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Home> Encyclopedia >Food Additives>Pharmaceutical Intermediates>Organic Intermediate
5-Aminosalicylic acid structure
5-Aminosalicylic acid structure

5-Aminosalicylic acid

Iupac Name:5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid
CAS No.: 89-57-6
Molecular Weight:153.13538
Modify Date.: 2022-11-11 20:53
Introduction: In manufacture of light-sensitive paper, azo and sulfur dyes. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
5-Aminosalicylic acid
1.2 Synonyms

2-Cyanobenzoic acid 2-HYDROXY-5-AMINOBENZOIC ACID 3-Carboxy-4-hydroxyaniline 4-Amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 5-AMINO SALICYLIC ACID 5-AMINO-2-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID 5-AMINO-2-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID FOR SYNTHESIS 5-Aminosalicglic acid 5-AMINOSALICILIC ACID 5-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID (MESALAZINE) 5-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID , CRM STANDARD 5-Aminosalicylicacid 5-AS 5-ASA Aminacyl Aminosalicylic Acid Bactylan Benzoic acid, 4-amino-2-hydroxy- EINECS 201-919-1 Lepasen Mesalamine Mesalamine (Lialda) Mesalazine MFCD00007877 Paracipan PASA Pasalon-rakeet Paser Passodico Rezipas rowasa Salvis Sanipirol Tubersan ZR CQ DVQ

1.3 CAS No.
1.4 CID
1.6 Molecular Formula
C7H7NO3 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
1.8 InChkey
1.9 Canonical Smiles
1.10 Isomers Smiles
2. Properties
2.1 Density
2.1 Melting point
2.1 Boiling point
403.9oC at 760 mmHg
2.1 Refractive index
1.5500 (estimate)
2.1 Flash Point
403.9oC at 760 mmHg
2.1 Precise Quality
2.1 PSA
2.1 logP
2.1 Solubility
Soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide.
2.2 Appearance
White to off-white powder
2.3 Storage
Ambient temperatures.
2.4 Chemical Properties
Off-White Crystals
2.5 Color/Form
2.6 PH
4.0-4.1 (0.8g/l, H2O, 20℃)
2.7 pKa
2.74, 5.84(at 25℃)
2.8 Water Solubility
<0.1 g/100 mL at 21 oC
2.9 Spectral Properties
MASS: 75898 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral database, 1990 version)
IR: 13598 (Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Prism collection)
UV: 3580 (Sadtler Research Laboratories spectral collection)
2.10 Stability
Stable. Incompatible with acids, acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, chloroformates, strong oxidizing agents.
2.11 StorageTemp
3. Use and Manufacturing
3.1 Definition
ChEBI: A monohydroxybenzoic acid that is salicylic acid which is substituted by an amino group at the 5-position.
3.2 General Description
Odorless white to pinkish crystals or purplish-tan powder. Aqueous solutions acidic (pH approximately 4.1 at 0.8 mg/L water) .
3.3 Purification Methods
It crystallises as needles from H2O containing a little NaHSO3 to avoid aerial oxidation to the quinone-imine. The Me ester gives needles from *C6H6, m 96o, and the hydrazide has m 180-182o (from H2O). [Fallab et al. Helv Chim Acta 34 26 1951, Shavel J Amer Pharm Assoc 42 402 1953, Beilstein 14 IV 2058.] 5-Aminosalicylic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials Raw materials
3.4 Usage
In manufacture of light-sensitive paper, azo and sulfur dyes.
4. Safety and Handling
4.1 Symbol
4.1 Hazard Codes
4.1 Signal Word
4.1 Risk Statements
4.1 Safety Statements
4.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List identifies currently marketed prescription drug products, incl mesalamine, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by FDA under sections 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
4.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow = 0.98 (est)
4.3 Fire Hazard
Flash point data for 5-Aminosalicylic acid are not available; however, 5-Aminosalicylic acid is probably combustible.
4.4 Hazard Class
4.4 Hazard Declaration
H315; H319; H335
4.4 DisposalMethods
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
NONH for all modes of transport
4.5 Safety Profile
Poison by intraperitoneal route.Moderately toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects byingestion: hypermotility, diarrhea, dermatitis, increasedbody temperature. When heated to decomposition it emitstoxic fumes of NOx.
4.6 Caution Statement
P261-P305 + P351 + P338
4.6 Formulations/Preparations
... The pharmaceutical industry has been developing different delivery systems for Multi-Matrix System (MMX) mesalamine for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The new oral mesalamine formulation is a once-daily MMX tablet that delivers the mesalamine to the colon, making it most useful in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The MMX coating matrix and coating system begin dissolution in the final portion of the ileum. ... [Baker DE; Rev Gastroenterol Disord 6 (3): 146-52 (2006)] PubMed Abstract
Oral: Capsules, extended-release: 250 mg Pentasa, (Shire); 500 mg Pentasa, (Shire). Tablets, delayed-release: 400 mg Asacol, (Procter & Gamble). Rectal: Suppositories: 500 mg Canasa, (Axcan Scandipharm); 1 g Canasa, (Axcan Scandipharm). Suspension: 4 g/60 mL Mesalamine Suspension Enema, (Clay-Park), Mesalamine Suspension Enema, (Teva), Rowasa Suspension Enema (with potassium metabisulfite), (Solvay).
Oral: Tablet Delayed Release: 1.2 g Lialda (Shire).
4.7 WGK Germany
4.7 Report

