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Home> Encyclopedia >   /  Oxide  /  Pharmaceutical Intermediates  /  Chemical Auxiliary Agent  /  Other Inorganic Chemicals  /  Organic Intermediate
Calcium oxide structure
Calcium oxide structure

Calcium oxide

Iupac Name:oxocalcium
CAS No.:1305-78-8
Molecular Weight:56.0774
Introduction: 1. Calcium oxide can be used in the manufacture of calcium carbide, soda ash, bleaching powder, used as building materials, refractoriness’, desiccant and soil conditioner and calcium fertilizer2. It can be used as an analysis reagent and flux agent for manufacturing fluorescence powder.3. It can be used in the manufacture of calcium carbide, soda ash, bleaching powder, also used for leather, waste water purification4. Calcium oxide can be used as building materials, metallurgical flux agent and the major raw materials for the manufacturing of calcium hydroxide and a variety of calcium compounds. It is also the inexpensive alkali in the chemical industry. It is widely used in pesticides, paper, food, petrochemical, leather, waste water purification and so on. It can also be used for the drying of the laboratory ammonia and alcohol dehydration.5. Use as drug carriers.6. Uses as analysis reagents; Calcium oxide can be applied to steel, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, non-ferrous metals, fertilizers, leather and manufacturing of calcium hydroxide, drying of laboratory ammonia, carbon dioxide absorbent and alcohol dehydration. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Calcium oxide
1.2 Synonyms

CALCIUM OXIDE PWD CALCIUM OXIDE, REAGENTCALCIUM OXIDE, REAGENTCALCIUM OXIDE, REAGENTCALCIUM OXIDE, REAGENT Calcium oxide,powder Calcium, oxo- Calciumoxide&nbCalcination of calcium EINECS 215-138-9 flash-setting agent Lime,Quicklime MFCD00010911 Oxocalcium

