist, and thus may be characterized as a mixed agonist/antagonist. Tamoxifen is the usual endocrine(anti-estrogen) therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in pre-menopausal women, and is also a standard in post-menopausal women although aromatase inhibitors are also frequently used in that setting.

    Some breast cancer cells require estrogen to grow. Estrogen binds to and activates the estrogen receptor in these cells. Tamoxifen is metabolized into compounds that also bind to the estrogen receptor but do not activate it. Because of this competitive antagonism, tamoxifen acts like a key broken off in the lock that prevents any other key from being inserted, preventing estrogen from binding to its receptor. Hence breast cancer cell growth is blocked.

    Tamoxifen was discovered by pharmaceutical company Imperial Chemical Industries(now AstraZeneca) and is sold under the trade names Nolvadex,Istubal, and Valodex. However, the drug has been widely referred to by its generic name "tamoxifen", even before its patent expiration.

    It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.

     

    Medical uses

    Breast cancer

    Tamoxifen is currently used for the treatment of both early and advanced ER+ (estrogen receptor positive) breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausalwomen. Additionally, it is the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. It is also approved by the FDA for the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk of developing the disease. It has been further approved for the reduction of contralateral (in the opposite breast) cancer. The use of tamoxifen is recommended for 10 years.

    In 2006, the large STAR clinical study concluded that raloxifene is equally effective in reducing the incidence of breast cancer, but after an average 4-year follow-up there were 36% fewer uterine cancers and 29% fewer blood clots in women taking raloxifene than in women taking tamoxifen, although the difference is not statistically significant.

    McCune-Albright syndrome

    In McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) tamoxifen has been used to treat premature puberty and the consequences of premature puberty. Tamoxifen has been seen to decrease rapid bone maturation which is the result of excessive estrogen and alter predicted adult height (PAH). The same effects have also been seen in short pubertal boys.

    However, one in vitro study in 2007 and later an in vivo study in 2008 have shown that tamoxifen induces apoptosis in growth plate chondrocytes, reduces serum IGF-I levels and causes persistent retardation of longitudinal and cortical radial bone growth in young male rats, leading the researches to express concern giving tamoxifen to growing individuals.

    Infertility

    Tamoxifen is used to treat infertility in women with anovulatory disorders. A dose of 10–40 mg per day is administered in days 3–7 of a woman's cycle. In addition, a rare condition occasionally treated with tamoxifen is retroperitoneal fibrosis.

    Gynecomastia

    Tamoxifen is used to prevent estrogen-related gynecomastia, resulting from elevated estrogenic levels. It is taken as a preventative measure in small doses, or used at the onset of any symptoms such as nipple soreness or sensitivity. Other drugs are taken for similar purposes such as clomiphene citrate and the anti-aromatase drugs which are used in order to try to avoid the hormone related adverse effects. Tamoxifen is also sometimes used to treat or prevent gynecomastia in sex offenders undergoing temporary chemical castration.

    Bipolar disorder

    Tamoxifen has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mania in patients with bipolar disorder by blocking protein kinase C (PKC), an enzyme that regulates neuron activity in thebrain. Researchers believe PKC is over-active during the mania in bipolar patients.

    Angiogenesis and cancer

    Tamoxifen is one of three drugs in an anti-angiogenetic protocol developed by Dr. Judah Folkman, a researcher at Children's Hospital at Harvard Medical School in Boston. Folkman discovered in the 1970s that angiogenesis – the growth of new blood vessels – plays a significant role in the development of cancer. Since his discovery, an entirely new field of cancer research has developed. Clinical trials on angiogenesis inhibitors have been underway since 1992 using myriad different drugs. The Harvard researchers developed a specific protocol for a golden retriever named Navy who was cancer-free after receiving the prescribed cocktail of celecoxib, doxycycline, and tamoxifen – the treatment subsequently became known as the Navy Protocol. Furthermore tamoxifen treatment alone has been shown to have anti-angiogenetic effects in animal models of cancer which appear to be, at least in part, independent of tamoxifen's estrogen receptor antagonist properties.

    Control of gene expression

    Tamoxifen is used as a research tool to trigger tissue-specific gene expression in many conditional expression constructs in genetically modified animals including a version of the Cre-Lox recombination technique.

    Riedel's thyroiditis

    Tamoxifen has been proposed as part of a treatment plan for Riedel's thyroiditis.

    Mechanism of action

    Crystallographic structure of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (carbon = white,oxygen = red, Nitrogen = blue) complexed with ligand binding domainof estrogen receptor alpha (cyan ribbon).

    Tamoxifen itself is a prodrug, having relatively little affinity for its target protein, the estrogen receptor. It is metabolized in the liver by thecytochrome P450 isoform CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 into active metabolites such as 4-hydroxytamoxifen (afimoxifene) and N-desmethyl-4-hydroxytamoxifen (endoxifen)which have 30-100 times more affinity with the estrogen receptor than tamoxifen itself. These active metabolites compete with estrogen in the body for binding to the estrogen receptor. In breast tissue, 4-hydroxytamoxifen acts as an estrogen receptor antagonist so that transcription of estrogen-responsive genes is inhibited.