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

4.8 Safety

Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects by ingestion: hypermotility, diarrhea, dermatitis, increased body temperature. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
Safety Information of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (CAS NO.89-57-6).
Hazard Codes:?IrritantXi
Risk Statements: 36/37/38?
R36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
Safety Statements: 26-36-24/25?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S36: Wear suitable protective clothing.?
S24/25: Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: VO1400000
F: 8-10-23
Hazard Note: Irritant
HS Code: 29225000

4.9 Specification

Stability and Reactivity of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (CAS NO.89-57-6).
Chemical Stability: Air sensitive. Light sensitive.?
Conditions to Avoid: Incompatible materials, light, dust generation, exposure to air, temperatures above 30°C.?
Incompatibilities with Other Materials Strong oxidizing agents, acids, acid chlorides, iron, acid anhydrides, chloroformates.?
Hazardous Decomposition Products Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.?
Hazardous Polymerization Will not occur.?
First Aid Measures:
Eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.
Skin: Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.? Ingestion: Get medical aid. Wash mouth out with water.?
Inhalation: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.?
Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively.?
Handling and Storage:
Handling: Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.?
Storage: Store in a cool, dry place. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store at around 20°C. Store under an inert atmosphere.?


4.10 Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source

Lancet. Vol. 1, Pg. 917, 1984.
man TDLo oral 321mg/kg/15D- (321mg/kg) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): PHOTOSENSITIVITY: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE American Journal of Gastroenterology. Vol. 94, Pg. 3386, 1999.
man TDLo oral 2057mg/kg/17W (2057mg/kg) BLOOD: AGRANULOCYTOSIS Lancet. Vol. 341, Pg. 1476, 1993.
man TDLo oral 6857mg/kg/17W (6857mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

Journal of Hepathology. Vol. 26, Pg. 425, 1997.
monkey LDLo oral 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: PTOSIS: EYE


Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 47, Pg. 509, 1994.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 469mg/kg (469mg/kg) ? Archiv der Pharmazie Vol. 332, Pg. 321, 1999.
mouse LD50 oral 3370mg/kg (3370mg/kg) ? Archiv der Pharmazie Vol. 332, Pg. 321, 1999.
rabbit LD50 skin > 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) ? National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0570511,
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 1gm/kg (1000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD


Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 47, Pg. 505, 1994.