1.3 CAS No.
1305-78-8
1.4 CID
14778
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
215-138-9
1.6 Molecular Formula
CaO (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/Ca.O
1.8 InChkey
ODINCKMPIJJUCX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.9 Canonical Smiles
O=[Ca]
1.10 Isomers Smiles
O=[Ca]
2. Properties
3.1 Density
3.3
3.1 Melting point
2570℃
3.1 Boiling point
2850℃
3.1 Refractive index
1.83
3.1 Flash Point
2850oC
3.1 Vapour pressure
0 mm Hg (approx) (NIOSH, 2016)
3.1 Precise Quality
55.95750
3.1 PSA
17.07000
3.1 logP
-0.11880
3.1 Solubility
1.65g/l Risk of violent reaction.
3.2 Appearance
white to grey solid
3.3 Autoignition Temperature
Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
3.4 Chemical Properties
It appears as white cubic crystalline powder. Industrial products often contain magnesia, alumina and ferric oxide and other impurities so exhibit dark gray, light yellow or brown. It is soluble in acid.
3.5 Color/Form
COLORLESS CUBIC CRYSTALS
Crystals, white or grayish white lumps, or granular powder
Greyish-yellow, hydroscopic lumps
3.6 Corrosivity
Corrosive
3.7 Decomposition
Decomposition product: calcium hydroxide.
3.8 Odor
Odorless
3.9 PH
SATURATED SOLN IN WATER IS ABOUT 12.8
3.10 Water Solubility
REACTS
3.11 Stability
Stability Stable, but absorbs carbon dioxide from the air. Incompatible with water, moisture, fluorine, strong acids.
3.12 StorageTemp
no restrictions.
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Agricultural Uses
Calcium oxide (CaO) is a white powder with aneutralizing value or calcium carbonate equivalent(CCE) of 179%, compared to 100% for calciumcarbonate (CaCO3). For quick results, either calciumoxide or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] is used. Calciumoxide is also known as lime, unslaked lime, burned limeor quicklime. Roasting CaCO3 in a furnace makescalcium oxide. A complete mixing of calcium oxide withsoil is difficult because it cakes due to absorption ofwater.
4.2 Definition
ChEBI: A member of the class of calcium oxides of calcium and oxygen in a 1:1 ratio.
4.3 Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases and runoff. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.
4.4 General Description
An odorless, white or gray-white solid in the form of hard lumps. A strong irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Used in insecticides and fertilizers.
4.5 Potential Exposure
Calcium oxide is used as a refractorymaterial; a binding agent in bricks; plaster, mortar, stucco,and other building materials. A dehydrating agent, a flux insteel manufacturing, and a labora
4.6 Safety Profile
A caustic and irritating material. See also CALCIUM COMPOUNDS. A common air contaminant. A powerful caustic to living tissue. The powdered oxide may react explosively with water. Mixtures with ethanol may igmte if heated and thus can cause an air-vapor explosion. Violent reaction with (I3203 + CaCl2) interhalogens (e.g., BF3, CIF3), F2, HF, P2O5 + heat, water. Incandescent reaction with liquid HF. Incompatible with phosphoms(V) oxide.
4.7 Shipping
UN1910 Calcium oxide, Hazard class: 8; Labels:8-Corrosive material.
4.8 Storage
Moisture Sensitive. Air Sensitive. Store under Argon. Ambient temperatures.
4.9 Usage
1. Calcium oxide can be used in the manufacture of calcium carbide, soda ash, bleaching powder, used as building materials, refractoriness’, desiccant and soil conditioner and calcium fertilizer2. It can be used as an analysis reagent and flux agent for manufacturing fluorescence powder.3. It can be used in the manufacture of calcium carbide, soda ash, bleaching powder, also used for leather, waste water purification4. Calcium oxide can be used as building materials, metallurgical flux agent and the major raw materials for the manufacturing of calcium hydroxide and a variety of calcium compounds. It is also the inexpensive alkali in the chemical industry. It is widely used in pesticides, paper, food, petrochemical, leather, waste water purification and so on. It can also be used for the drying of the laboratory ammonia and alcohol dehydration.5. Use as drug carriers.6. Uses as analysis reagents; Calcium oxide can be applied to steel, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, non-ferrous metals, fertilizers, leather and manufacturing of calcium hydroxide, drying of laboratory ammonia, carbon dioxide absorbent and alcohol dehydration.
4.10 Waste Disposal
Pretreatment involves neutralization with hydrochloric acid to yield calcium chloride.The calcium chloride formed is treated with soda ash toyield the insoluble calcium carbonate. The remaining brinesolution may be discharged into sewers and waterways Calcium oxide Preparation Products And Raw materials Raw materials
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Symbol
GHS05;GHS07;
5.1 Hazard Codes
C
5.1 Signal Word
DANGER
5.1 Risk Statements
R34
5.1 Safety Statements
S25;S26;S36/37/39;S45
5.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Calcium oxide used as a general purpose food additive is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
5.2 Packing Group
III
