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Barium carbonate structure
Barium carbonate structure

Barium carbonate

Iupac Name:barium(2+);carbonate
CAS No.: 513-77-9
Molecular Weight:197.3359
Modify Date.: 2022-11-10 15:22
Introduction: Barium carbonate has the molecular formula ofBaCO3 and the molecular weight of 197.3359 g/mol. ItsCAS number is 513-77-9. Barium carbonate has onlyone stable form (aragonite-type structure) and temperatureof precipitation has no effect on crystal form, unlikethat of calcium or magnesium carbonates. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Barium carbonate
1.2 Synonyms

BARIUM (II) CARBONATE (GAMMA-TYPE) bariumcarbonate(1:1) bariumcarbonate(baco3) bariummonocarbonate bf1(salt) CARBONIC ACID BARIUM SALT EINECS 208-167-3 MFCD00003448 WITHERITE

1.3 CAS No.
513-77-9
1.4 CID
10563
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
208-167-3
1.6 Molecular Formula
CBaO3 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/CH2O3.Ba/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+2/p-2
1.8 InChkey
AYJRCSIUFZENHW-UHFFFAOYSA-L
1.9 Canonical Smiles
C(=O)([O-])[O-].[Ba+2]
1.10 Isomers Smiles
C(=O)([O-])[O-].[Ba+2]
2. Properties
2.1 Density
4.43
2.1 Melting point
811℃
2.1 Boiling point
1450℃
2.1 Refractive index
Indices of refraction: 1.529, 1.676, 1.677
2.1 Flash Point
169.8 °C
2.1 Precise Quality
197.89000
2.1 PSA
63.19000
2.1 logP
-2.44700
2.1 Solubility
0.02g/l
2.2 Appearance
White powder
2.3 Storage
Ambient temperatures.
2.4 Autoignition Temperature
Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
2.5 Chemical Properties
Industrial product is white powder. Almost insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, soluble in acid and ammonium chloride solution.
2.6 Color/Form
White, heavy powder
2.7 Odor
Odorless
2.8 PH
7-8 (0.016g/l, H2O, 16℃)
2.9 Water Solubility
0.002 g/100 mL (20 oC)
2.10 Stability
Thermally stable
2.11 StorageTemp
Store at +5°C to +30°C.
3. Use and Manufacturing
3.1 General Description
Barium carbonate is a white powder. Barium carbonate is insoluble in water and soluble in most acids, with the exception of sulfuric acid. Barium carbonate has a specific gravity of 4.275. Barium carbonate is toxic by ingestion.
3.2 Usage
(1) Barium carbonate is mainly used for the manufacture of optical glass, funnels, and barium magnetic materials, the manufacture of other barium salts, ceramic, enamel, paint, welding rod feed(2) It is important chemical raw materials for the production of funnels, magnetic materials and advanced optical glass.(3) It is used for fireworks, flares preparation, also used for auxiliary material of ceramic coatings and optical glass.(4) It is used for the manufacture of electronic ceramics, PTC thermistors, capacitors and other electronic components.(5) Barium carbonate is mainly used for the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass, and barium magnetic materials and capacitors, it is also used for carburizing steel and metal surface treatment. It is the raw material of manufacturing other barium salts and ceramic, enamel, pigments, paints, rubber, electrode. It is also used as rodenticides and purifying agent, oxidation catalyst.(6) It is mainly used for the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass, and barium magnetic materials and capacitors, it is also used for carburizing steel and metal surface treatment. It is the raw material of manufacturing other locks salt and ceramic, enamel, pigments, paints, rubber, electrode. It is also used as purifying agent and rodenticides.(7) It is used for the production of funnels, electronic ceramics and purified water, producing pigment, paint or other barium salts, it is used for the manufacture of optical glass, barium magnetic materials, it is important chemical raw material of manufacturing funnels, magnetic materials and advanced optical glass. It is used for fireworks, flares preparation, it is also used as auxiliary material of ceramic coatings and optical glass, it is used for manufacturing electronic ceramics, PTC thermistor, capacitor of electronic components, it is mainly used in the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass and barium magnetic materials and capacitors, it is also used for carburizing steel and metal surface treatment. It is raw material of manufacturing other barium salts and ceramic, enamel, pigments, paints, rubber, electrode materials. It is also used as rodenticides and purifying agent, oxidation catalyst. It is mainly used in the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass and barium magnetic.
4. Safety and Handling
4.1 Symbol
GHS07
4.1 Hazard Codes
Xn
4.1 Signal Word
Warning
4.1 Risk Statements
R22
4.1 Safety Statements
S24/25
4.1 Packing Group
III
4.1 Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
4.2 Other Preventative Measures
If employees' clothing has had any possibility of being contaminated with barium carbonate ... or liq containing ... /this/ cmpd, employees should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises. ... Clothing contaminated with barium carbonate ... should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of contaminant from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or otherwise cleaned to remove the contaminant, the person performing the operation should be informed of contaminant's hazardous properties. ... Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated with barium carbonate ... should be removed promptly and not reworn until the contaminant is removed from the clothing.
Skin that becomes contaminated with barium carbonate ... should be promptly washed or showered to remove any contaminant. ... Employees should use soap or mild detergent and water for washing purposes.
Eating and smoking should not be permitted in areas where solid barium carbonate ... or liq containing ... /this/ cmpd are handled, processed, or stored. Employees who handle barium carbonate ... or liq containing ... /this/ cmpd should wash their hands thoroughly before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities. ... employees should use soap or mild detergent and water for washing purposes.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Do not use water.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment.
4.3 Hazard Class
6.1(b)
4.3 Hazard Declaration
H302
4.3 DisposalMethods
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
Group III Containers (both combustible and non-combustible) that previously held organic mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, or inorganic pesticides should be triple rinsed, punctured and disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Non-rinsed containers should be encapsulated and buried at a specially designated landfill site. /Organic mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, or inorganic pesticides/
4.4 DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Barium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. /Barium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Barium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Barium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Barium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Barium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Barium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Barium compound, NOS/
4.5 RIDADR
UN 1564
4.5 Fire Fighting Procedures
If material on fire or involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources.
4.6 FirePotential
Not flammable
4.7 Safety Profile
Poison by ingestion,intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes.Human systemic effects by ingestion:stomach ulcers, muscle weakness,paresthesias and paralysis, hypermotility,diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, lung changes.Experimental reproductive effects.Incompatible with BrF3 and 2-furanpercarboxylic acid. See also BARIUMCOMPOUNDS (soluble). Barium carbonate Preparation Products And Raw materials Raw materials
4.8 Caution Statement
P301 + P312 + P330
4.8 Formulations/Preparations
GRADES: TECHNICAL; CHEMICALLLY PURE; REAGENT 99.5%
ACS grade; -8 mesh particle size, 99 and 99.999% purity grades; 9.9% powder grade; type A & B, powder; type C & D, granular grades
Grades or purity: Reagent grade- 99.0%; ceramic grade- 99.3%; glass grade- 98.8%; electronic ceramic grade- 99.6%
Rat baits usually prepared of one part barium carbonate and four parts of a protein carbonate rich food as rolled oats, fish meal, etc, moistened with milk or water.
4.9 WGK Germany
-
4.9 RTECS
CQ8600000
4.9 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Contact of barium carbonate with acids causes formation of carbon dioxide gas that may cause suffocation in enclosed spaces.
4.10 Report