National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0570511,
women TDLo oral 8mg/kg (8mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: HEADACHE

Lancet. Vol. 1, Pg. 917, 1984.
women TDLo oral 80mg/kg/1D-I (80mg/kg) CARDIAC: PULSE RATE

American Journal of Gastroenterology. Vol. 93, Pg. 470, 1998.
women TDLo oral 5400mg/kg/90D (5400mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF ENDOCRINE PANCREAS American Journal of Gastroenterology. Vol. 92, Pg. 2302, 1997.
women TDLo oral 8760mg/kg/1Y- (8760mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ANOREXIA (HUMAN


Clinical Nephrology. Vol. 49, Pg. 265, 1998.
women TDLo oral 21800mg/kg/39 (21800mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: "FIBROSIS, FOCAL (PNEUMOCONIOSIS)"


American Journal of Gastroenterology. Vol. 91, Pg. 1039, 1996.


2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin irritation, Category 2

Skin sensitization, Category 1

Eye irritation, Category 2

Specific target organ toxicity \u2013 single exposure, Category 3

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Signal word


Hazard statement(s)

H315 Causes skin irritation

H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction

H319 Causes serious eye irritation

H335 May cause respiratory irritation

Precautionary statement(s)

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.


P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P332+P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P333+P313 If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P337+P313 If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.


P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P405 Store locked up.


P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification


9. Other Information
9.0 Merck
9.1 BRN
9.2 Overview
Mesalazine is an anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the salicylates, which is active in inflammatory bowel disease. It is considered to be the active moiety of sulphasalazine. A study of the therapeutic properties of sulfasalazine and its constituents[mesalazine (5-amino salicylic acid, 5-ASA) and sulfapyridine] indicated that mesalazine is the therapeutically active component, while sulfapyridine acts as an inert carrier molecule to facilitate delivery to the colon.[2] This discovery, coupled with the implication of sulfapyridine in most of the adverse events associated with sulfasalazine treatment,[3] led to the development of Mesalazine as a pure therapeutic entity.
Mesalazine (fig. 1) is believed to exert its effects via topical actions in the gut lumen. However, orally administered unconjugated mesalazine is extensively absorbed from the proximal small bowel,[4] and alternative oral dosage formulations have been
developed to facilitate the delivery of mesalazine to more distal sites of inflammation. These include microgranules of mesalazine coated with a semipermeable ethylcellulose membrane (Pentasa?), mesalazine encased within a pH-dependent acrylic resin (pH-dependent delayed-release preparations: Salofalk?, Claversal?, Mesasal?, Asacol?), or conjugation of mesalazine via an azo bond to an inert carrier (balsalazide) or to another mesalazine molecule (olsalazine). In each case the properties of the delivery system dictate the site of mesalazine release.