5.2 Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Dust sources /in industry/ should be enclosed ... Enclosures should ... be fitted with exhaust ventilation ... Air contaminated with lime dust should be passed through cyclones or bag filters before release into general atmosphere; in case of hot lime dust, cyclones & scrubbers should be employed. Settled lime dust inside premises should be collected by industrial vacuum cleaners ... manual collection should be prohibited. Ventilation in vicinity of furnaces should be designed to extract ... dust & gases.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
The worker should wash daily at the end of each work shift.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Keep material dry. Do not use water on material itself.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. Avoid bodily contact with the material. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
5.3 Hazard Class
8
5.3 Hazard Declaration
H315; H318; H335
5.3 Cleanup Methods
1) Ventilate area of spill. 2) Collect spilled material in most convenient & safe manner & deposit in sealed containers for reclamation or for disposal in secured sanitary landfill.
Environmental considerations - Land spill: Cover solids with plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water.
Shovel into suitable dry container. Use water spray to control dust, protect personnel.
5.4 DisposalMethods
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
... May be disposed of in sealed containers in secured sanitary landfill.
5.5 DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns, or death. Reaction with water or moist air will release toxic, corrosive or flammable gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or contaminated with water.
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas.
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible.
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Fire: Note: Most foams will react with the material and release corrosive/toxic gases. Small fires: CO2 ... , dry chemical, dry sand, alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire.
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Small spills: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand, or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect material and place it into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal.
/GUIDE 157: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE/WATER -SENSITIVE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
5.6 RIDADR
UN 1910
5.6 Fire Fighting Procedures
Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire. Use flooding quantities of water as spray. DO NOT use carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing agents.
If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Do not use water on material itself. Keep run-off out of sewers and water sources. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
5.7 FirePotential
Not combustible, but bulk powder may heat spontaneously when damp with water.
5.8 Caution Statement
P261-P280-P305 + P351 + P338
5.8 Formulations/Preparations
Properly stored lime of commerce contains 90-95% free calcium oxide.
Grades: technical; refractory; agricultural; FCC
5.9 Incompatibilities
The water solution is a medium strongbase. Reacts with water, forming calcium hydroxide andsufficient heat to ignite nearby combustible materials.Reacts violently with acids, halogens, metals.
5.10 WGK Germany
1
5.10 RTECS
EW3100000
5.10 Protective Equipment and Clothing
Protective gloves, goggles, & any type of respirator prescribed for fine dust.
IN DUSTY ATMOSPHERES WEAR...FULL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possbility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 10 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any dust and mist respirator.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 20 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any dust and mist respirator except single-use and quarter-mask respirators. Any supplied-air respirator.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 25 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
5.11 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
ADDN OF WATER TO QUICKLIME HAS GENERATED TEMP AS HIGH AS 800 DEG C. SOME REPORTS DESCRIBE REACTION AS VIOLENT. IGNITION OF SULFUR, GUNPOWDER, WOOD, & STRAW BY HEAT OF QUICKLIME-WATER REACTION HAS BEEN REPORTED.
EVEN WHEN COLD, FLUORINE WILL ATTACK CALCIUM OXIDE, EVOLVING MUCH HEAT & SOME LIGHT.
CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE REACTS VIOLENTLY, PRODUCING FLAME, WITH...CALCIUM OXIDE.
REACTS WITH PHOSPHORUS PENTOXIDE EXTREMELY VIOLENTLY WHEN INITIATED BY LOCAL HEATING.
LIQUID HYDROFLUORIC ACID & CALCIUM OXIDE REACT VERY VIOLENTLY.
... IN WATER /IT/ FORMS CALCIUM HYDROXIDE AND GENERATES A LARGE QUANTITY OF HEAT ...
Water (liberates heat), fluorine, ethanol [Note: Reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide].
The lime-alcohol residue from preparation of anhydrous alcohol ignited on discharge from the still and caused a vapor explosion. The finely divided and reactive lime may have heated on exposure to atmospheric moisture and caused ignition.
Mixtures with ethanol may ignite if heated and thus can cause an air-vapor explosion. Violent reaction with (B2O3 + CaCl2), interhalogens (e.g., BF3, CIF3), fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, P2O5 + heat, water.
5.12 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Irritating to skin, eyes, and respiratory system.
5.13 Safety