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. Barium and its compounds are on the Community Right-To-Know List.

4.11 Safety

Poison by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: stomach ulcers, muscle weakness, paresthesias and paralysis, hypermotility, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, lung changes. Experimental reproductive effects. Incompatible with BrF3 and 2-furanpercarboxylic acid. See also BARIUM COMPOUNDS (soluble).
Hazard Symbols:HarmfulXn
Risk Codes: R22
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
Safety Description?: S24/25
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
RIDADR: UN 1564 6.1/PG 3
RTECS: CQ8600000
HazardClass: 6.1(b)
PackingGroup: III

4.12 Specification

? Barium Carbonate , with CAS number of 513-77-9, can be called (Carbonic acid barium salt ; barium carbonate ; barium (ii) carbonate (gamma-type) ; witherite ; bariumcarbonate(1:1) ; bariumcarbonate(baco3) ; bariummonocarbonate ; bf1(salt) .? The applications of Barium Carbonate (CAS NO.513-77-9) are varied and include use as oil-drilling mud. Barium carbonate is sometimes employed as a neutralizing agent for sulfuric acid and, because both barium carbonate and barium sulfate are insoluble, no contaminating barium ions are introduced. The foregoing application is found in the synthetic dyestuff industry.
Barium carbonate is used in the glass industry and in the brick and clay industry. When barium carbonate is added to the clay used in making bricks, it immobilizes the calcium sulfate and prevents it from migrating to the surface of the bricks and producing a whitish suiface discoloration.