Figure 1 the chemical structure of Mesalazine
9.3 Indication
It is used for the treatment of active ulcerative proctitis.
9.4 Mode of action
The pathogenesis of IBD and hence the mechanism by which mesalazine exerts its therapeutic effects in this disease remain elusive. However, lipid mediators[leukotrienes (LT), prostaglandins (PG), platelet-activating factor (PAF)], cytokines[including interleukins (IL), interferon-(IFN)γ and tumour necrosis factor-(TNF)α] and reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the nonspecific inflammation and tissue damage characteristic of IBD.[5-7] The modulation of these molecules by mesalazine may underlie the therapeutic effects of the drug.[8-11]
Numerous in vitro studies have investigated the effects of mesalazine on inflammatory processes in colonic epithelial cell lines or biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis or with normal colons. Mesalazine also appears to reduce in vitro levels of LTC4, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 11-, 12-, 15-HETE, PGD2 and platelet-activating factor. In addition to inhibiting interferon (IFN)-γ binding, mesalazine reduced IFNγ-induced cell permeability and expression of the HLA-DR product of the major histocompatibility complex in colonic epithelial cell lines. Recent evidence suggests that mesalazine reverses the antiproliferative effects of tumour necrosis factor-(TNF)α and inhibits TNFα signalling events in intestinal cells. Mesalazine may also reduce interleukin (IL)-1/1β and IL-2 production.
A variety of data from experimental work, animal studies and preliminary clinical trials strongly suggest that mesalazine may have antineoplastic and potentially prophylactic (chemo-preventive) properties, which are comparable with those found with aspirin and other NSAIDs. Mesalazine shares similar molecular targets, interfering with inflammation, proliferation and ? or apoptosis, as aspirin and other NSAIDs. This can be explained by the close molecular similarity of mesalazine and aspirin, in which the former differs only in structure by the presence of an amino group at position 5 of the benzene ring. Recent experimental and preliminary clinical work has demonstrated that mesalazine may have in vitro and in vivo inhibitory properties comparable to other NSAIDs.[12-14] Reversible inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2, NF-kB activation, MAP kinases and Bcl-2 by mesalazine, was found in experiments using different cell systems including lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) and cultures from normal and neoplastic cell lines of animal and human origin.[15] In contrast to aspirin, which was shown to inhibit COX irreversibly, mesalazine (and other NSAIDs) inhibit COX and other steps (e.g. Bcl-2) reversibly. The molecular details for the majority of these reactions are only partly known, but recent work has shed light on some of these. Thus, inhibition of NF-kB activation is most likely to be mediated by inhibition of IkB degradation, the inhibitory unit of the NF-kB complex. It is worth noting that mesalazine has rather unspecific COX inhibitory properties with no preference for COX-2.
9.5 Pharmacokinetics
After a single oral dose of prolonged-release mesalazine 250mg to volunteers, the median lag time (tlag) to the first detectable plasma concentration of mesalazine was 45 minutes (range 15 to 150). A maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 0.6 μmol/L (range 0.4 to 1.4) was recorded 240 minutes (tmax; 90 to 300) after dose administration. Corresponding values for acetyl mesalazine were: tlag 22 minutes (15 to 45), Cmax 2.9 μmol/L (1.6 to 3.4) and tmax 105 minutes (60 to 300).[16] The plasma concentration-time profile following a single oral dose of prolonged-release mesalazine 1g to healthy volunteers was consistent with a continuous release of drug throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Plasma concentrations peaked at 0.53 mg/L 4 hours after administration, declined rapidly to 0.03 mg/L at 12 hours, then remained fairly constant over the next 24 hours before resuming the final decline, becoming undetectable 60 hours after administration. The area under the plasma concentrationtime curve (AUC) for mesalazine was 4.37-mg/L ? h.
Little is known about the distribution of prolonged-release mesalazine. In 9 pregnant women with IBD who were receiving prolonged-release mesalazine 0.5 to 3 g/day, low concentrations (approximate values from graph) of mesalazine and acetylmesalazine were measured in maternal (≤0.5 and ≤7.5 μmol/L) and fetal plasma (≤0.25 and ≤18 μmol/L). In 2 patients, low concentrations of mesalazine were detected in breast milk. Mean acetyl mesalazine concentrations in breast milk were 4.4 to 47.5 μmol/L.[18, 19]