Hazard Codes :?CorrosiveC,IrritantXi
Risk Statements : 34-41: ?
34:? Causes burns?
41:? Risk of serious damage to eyes
Safety Statements : 26-36/37/39-45-25-39
26:? In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice?
36/37/39:? Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection?
45:? In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)?
25:? Avoid contact with eyes?
39:? Wear eye/face protection
RIDADR : 1910
WGK Germany : 1
F : 10-21-34: ?Keep under argon.Sensitive to humidity.Sensitive to CO2.
HazardClass : 8
PackingGroup : III

5.14 Sensitive
Air & Moisture Sensitive
5.15 Specification

? Calcium oxide ,?its cas register number is 1305-78-8. It also can be called?Airlock Bell CML(E) ; Bell CML(P) ; Burnt lime ; CALX ; CCRIS 7496 ; CML 21 ; CML 31 ; CML 35 ; Calcia ; Calcia (CaO) ; Calcium monoxide ; Calcium oxide ;
?Calcium oxide (CaO) ; Caloxal CPA ; Caloxol CP2 ; Caloxol W3 ; Calx usta ; Calxyl ; Caswell No. 147A ; Chaux vive ;
?Desical P ; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075604 ; Gebrannter kalk ; HSDB 1615 ; Lime ; Lime, burned ; Oxyde de calcium ; QC-X ; Quick lime ; Quicklime ; Rhenosorb C ; Rhenosorb F ; UNII-C7X2M0VVNH ; Unslaked lime ; Vesta PP ; Wapniowy tlenek . Calcium oxide (CAS NO.1305-78-8) is?commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, which?is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic and alkaline crystalline solid at room temperature. As a commercial product, lime often also contains magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and smaller amounts of aluminium oxide and iron oxide. The name lime (native lime) refers to a very rare mineral of the CaO composition.

5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin irritation, Category 2

Serious eye damage, Category 1

Specific target organ toxicity \u2013 single exposure, Category 3

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H315 Causes skin irritation

H318 Causes serious eye damage

H335 May cause respiratory irritation

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

Response

P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P332+P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

Storage

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P405 Store locked up.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