4.13 Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LDLo oral 4mg/kg (4mg/kg) ? Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 28, Pg. 329, 1977.
dog LDLo oral 400mg/kg (400mg/kg) ? Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. Vol. -, Pg. 95, 1966.
human LDLo oral 17mg/kg (17mg/kg) ? Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 28, Pg. 329, 1977.
human TDLo oral 11mg/kg (11mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM STOMACH Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 31, Pg. 1247, 1980.
human TDLo oral 29mg/kg (29mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITHOUT ANESTHESIA (USUALLY NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE)

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS

PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: PARESTHESIS
Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. Vol. 3, Pg. 565, 1967.
man LDLo oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

CARDIAC: CHANGE IN RATE

CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES
Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 28, Pg. 329, 1977.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 50mg/kg (50mg/kg) ? "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 23, 1982.
mouse LD50 oral 200mg/kg (200mg/kg) ? "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 23, 1982.
rat LD50 oral 418mg/kg (418mg/kg) ? "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 23, 1982.
rat LDLo intravenous 20mg/kg (20mg/kg) ? Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. Vol. 1, Pg. 1, 1975.
women TDLo oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
British Medical Journal. Vol. 289, Pg. 882, 1984.

5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 4

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Warning

Hazard statement(s)

H302 Harmful if swallowed

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

Response

P301+P312 IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

P330 Rinse mouth.