Mesalazine is primarily metabolized by acetylation in the gut wall and the liver, forming the therapeutically inert metabolite acetyl mesalazine. Both the parent compound and the metabolite are excreted in the urine.[20] After a single oral administration of prolonged-release mesalazine 0.25g in 6 volunteers, the apparent mean elimination half-life of acetyl mesalazine was 802 minutes (range 608 to 993). Determination of the terminal half-life of mesalazine was not possible because of low plasma concentrations.[16] After oral administration of prolonged-release mesalazine 1.5 to 4 g/day to volunteers, excretion of unchanged mesalazine accounted for 8 to 12% of the daily dose. Total urinary excretion of mesalazine plus acetyl mesalazine was 29 to 53%.[21,22,23] In volunteers, renal clearance of acetyl mesalazine was 12 L/h (201 ml/min) at steady state.[21] In a 7-day study of 15 patients with ulcerative colitis, daily urinary excretion of mesalazine and acetyl mesalazine was higher with prolonged-release mesalazine (1.5 g/day) and pH-dependent delayed-release mesalazine (Asacol ?, 1.2 g/day) than with olsalazine (1 g/day).[17]
9.6 Adverse reactions and toxicity
In an 8-week randomized trial of prolonged release mesalazine 1, 2 and 4 g/day or placebo in patients (n = 314) with ulcerative colitis, 16% of patients receiving active drug experienced treatment-related adverse events, compared with 22% of patients in the placebo group. No dose-response relationship was observed. In total, 5%, 9% and 7% of patients in the 1, 2 and 4 g/day dosage groups discontinued therapy because of treatment-related or unrelated events, compared with 12% of placebo treated patients. The most common treatment limiting adverse events were diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever and melaena.[24] In another 16-week study, the most common adverse events considered to be related to prolonged-release mesalazine treatment were nausea and/or vomiting (7.4 vs 3.7% in the placebo group), headache (5.2 vs 3.7%) and abdominal pain (4.3 vs 5.0%).[26]
In a 12-month study involving 205 patients with ulcerative colitis, adverse events necessitating withdrawal occurred in 14% and 33% (2% and 6% considered to be treatment-related) of patients receiving prolonged-release mesalazine 4 g/day and placebo, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events (most commonly nausea 2.9%, abdominal pain 1.9% and dyspepsia 1.9%) were experienced in 6.8% of patients receiving prolonged-release mesalazine. In contrast, 11.8% of patients in the placebo group experienced adverse events related to therapy.[25] In a non-comparative study in 467 patients with Crohn’s disease who received prolongedrelease mesalazine at dosages up to 4 g/day for a median of 14 months, 12%of patients discontinued because of treatment-related adverse events, of which the most commonly reported were diarrhoea (4.3%), abdominal pain (3.6%) and dyspepsia (3.1%).[27]
9.7 References
  1. Martin F. Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: an update. Dig Dis Sci 1987; 32 (12 Suppl.): 57S-63S
  2. Azad Khan AK, Piris J, Truelove SC. An experiment ot determine the active therapeutic moiety of sulphasalazine. Lancet 1979; II (8044): 892-5
  3. Schr?der H, Price E, Evans DA. Acetylator phenotype and adverse events of sulphasalazine in healthy subjects. Gut 1972; 13 (4): 278-84
  4. Haagen Nielsen O, Bondesen S. Kinetics of 5-aminosalicylic acid after jejunal instillation in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 16 (6): 738-40
  5. Ireland A, Jewell DP. Mechanism of action of 5-aminosalicylic acid and its derivatives. Clin Sci 1990; 78: 119-25
  6. Greenfield SM, Punchard NA, Teare JP, et al. Review article: the mode of action of the aminosalicylates in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1993; 7: 369-83
  7. Travis SPL, Jewell DP. Salicylates for ulcerative colitis – their mode of action. Pharmacol Ther 1994; 63: 135-61
  8. Schmidt C, Fels T, Baumeister B, et al. The effect of 5aminosalicylate and para-aminosalicylate on the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in isolated colonic mucosal cells. Curr Med Res Opin 1996; 13 (7): 417-25
  9. Capasso F, Tavares IA, BennettA. Release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) from human colon mucosa and its inhibition by 5-aminosalicylic acid. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1991; 17: 351-3
  10. Rachmilewitz D, Karmeli F, Schwartz LW, et al. Effect of aminophenols (5-ASA and 4-ASA) on colonic interleukin-1 generation. Gut 1992; 33: 929-32
  11. Di Paolo MC, Merrett MN, Crotty B, et al. 5-Aminosalicylic acid inhibits the impaired epithelial barrier function induced by gamma interferon. Gut 1996; 38: 115-9
  12. Vainio H, Morgan G. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the chemoprevention of gastrointestinal cancers. Scand J Gastroenterol 1998; 33: 785–9.