6. Other Information
6.0 Merck
14,1686
6.1 Chemical properties
It appears as white cubic crystalline powder. Industrial products often contain magnesia, alumina and ferric oxide and other impurities so exhibit dark gray, light yellow or brown. It is soluble in acid.
6.2 Content analysis
Approximately 1 g of the sample was burned to constant weight (accurately weighed) and dissolved in 20 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid solution (TS-117). After cooling, dilute to 500.0ml with water and mix uniformly. Take 50 mL of this solution into the appropriate container, add 50ml of water. Add 30 mL 0.05ml/L disodium EDTA via a 50 mL burette with stirring (preferably with a magnetic stirrer); further add 15ml sodium hydroxide solution (TS-224) and hydroxy naphthol blue indicator (300 mg) for continue titration to the blue end. Per ml of 0.05 mol/L of EDTA corresponds to 2.804 mg of calcium oxide.
6.3 Identification test
1 g of the sample was shaken with 20 ml of water, and the acetic acid test solution (TS-1) was added to dissolve the sample. The calcium test (IT-10) of this solution was positive.
6.4 Toxicity
ADI is not subject to restrictive regulations (FAO/WHO, 2001).
GRAS (FDA, §18.5210; §184.12l0, 2000);
See Calcium Oxide.
It can stimulate the mucous membrane, causing sneezing, in particular, can cause fat saponification so the water will be absorbed by the skin, dissolving the protein with stimulating and corroding the tissue. It has strong effect against the eye mucosa, being able cause oral and nasal mucosa superficial ulcers, and sometimes there may be perforation of the nasopharyngeal diaphragm, deep respiratory tract disease. Inhalation of lime dust may cause pneumonia.
In case of inhalation of dust, it can be treated via inhaling water vapor (add some of the citric acid crystals to the water in advance) and coat the mustard cream in the chest. If falling into the eyes, we can open up the eyes and immediately rinse with running water for 10~30 min and then rinse with 5% ammonium chloride solution. When the skin burns, it can be used with 5% citric acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid or salt solution of mineral oil or vegetable oil to remove the lime residue sticking to the skin.
The maximum allowable concentration in the United States is 5 mg/m3.
During operation, it should be paid attention to the protection of respiratory organs. Wear uniforms manufactured using dust-proof fiber, gloves and closed dust-proof glasses. Coat the ointment-containing grease. Clean after work. During the preparation and application, it should be prevented of dust inhalation.
6.5 Usage limitation
GB 14880-94 (in terms of Ca, g/kg): beverages, cereals and their products, 1.6~3.2; infant food, 3.0~6.0.
GB 2760-2001: Preparation of water 100mg/L (36mg/L in terms of Ca).
6.6 Hazards & Safety Information
Category Corrosive items
Toxic classification poisoning
Acute toxicity Intraperitoneal-mouse LD50: 3059 mg/kg
Explosive and hazardous properties it is corrosive to the skin; powdered calcium oxide can be mixed with water to be explode; its mixture with alcohol can be flammable and explosive upon heating
Flammable hazardous characteristics exothermic upon water with its heat being able to cause organic combustion; one of the air pollutants with heating together with alcohol mixture being able to cause combustion
Storage and transportation characteristics Treasury: Ventilated, low temperature and drying; Store separately from combustible materials, acids and phosphorus pentoxide.
Fire extinguishing agent mist water, sand
Occupational Standard TLV-TWA 2 mg/m3; STEL 5 mg/m3
6.7 Chemical Properties
white to grey solid
6.8 Chemical Properties
Calcium oxide, CaO, occurs as white or grayish-white lumps or granular powder. The presence of iron gives it a yellowish or brownish tint.
6.9 Uses
Calcium Oxide is a general food additive consisting of white granules or powder of poor water solubility. it is obtained by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) in a furnace. it is also termed lime or quicklime. it is used as an anticaking agent, firming agent, and nutritive supple- ment in applications such as grain products and soft candy.
6.10 Definition
ChEBI: A member of the class of calcium oxides of calcium and oxygen in a 1:1 ratio.
6.11 Uses
In bricks, plaster, mortar, stucco and other building and construction materials; manufacture of steel, aluminum, magnesium, and flotation of non-ferrous ores; manufacture of glass, paper, Na2CO3 (Solvay process), Ca salts and many other industrial chemicals; dehairing hides; clarification of cane and beet sugar juices; in fungicides, insecticides, drilling fluids, lubricants; water and sewage treatment; in laboratory to absorb CO2 (the combination with NaOH is known as soda-lime, q.v.).
6.12 General Description
An odorless, white or gray-white solid in the form of hard lumps. A strong irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Used in insecticides and fertilizers.
6.13 Air & Water Reactions
Crumbles on exposure to moist air. Reacts with water to form corrosive calcium hydroxide, with evolution of much heat. Temperatures as high as 800° C have been reached with addition of water (moisture in air or soil). The heat of this reaction has caused ignition of neighboring quantities of sulfur, gunpowder, wood, and straw [Mellor 3: 673 1946-47].
6.14 Reactivity Profile
A base and an oxidizing agent. Neutralizes acids with generation of heat. Nonflammable, but will support combustion by liberation of oxygen, especially in the presence of organic materials. Reacts very violently with liquid hydrofluoric acid [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:129 1956]. Reacts extremely violently with phosphorus pentaoxide when reaction is initiated by local heating [Mellor 8 Supp.3:406 1971].