Storage

none

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

6. NMR Spectrum
7. Other Information
7.0 Merck
14,969
7.1 BRN
7045119
7.2 Chemical properties
Industrial product is white powder. Almost insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, soluble in acid and ammonium chloride solution.
7.3 Uses
(1) Barium carbonate is mainly used for the manufacture of optical glass, funnels, and barium magnetic materials, the manufacture of other barium salts, ceramic, enamel, paint, welding rod feed
(2) It is important chemical raw materials for the production of funnels, magnetic materials and advanced optical glass.
(3) It is used for fireworks, flares preparation, also used for auxiliary material of ceramic coatings and optical glass.
(4) It is used for the manufacture of electronic ceramics, PTC thermistors, capacitors and other electronic components.
(5) Barium carbonate is mainly used for the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass, and barium magnetic materials and capacitors, it is also used for carburizing steel and metal surface treatment. It is the raw material of manufacturing other barium salts and ceramic, enamel, pigments, paints, rubber, electrode. It is also used as rodenticides and purifying agent, oxidation catalyst.
(6) It is mainly used for the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass, and barium magnetic materials and capacitors, it is also used for carburizing steel and metal surface treatment. It is the raw material of manufacturing other locks salt and ceramic, enamel, pigments, paints, rubber, electrode. It is also used as purifying agent and rodenticides.
(7) It is used for the production of funnels, electronic ceramics and purified water, producing pigment, paint or other barium salts, it is used for the manufacture of optical glass, barium magnetic materials, it is important chemical raw material of manufacturing funnels, magnetic materials and advanced optical glass. It is used for fireworks, flares preparation, it is also used as auxiliary material of ceramic coatings and optical glass, it is used for manufacturing electronic ceramics, PTC thermistor, capacitor of electronic components, it is mainly used in the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass and barium magnetic materials and capacitors, it is also used for carburizing steel and metal surface treatment. It is raw material of manufacturing other barium salts and ceramic, enamel, pigments, paints, rubber, electrode materials. It is also used as rodenticides and purifying agent, oxidation catalyst. It is mainly used in the manufacture of optical glass, CRT glass and barium magnetic.
7.4 Producing piezoelectric ceramic capacitors
Barium carbonate is widely used in high-voltage AC capacitors, ultrasonic transducer devices and piezoelectric ceramic capacitor manufacturing.
The piezoelectric effect was first discovered on quartz crystal by the Curie brothers in 1880, the crystal which can produce the piezoelectric effect was called piezoelectric crystal. The class of piezoelectric crystal is single crystal, such as quartz (SiO2), sodium potassium tartrate (it is also known Luose salt, NaKC4H4O6 * H2O), BGO (Bi12GeO20) and the like. Another class of piezoelectric crystals is called piezoelectric ceramics such as barium titanate (BaTiO3), lead zirconate titanate [Pb (ZrxTirx) O3, code PZT], magnesium niobate lead zirconate titanate of Japan made [Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3 added PZT, code PCM], manganese, antimony, lead zirconate titanate of China made [Pb (Mn1/2Sb2/3) O3 added PIT code PMS] and so on.
Piezoelectric ceramic materials have three major categories:
PZT materials (PbZrTiO3): titania, zirconia, lead oxide, strontium oxide, niobium oxide, lanthanum oxide and the like.
PMN class materials (PbNbMgO3): niobium oxide, magnesium oxide, lead oxide, strontium oxide, lanthanum oxide and the like.
Barium titanate type materials (BaTiO3): titanium dioxide, barium carbonate, strontium carbonate.
7.5 Toxicity
This product is toxic virulent. Chronic poisoning mainly accumulates in the bone, causing bone marrow leukosis. Severe acute poisoning can cause acute gastrointestinal disorders, tendon reflexes, convulsions, muscle paralysis. Emergency treatments include gastric lavage, enema, taking measures like vomiting. Maximum allowable concentration is 0.5 mg/m3. Production should wear overalls, masks, gloves.
Toxicity: See barium carbonate.
7.6 Production method
(1) Carbonation method: carbon dioxide is passed through barium sulfide solution (see preparation of barium sulfide) to carbonize, the obtained barium carbonate slurry is desulfurization washed, vacuum filtration, dried at 300℃ and pulverized to obtain barium carbonate products. its
BaS + CO2 + H2O→ BaCO3↓+ H2S↑
Metathesis method: barium sulfide and ammonium carbonate proceeds metathesis reaction, and then washing, filtering and drying to obtain bismuth products. its
BaS + (NH4) 2CO3 → BaCO3 ↓ + (NH4) 2S
Poison nepheline conversion method: witherite ore reacts with ammonium salt to generate soluble barium salt, and ammonium carbonate is recycled and re-used, ammonium carbonate is added into soluble barium salt to precipitate refined barium carbonate, it is filtered and dried to obtain barium carbonate products. The obtained mother liquor is recycled use.
(2) Carbonization method. Reaction equation:
BaS + CO2 → BaCO3 ↓ + H2S ↑
Operational method: 1L barium sulfide aqueous solution of 180g/L reacts with carbon dioxide at 70℃ to produce barium carbonate precipitation. Precipitation is mixed with 10ml 25% aqueous ammonia, at 60℃ desulfurization for 20min. Filtered, and dried to obtain the precipitated barium carbonate, product contains 0.46% sulfur.