  13. Bus PJ, Nagtegaal ID, Verspaget HW, et al. Mesalazine-induced apoptosis of colorectal cancer: on the verge of a new chemopreventive era? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 1397–402.
  14. Reinacher-Schick A, Seidensticker F, Petrasch S, et al. Mesalazine changes apoptosis and proliferation in normal mucosa of patients with sporadic polyps of the large bowel. Endoscopy 2000; 32: 245–54.
  15. Egan LJ, Mays DC, Huntoon MP, et al. Inhibition of interleukin-1-stimulated NF-jB RelA ? p65 phosphorylation by mesalazine is accompanied by decreased transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 26448–53.
  16. Bondesen S, Hegnhoj J, Larsen F, et al. Pharmacokinetics of 5-aminosalicylic acid in man following administration of intravenous bolus and Per Os slow-release formulation. Dig Dis Sci 1991; 36: 1735-40
  17. Daneshmend TK, Hendrickse M, Salzmann M, et al. Does systemic absorption of 5-aminosalicylic acid from olsalazine (Dipentum?) and mesalazine (Asacol? and Pentasa?) differ significantly in ulcerative colitis?[abstract]. Gut 1994; 35 Suppl. 4: 233
  18. Staerk-Laursen L, Stokholm M, Bukhave K, et al. Disposition of 5-aminosalicylic acid by olsalazine and three mesalazine preparations in patients with ulcerative colitis: comparison of intraluminal colonic concentrations, serum values, and urinary excretion. Gut 1990; 31: 1271-6
  19. Christensen LA, Rasmussen SN, Hansen SH. Disposition of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in fetal and maternal body fluids during treatment with different 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1994; 74: 399-402
  20. Lauritsen K, Laursen LS, Rask-Madsen J. Clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (Part II). Clin Pharmacokinet 1990; 19: 94-125
  21. Rasmussen SN, Bondesen S, Hvidberg EF, et al. 5-Aminosalicylic acid in a slow-release prepararation: bioavailability, plasma level, and excretion in humans. Gastroenterolo 1982; 83: 1062-70
  22. Christensen LA, Fallingborg J, Abildgaard K, et al. Topical and systemic availability of 5-amino-salicylate: comparisons of three controlled release preparations in man. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1990; 4: 523-33
  23. Christensen LA, Fallingborg J, Jacobsen BA, et al. Comparative bioavailability of 5-aminosalicylic acid from a controlled release preparation and an azo-bond preparation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1994; 8: 289-94
  24. Hanauer S, Schwartz J, RobinsonM, et al.Mesalamine capsules for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: results of a controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88: 1188-97
  25. Miner P, Hanauer S, Robinson M, et al. Safety and efficacy of controlled-release mesalamine for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 296-304
  26. Singleton JW, Hanauer SB, Gitnick GL, et al. Mesalamine capsules for the treatment of active Crohn’s disease: results of a 16-week trial. Pentasa Crohn’s Disease Study Group[see comments]. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 1293-301
  27. Hanauer SB, Krawitt EL, Robinson M, et al. Long-term management of Crohn’s disease with mesalamine capsules (Pentasa ?). Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88: 1343-51
9.8 Description
5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a metabolite and potential pharmacologically active component of sulphasalazine, a drug used in the treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism by which this drug works has not been established. In whole blood assays, 5-ASA proves to be a weak, non-selective inhibitor of both COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 values of 410 and 61 μM, respectively. In ionophore-stimulated colonic mucosal cells, 1 mM 5-ASA does not inhibit prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, but does reduce leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis approx. 50%. In ionophore-stimulated human leukocytes, 400 μM 5-ASA reduces LTB4 production approximately 20%. 5-ASA does not inhibit 15-hydroxy PGDH at concentrations up to 50 μM.
9.9 Description
Fisalamine is an intestinal metabolite of sulfasalazine useful in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and to a lesser degree in the management of Crohn’s disease. Administered as a suppository, it appears to lack the hypersensitivity-type side effects of sulfasalazine.
9.10 Chemical Properties
Off-White Crystals
9.11 Originator
Radcliffe Infirmary (United Kingdom)
9.12 Uses
In manufacture of light-sensitive paper, azo and sulfur dyes.
9.13 Uses
The active metabolite of Sulfasalazine (S699084). Anti-inflammatory (gastrointestinal).
9.14 Uses
anesthetic (local)
9.15 Uses
peroxidase substrate
9.16 Uses
For the treatment of active ulcerative proctitis.
9.17 Definition