6.15 Hazard
Evolves heat on exposure to water. Danger- ous near organic materials. Upper respiratory tract irritant.
6.16 Health Hazard
Causes burns on mucous membrane and skin. Inhalation of dust causes sneezing.
6.17 Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases and runoff. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.
6.18 Agricultural Uses
Calcium oxide (CaO) is a white powder with a neutralizing value or calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) of 179%, compared to 100% for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). For quick results, either calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] is used. Calcium oxide is also known as lime, unslaked lime, burned lime or quicklime. Roasting CaCO3 in a furnace makes calcium oxide. A complete mixing of calcium oxide with soil is difficult because it cakes due to absorption of water.
6.19 Agricultural Uses
Lime is a white caustic alkaline substance. It consists of calcium oxide which is obtained by heating limestone, and has a high neutralizing value.
6.20 Toxicity
ADI is not subject to restrictive regulations (FAO/WHO, 2001).
GRAS (FDA, §18.5210; §184.12l0, 2000);
See Calcium Oxide.
It can stimulate the mucous membrane, causing sneezing, in particular, can cause fat saponification so the water will be absorbed by the skin, dissolving the protein with stimulating and corroding the tissue. It has strong effect against the eye mucosa, being able cause oral and nasal mucosa superficial ulcers, and sometimes there may be perforation of the nasopharyngeal diaphragm, deep respiratory tract disease. Inhalation of lime dust may cause pneumonia.
In case of inhalation of dust, it can be treated via inhaling water vapor (add some of the citric acid crystals to the water in advance) and coat the mustard cream in the chest. If falling into the eyes, we can open up the eyes and immediately rinse with running water for 10~30 min and then rinse with 5% ammonium chloride solution. When the skin burns, it can be used with 5% citric acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid or salt solution of mineral oil or vegetable oil to remove the lime residue sticking to the skin.
The maximum allowable concentration in the United States is 5 mg/m3.
During operation, it should be paid attention to the protection of respiratory organs. Wear uniforms manufactured using dust-proof fiber, gloves and closed dust-proof glasses. Coat the ointment-containing grease. Clean after work. During the preparation and application, it should be prevented of dust inhalation.
6.21 Physical properties
Calcium oxide is a white caustic crystalline alkali substance that goes by the common name lime. The term lime is used both generically for several calcium compounds and with adjectives to qualify different forms of lime. This entry equates lime, also called quicklime or burnt lime, with the compound calcium oxide. Hydrated lime, made by combining lime with water, is calcium hydroxide and is often referred to as slaked lime (Ca(OH)2). Dolomite limes contain magnesium as well as calcium. Limestone is the compound calcium carbonate. The term lime comes from the Old English word l?m for a sticky substance and denotes lime’s traditional use to produce mortar. Calx was the Latin word for lime and was used to name the element calcium.
6.22 History
Calcium oxide dates from prehistoric times. It is produced by heating limestone to drive off carbon dioxide in a process called calcination: CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g). At temperatures of several hundred degrees Celsius, the reaction is reversible and calcium oxide will react with atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Efficient calcium oxide production is favored at temperatures in excess of 1,000°C. In prehistoric times limestone was heated in open fires to produce lime. Over time, lined pits and kilns were used to produce lime. Brick lime kilns were extensively built starting in the 17th century and the technology to produce lime has remained relatively constant since then.
6.23 Uses
The major uses of lime are metallurgy, flue gas desulfurization, construction, mining, papermaking, and water treatment. About one third of calcium oxide production in the United States is used for metallurgical processes, principally in the iron and steel industry. Calcium oxide is used to remove impurities during the refining of iron ore. Calcium oxide combines with compounds such as silicates, phosphates, and sulfates contained in iron ores to form slag. Lime is also used for purification in other metal refining and to control pH in mining processes such as leaching and precipitation. The calcium oxide is also used in remediation of mine wastes to recover cyanides and to neutralize acid mine drainage.
6.24 Production Methods
Calcium oxide is commercially obtained from limestone. The carbonate is roasted in a shaft or rotary kiln at temperatures below 1,200°C until all CO2 is driven off. The compound is obtained as either technical, refractory or agri cultural grade product. The commercial product usually contains 90 to 95% free CaO. The impurities are mostly calcium carbonate, magnesium carbon ate, magnesium oxide, iron oxide and aluminum oxide.
6.25 Aroma threshold values
Aroma at 1.0%: intense, high impacting fresh sweet juicy lime, citral with a distilled lime note, cool and refreshing with green juicy nuances.
6.26 Taste threshold values
Taste characteristics at 10 ppm in 5% sugar and 0.1% CA; intense fresh tangy lime juice, citrus citral candy lime character with notes of West Indian lime