Metathesis method. Reaction equation:
BaCl2 + NH4HCO3 + NH4OH → BaCO3 ↓ + 2NH4Cl + H2O
Operational method: At 30℃, 23.6L containing ammonium bicarbonate 56.1g /L aqueous solution and 1.36L ammonia is mixed in 50L kettle and then at 50℃, within 2h dropping 21.6L 200.3g/L barium chloride solution, it is stirred for 30min at 40℃. Filtered, dried at 140 ℃, pulverized to obtain barium carbonate which average particle diameter d is 0.8μm, purity is 99.8%.
Witherite method. Reaction equation:
BaCO3 + 2NH4Cl → BaCl2 + 2NH3 + H2O + CO2
BaCL2 + (NH4) 2CO3 → BaCO3 ↓ + 2NH4Cl
Operational method: 100 g 80% of toxic heavy powder (120 mesh) and 60g ammonium chloride is well mixed, it is rapidly put into 650℃ muffle furnace and reacts for 3min. After cooling, it is flooded, filtered, removed debris to obtain barium chloride solution, 36g ammonium carbonate is added, precipitating barium carbonate, it is filtered, dried and pulverized, the conversion rate is 91%.
(3) Operational method: Dry granulation method: heavy precipitation barium carbonate is sieved, it is placed within the raw materials warehouse and stirred well, mixed, degassed, the material goes through the rotary feeder, lying vertical screw conveyor rollers press rollers compressed tablets, producer thickness is 3.7~4 mm. The material rolled into sheet is input granulator, by adjusting its speed and aperture size sieve to adjust the particle size distribution of semi-finished products. Semi-finished products use knife pulse pneumatic conveying method which semi-finished products input the vibration feeder to sieve, particles larger than 20 mesh is back to granulator, particle 65 mesh or less is back to raw materials warehouse, particle between 65 mesh to 20 mesh is transported to packaging warehouse for finished packaging to obtain particles of barium carbonate.
Wet granulation of barium carbonate: Precipitation system is filtered and separated to obtain cake of containing water in manufacturing process system, and the filter cake should control the water content to about 20%. Under the action of the rotating blades, the material is rapidly mixed well, and kneaded, mediated to form dense particles, the wet pellets is put into the rotary kiln direct fire, sintered at 800~1200℃. After whole particles, screening, iron removal, weighing and packing to obtain particles of barium carbonate.
7.7 Usage
Barium carbonate has been used as brine purification chemical in the chloro-alkali industry and as an ingredient in rat poisons and enamels. Barium carbonate is used in photographic paper manufacturing. The chemical is used to produce the barium sulphate which gives the photographic paper its flat white appearance. Practiced in the manufacture of barium ferrites and also in the manufacture of television picture tubes. Barium carbonate is an additive in oil-well drilling muds.
7.8 Usage
Barium carbonate is widely used in the ceramics industry as an ingredient in glazes. It acts as a flux, a matting and crystallizing agent and combines with certain colouring oxides to produce unique colours not easily attainable by other means. It is also used for removing of sulfates in phosphoric acid production and chlorine alkali electrolysis.
7.9 Usage
Barium carbonate is frequently employed in ceramic industry as a component of glazes. It is added to clay to precipitate some soluble salts while manufacturing bricks, tiles and potteries. Barium carbonate is mainly used as a raw material in the electrical engineering industries for glass production, and as a raw material in the magnet manufacturing industry.
7.10 Usage
Used in the manufacture of glass, brick, clay products, barium chemicals, barium ferrites, and production of photographic papers.Barium carbonate has been used as brine purification chemical in the chloro-alkali industry and as an ingredient in rat poisons and enamels. Barium carbonate is used in photographic paper manufacturing. The chemical is used to produce the barium sulphate which gives the photographic paper its flat white appearance. Practiced in the manufacture of barium ferrites and also in the manufacture of television picture tubes. Barium carbonate is an additive in oil-well drilling muds.
7.11 Hazards & Safety Information
Category: Pesticide.
Toxicity grading: Highly toxic.
Acute oral toxicity-rat LD50: 418 mg/kg; Oral-Mouse LD50: 200 mg/kg
Heating flammability hazard characteristics: when be heated, it can produce toxic barium oxide fumes; eating it can cause gastric ulcer, muscle weakness, paresthesia, numbness, diarrhea, vomiting.
Storage characteristics: Treasury ventilation low-temperature drying; it should be stored separately with acids, food additives.
Extinguishing agent: Water, carbon dioxide, dry, sandy soil.
Professional standards: TWA 0.5 mg (barium)/cubic meter; STEL 1.5 mg (barium)/cubic meter.
7.12 Description
Barium carbonate has the molecular formula of BaCO3 and the molecular weight of 197.3359 g/mol. Its CAS number is 513-77-9. Barium carbonate has only one stable form (aragonite-type structure) and temperature of precipitation has no effect on crystal form, unlike that of calcium or magnesium carbonates.
7.13 Chemical Properties
Barium carbonate, BaCO3, also known as witherite, is a white powder that is soluble in acids,with the exception of sulfuric acid.It has a melting point of 174°C and is used in television picture tubes, rodenticide, optical glass and ceramic flux.
Barium carbonate
Barium oxide, BaO, is manufactured by decomposition of barium carbonate.
7.14 Physical properties