    4-hydroxytamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors (ER), the ER/tamoxifen complex recruits other proteins known as co-repressors and then binds to DNA to modulate gene expression. Some of these proteins include NCoR and SMRT. Tamoxifen function can be regulated by a number of different variables including growth factors. Tamoxifen needs to block growth factor proteins such as ErbB2/HER2 because high levels of ErbB2 have been shown to occur in tamoxifen resistant cancers. Tamoxifen seems to require a protein PAX2 for its full anticancer effect. In the presence of high PAX2 expression, the tamoxifen/estrogen receptor complex is able to suppress the expression of the pro-proliferative ERBB2 protein. In contrast, when AIB-1expression is higher than PAX2, tamoxifen/estrogen receptor complex upregulates the expression of ERBB2 resulting in stimulation of breast cancer growth.

    4-Hydroxytamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors competitively (with respect to the endogenous agonist estrogen) in tumor cells and other tissue targets, producing a nuclear complex that decreases DNA synthesis and inhibits estrogen effects. It is a nonsteroidal agent with potent antiestrogenic properties which compete with estrogen for binding sites in breast and other tissues. Tamoxifen causes cells to remain in the G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle. Because it prevents (pre)cancerous cells from dividing but does not cause cell death, tamoxifen is cytostatic rather than cytocidal.

    The scientific literature is complex with respect to the activity of tamoxifen, and care should be taken to establish whether tamoxifen, or the 4-hydroxy metabolite was used, especially in in vitro assays.


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    TSP/Trisodium Phosphate

    TSP/Trisodium Phosphate

  • Min. Order: 500 Kilogram
  • Purity: 98.0
  • Packaging Detail: According to the request of customer
  • Trisodium Phosphate(CAS: 7601-54-9)

     

    Item

    Index

    Appearance

     White or colorless   granular crystal

    Content(based on Na3PO4·12H2O)   %≥

    98.0

    Phosphorus pentoxide (based on P2O5) %≥

    18.3

    Sulfate (based on SO4) %≤

    0.5

    Chloride (based on Cl) %≤

    0.3

    Water insoluble %≤

    0.10

    Methyl orange alkalinity

    (based on Na2O) %≤

    15.5-19

    Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is the inorganic compound with the formula Na3PO4. It is a white, granular or crystalline solid, highly soluble in water producing an alkaline solution. TSPs are used as cleaning agent, lubricant, food additive, stain remover and degreaser.

    The item of commerce is often partially hydrated and may range from anhydrous Na3PO4, to the dodecahydrate, Na3PO4•12 H2O. Most often found in white powder form, it can also be called trisodium orthophosphate or simply sodium phosphate. Trisodium phosphate was at one time extensively used in formulations for a wide variety of consumer grade soaps and detergents, but ecological problems have largely ended that practice, at least in the western world. Substitutes are not as effective.

    Uses

    Cleaning

    The major use for trisodium phosphate is in cleaning agents. The pH of a 1% solution is 12, and the solution is sufficiently alkaline to saponify grease and oils. In combination with surfactants, TSP is an excellent agent for cleaning everything from laundry to concrete driveways. This versatility and low manufacturing price, made TSP the basis for a plethora of cleaning products sold in the mid-20th century. TSP is still sold, and used, as a cleaning agent, but during the late 1960s its use has diminished owing to government regulations (see below).

    TSP is commonly used after cleaning with mineral spirits in order to remove hydrocarbon residues. TSP may be used with household chlorine bleach in the same solution without hazardous reactions. This mixture is particularly good for removing mildew, but is ineffective at permanently removing mold.

    Although it is still the active ingredient in some toilet bowl cleaning tablets, TSP is generally not good for cleaning bathrooms, because it can stain metal and can damage grout.

    Chlorinated trisodium phosphate

    With the formula Na3PO4.¼ NaOCl.11 H2O, the material called chlorinated trisodium phosphate is used as a disinfectant and bleach, like sodium hypochlorite. It is prepared using NaOCl in place of some of the base to neutralize phosphoric acid.

    Flux

    In theU.S., trisodium phosphate is an approved flux for use in hard soldering joints in medical grade copper plumbing. The flux is applied as a concentrated water solution and dissolves copper oxides at the temperature used in copper brazing. Residues are water soluble and can be rinsed out before plumbing is put into service.

    TSP is used as an ingredient in fluxes designed to deoxygenate nonferrous metals for casting. It can be used in ceramic production to lower the flow point of glazes.

    Painting enhancement

    TSP is still in common use for the cleaning, degreasing and deglossing of walls prior to painting. TSP breaks the gloss of oil based paints and opens the pores of latex based paint providing a surface better suited for the adhesion of the subsequent layer.

    Food additive

    Sodium phosphates (monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, and trisodium phosphate) are approved as a food additive in the EU; used as emulsifying agents, E339.

    Exercise performance enhancement

    Trisodium phosphate has gained a following as a nutritional supplement that can improve certain parameters of exercise performance. The basis of this belief is the fact that phosphate is required for the energy-producing Krebs cycle central to aerobic metabolism. Phosphates are available from a number of other sources that are much milder than TSP. While TSP is not toxic per se, it is severely irritating to gastric mucosa unless used as part of a buffered solution.

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