6.27 Air & Water Reactions
Crumbles on exposure to moist air. Reacts with water to form corrosive calcium hydroxide, with evolution of much heat. Temperatures as high as 800° C have been reached with addition of water (moisture in air or soil). The heat of this reaction has caused ignition of neighboring quantities of sulfur, gunpowder, wood, and straw [Mellor 3: 673 1946-47].
6.28 Industrial uses
Lime is the most widely used reagent in the mineral industry for flotation of sulfides and, in some cases, non-sulfide minerals. The word “lime” is a general term used to describe any kind of calcareous material or finely divided form of limestone and dolomite. In more strict chemical terms, lime is calcinated limestone known as calcium oxide (CaO), quicklime or unslaked lime.The slaked or hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 is the form of lime primarily used in mineral flotation. Production of high-calcium lime is based on calcination of limestone at a temperature of 1100–1300 °C in kilns.
CaCO3+heat--->CaO+CO2 For high-magnesium (dolomitic) limestone, the calcination reaction (at 1000–1200 °C) is CaCO3·MgCO3 (limestone) + heat--->CaOMgO (quicklime-2CO2)
6.29 Safety Profile
A caustic and irritating material. See also CALCIUM COMPOUNDS. A common air contaminant. A powerful caustic to living tissue. The powdered oxide may react explosively with water. Mixtures with ethanol may igmte if heated and thus can cause an air-vapor explosion. Violent reaction with (I3203 + CaCl2) interhalogens (e.g., BF3, CIF3), F2, HF, P2O5 + heat, water. Incandescent reaction with liquid HF. Incompatible with phosphoms(V) oxide.
6.30 Potential Exposure
Calcium oxide is used as a refractory material; a binding agent in bricks; plaster, mortar, stucco, and other building materials. A dehydrating agent, a flux in steel manufacturing, and a labora
6.31 Shipping
UN1910 Calcium oxide, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
6.32 Incompatibilities
The water solution is a medium strong base. Reacts with water, forming calcium hydroxide and sufficient heat to ignite nearby combustible materials. Reacts violently with acids, halogens, metals.
6.33 Waste Disposal
Pretreatment involves neutralization with hydrochloric acid to yield calcium chloride. The calcium chloride formed is treated with soda ash to yield the insoluble calcium carbonate. The remaining brine solution may be discharged into sewers and waterways
6.34 Usage
It is used in cement, glass, steel, paper, chemical and petroleum industries. It acts as a key ingredient in the process of cement making. It is widely used industrially as a dehydrating agent and an absorbent. Further it finds use as a water softener and as a pH regulator for wastewater. It is useful to detect traces of water in hydrocarbons, and in flue-gas desulfurization.
6.35 Usage
Calcium oxide has wide-ranging utility in industry. It is used in making porcelain, cements, mortars and glass. It is also employed in flue-gas desulfurization in power plants, purifying sugar, drying the solvents/reagents, preparing bleaching powder, calcium carbide and calcium cyanamide. It also finds use in water softeners, chemical recovery at Kraft pulp mills, biodiesel production and in the petroleum industry for the detection of traces of water. In agriculture, it is used to restore the pH of acidic soils (liming). It is useful as a basic catalyst and an acid scavenger in several organic transformations, for example, in Arndt-Eistert synthesis of alpha-diazoketones, synthesis of heterocycles and oximes.
6.36 Usage
Calcium oxide has wide-ranging utility in industry. It is used in making porcelain, cements, mortars, and glass. It is also employed in flue-gas desulfurization in power plants, purifying sugar, drying the solvents/reagents, preparing bleaching powder, calcium carbide, and calcium cyanamide. It also finds use in water softeners, chemical recovery at Kraft pulp mills, biodiesel production, and in petroleum industry for the detection of traces of water. In agriculture it is used to restore the pH of acidic soils (liming). It is useful as a basic catalyst & acid scavenger in several organic transformations, for example, in Arndt-Eistert Synthesis of alpha-diazoketones, synthesis of heterocycles and oximes.
6.37 Usage
Manufacturing of steel, aluminum, magnesium, and glass and calcium salts, building and construction materials, lubricants, laboratory reagentCalcium oxide has wide-ranging utility in industry. It is used in making porcelain, cements, mortars and glass. It is also employed in flue-gas desulfurization in power plants, purifying sugar, drying the solvents/reagents, preparing bleaching powder, calcium carbide and calcium cyanamide. It also finds use in water softeners, chemical recovery at Kraft pulp mills, biodiesel production and in the petroleum industry for the detection of traces of water. In agriculture, it is used to restore the pH of acidic soils (liming). It is useful as a basic catalyst and an acid scavenger in several organic transformations, for example, in Arndt-Eistert synthesis of alpha-diazoketones, synthesis of heterocycles and oximes.
7. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:56.0774g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:CaO
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:
  • Exact Mass:55.9575055
  • Monoisotopic Mass:55.9575055
  • Complexity:2
  • Rotatable Bond Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:1
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:17.1
  • Heavy Atom Count:2
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
8. Question & Answer
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