White powder; orthorhombic crystal system; density 4.286 g/cm3; refractive index 1.60; hardness 3.50 Mohs; melts at 811°C; insoluble in water (c. 25 mg/L at 25°C); Ksp 2.0 x 10-9.
7.15 Occurrence
Barium carbonate is found in nature as mineral witherite. The compound has many major commercial applications in brick, glass, ceramics, oil-drilling, photographic and chemical industries. It is mixed with wet clay to immobilize many water-soluble salts in making uniform red bricks. In the glass industry, barium is added to glass as barium carbonate or barium oxide to improve the refractive index of optical glass; also to promote sintering and lower the viscosity of melted glass to make glass bead formation easy. It is used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and photographic paper. Another important application involves its use as a fluxing ingredient in ceramic industry for enamels, glazes and ceramic bodies. Barium carbonate is used in oil-well drilling to insolubilize gypsum and inhibit coagulation; in ferrous metallurgy for steel carburizing; in chlor-alkali cells for treating salt brines to remove sulfates; and to make ferrite, and barium titanate. Many barium salts are prepared from barium carbonate.
7.16 Uses
Barium carbonate has many major commercial applications in brick, glass, ceramics, oil-drilling, photographic and chemical industries. It is mixed with wet clay to immobilize many water-soluble salts in making uniform red bricks. In the glass industry, barium is added to glass as barium carbonate or barium oxide to improve the refractive index of optical glass and also to promote sintering and lower the viscosity of melted glass to make glass bead formation easy. It is used in the manufacture of television picture tubes and photographic paper. Another important application involves its use as a fluxing ingredient in ceramic industry for enamels, glazes and ceramic bodies. Barium carbonate is used in oil well drilling to insolubilize gypsum and inhibit coagulation; in ferrous metallurgy for steel carburizing; in chloralkali cells for treating salt brines to remove sulfates; and to make ferrites, and barium titanate. Many barium salts are prepared from barium carbonate.
7.17 Uses
Preparation of barium standard solution. It is used in ceramic glazes, cement, bricks and in rat poison.
7.18 Uses
Rat poison; in ceramics, paints, enamels, marble substitutes, rubber; manufacture of paper, barium salts, electrodes, optical glasses; as an analytical reagent.
7.19 Definition
barium carbonate: A white insolublecompound, BaCO3; r.d. 4.43. It decomposeson heating to give bariumoxide and carbon dioxide:
BaCO3(s) → BaO(s) + CO2(g)
The compound occurs naturally asthe mineral witherite and can be preparedby adding an alkaline solutionof a carbonate to a solution of a bariumsalt. It is used as a raw materialfor making other barium salts, as aflux for ceramics, and as a raw materialin the manufacture of certaintypes of optical glass.
7.20 Definition
witherite is a mineral form of bariumcarbonate, BaCO3.
7.21 Preparation
Barium carbonate is made commercially from barium sulfide either by treatment with sodium carbonate or ammonium carbonate at 60 to 70°C or by passing CO2 gas through a soluble Ba2+ solution at 40 to 90°C.
7.22 General Description
Barium carbonate is a white powder. Barium carbonate is insoluble in water and soluble in most acids, with the exception of sulfuric acid. Barium carbonate has a specific gravity of 4.275. Barium carbonate is toxic by ingestion.
7.23 Air & Water Reactions
Barium carbonate is insoluble in water and soluble in most acids, with the exception of sulfuric acid.
7.24 Reactivity Profile
Salts, basic, such as Barium carbonate, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide ions and have pH's greater than 7.0. They react as bases to neutralize acids. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of the bases in reactivity group 10 (Bases) and the neutralization of amines. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible.
7.25 Hazard
A poison.
7.26 Health Hazard
(INGESTION ONLY): excessive salivation, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, and violent purging with watery and bloody stools; a slow and often irregular pulse and a transient elevation in arterial blood pressure; tinnitus, giddiness and vertigo; muscle twitchings, progressing to convulsions and/or paralysis; dilated pupils with impaired accommodation; confusion and increasing somnolence, without coma; collapse and death from respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.
7.27 Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
7.28 Safety Profile
Poison by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: stomach ulcers, muscle weakness, paresthesias and paralysis, hypermotility, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, lung changes. Experimental reproductive effects. Incompatible with BrF3 and 2- furanpercarboxylic acid. See also BARIUM COMPOUNDS (soluble).
7.29 水溶性
0.002 g/100 mL (20℃)
8. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 197.3359g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: CBaO3
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: null
  • Exact Mass: 197.889991
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 197.889991
  • Complexity: 18.8
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 3
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 63.2
  • Heavy Atom Count: 5
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 2
  • CACTVS Substructure Key Fingerprint: AAADcQAAMAAAAAAAAAAEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAgAAAAAAAAAAAAAACAAAAAAIAAAACAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA==
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