ChEBI: A monohydroxybenzoic acid that is salicylic acid which is substituted by an amino group at the 5-position.
9.18 Manufacturing Process
Procedure A: To 5-nitrosalicylic acid potassium salt (55 g, 246 mmol) dissolved in water (200 mL) was added potassium hydroxide pellets to reach pH 11.5. To this solution 2 g of Raney nickel were added. The mixture was heated-up to reflux and hydrazine hydrate (40 mL, 80% in water, 64 mmol) was added dropwise during 3-4 hrs. The reflux was maintened until HPLC showed the disappearance of the starting material and the complete reduction of 5-nitrosalicylic acid (3-4 hrs). The hot mixture was filtered under nitrogen and the solution was collected. The solution was cooled to 40°C and the pH was adjusted to 2.3 by addition of 35% HCl aqueous solution. The precipitation of 5-aminosalicylic acid occurred. The solution was cooled at 0°C, and after standing at this temperature for 2 hr, the precipitate was filtered, washed with water, and dried at 60-70°C. 5-Aminosalicylic acid was obtained in 89% yield.
Procedure B: To 5-nitrosalicylic acid potassium salt (55 g, 246 mmol) dissolved in water (200 mL) was added potassium hydroxide pellets to reach pH 11.5. The solution was charged in a stainless steel autoclave and 2 g of Raney nickel are added. Hydrogen was introduced into the autoclave reaching a pressure of 8 atm. The mixture was heated-up to 100°C. The temperature was maintained until HPLC-test 5-aminosalicylic acid showed the disappearance of the starting material and the complete reduction of 5- aminosalicylic acid (6-8 hrs). Hydrogen was purged and replaced by nitrogen. The hot mixture was filtered under nitrogen, the filtrate was cooled to 40°C, and the pH was adjusted to 2.3 by addition of 35% HCl aqueous solution. The precipitation of the 5-aminosalicylic acid occurred. The solution was cooled at 0°C, and after standing at this temperature for 2 hr, the precipitate was filtered, washed with ion depleted water, and dried at 60-70°C.
9.19 Usage
5-Aminosalicylic acid is used in the preparation of gastrointestinal anti-inflammatory agents. It is a metabolite of sulfasalazine. It acts as a drug involved in the treatment of Crohn?s disease and ulcerative colitis. Further, it is used to make dyes and light-sensitive papers.
9.20 Brand name
9.21 Therapeutic Function
9.22 General Description
Odorless white to pinkish crystals or purplish-tan powder. Aqueous solutions acidic (pH approximately 4.1 at 0.8 mg/L water) .
9.23 Air & Water Reactions
Sensitive to moisture. Water insoluble.
9.24 Reactivity Profile
5-Aminosalicylic acid is incompatible with acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, chloroformates and strong oxidizers.
9.25 Fire Hazard
Flash point data for 5-Aminosalicylic acid are not available; however, 5-Aminosalicylic acid is probably combustible.
9.26 Biochem/physiol Actions
5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a first-line medicine, used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis (UC). It has a high-efficiency rate in maintenance and induction of remission. 5-ASA is an active component of sulfasalazine and also consists of the carbohydrate polymer, inulin. It might exhibit anti-oxidant activity to lessen tissue injury. 5-ASA is vital for the prevention of T cell activation and proliferation. It negatively regulates cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways and lowers the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. 5-ASA stimulates the membranous expression of E-cadherin and boosts intercellular adhesion.
9.27 Safety Profile
Poison by intraperitoneal route.Moderately toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects byingestion: hypermotility, diarrhea, dermatitis, increasedbody temperature. When heated to decomposition it emitstoxic fumes of NOx.
9.28 Purification Methods
It crystallises as needles from H2O containing a little NaHSO3 to avoid aerial oxidation to the quinone-imine. The Me ester gives needles from *C6H6, m 96o, and the hydrazide has m 180-182o (from H2O). [Fallab et al. Helv Chim Acta 34 26 1951, Shavel J Amer Pharm Assoc 42 402 1953, Beilstein 14 IV 2058.]
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 153.13538g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: C7H7NO3
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: null
  • Exact Mass: 153.042593085
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 153.042593085
  • Complexity: 160
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 1
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 3
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 4
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 83.6
  • Heavy Atom Count: 11
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
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12. Realated Product Infomation