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Carbon Black structure
Carbon Black structure

Carbon Black

Iupac Name:carbon
CAS No.:1333-86-4
Molecular Weight:16.04246
Introduction: 1. It is edible black pigment. It can be used for pastry with the usage amount of 0.001% to 0.1%.2. It can be used for food coloring agent. China provides that it can be used for rice, flour products, candy, biscuits and pastries with the maximum usage amount of 5.0g/kg.3. Rubber industry uses it as a reinforcing filler. 2. Paint Inks applies it as coloring pigments in paint inks. 3. Used for the manufacturing of black paper such as packaging materials for photographic materials and the black paper made of high-conductivity black carbon in the radio equipment. 4. Carbon paper and typewriter; it is used when it is required for darker colors and can remain on the carrier. 5. Plastic coloring, ink, phonograph records, shoe polish, paint cloth, leather coatings, colored cement, electrodes, electronic brushes, batteries and so on.4. As electric conductive agent of lithium ion battery;5. Mainly used for rubber, paint, ink and other industries;6. Used for the reinforcement of car tread and sidewall, hose, groove, industrial rubber products as well as conveyor belt.7. Used for tire tread, surface tire repair, automotive rubber parts, conveyor belts, conveyor pads, etc., The vulcanized glue of this carbon black shows excellent tensile strength and abrasion resistance8. It is mainly used for the reinforcement of tire belt, sidewall, solid tires, outer layer of roller, hose surface, industrial rubber products and car tire tread.9. It is used for the reinforcement of the tire tread of car and truck, surface of conveyor belt and industrial rubber products.10. For rubber reinforcement, coloring agent, metallurgy, rocket propellant11. For rubber products to fill and reinforcement.12. For rubber products, carcass, valves and other filling .13. For paints and inks, plastics and other industries.14. Mainly used for raw materials of battery as well as for conductive and anti-static rubber products.15. In the rubber industry, it is used as the reinforcing agent and filter for the manufacturing of natural rubber and butyl rubber, being able to endow the vulcanized rubber with excellent tensile strength, elongation and tear resistance and so on. It should be mostly used for natural rubber-based large-scale engineering tires and a variety of off-road tires as well as being used for carcass and sidewall. In addition, it can also be used for high-strength conveyor belt, cold rubber products and drilling device. In light industry, it can be used as the filter of the paint, ink, enamel and plastic products.
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Carbon Black
1.2 Synonyms

9901LAMPBLACK ACETYLENE BLACK ACETYLENE CARBON BLACK ACTIVATED CARBON DARCO G-60 ACTIVATED CHARCOAL NORIT(R) CARBONBLACKTONER COSMETICBLACK(A3278)

1.3 CAS No.
1333-86-4
1.4 CID
5462310
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
215-609-9
1.6 Inchi
InChI=1S/C
1.7 InChkey
OKTJSMMVPCPJKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.8 Canonical Smiles
[C]
1.9 Isomers Smiles
[C]
2. Properties
3.1 Density
~1.7 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
3.2 Melting Point
3550 °C(lit.)
3.3 Boiling Point
500-600 °C(lit.)
3.4 Vapour
205000mmHg at 25°C
3.5 Refractive Index
Index of refraction = 2.1500
3.6 Flash Point
>230 °F
3.7 Appearance
rod
3.8 Autoignition Temperature
600-750 °F
3.9 Chemical Properties
It appears as black powdery particles with a particle size of 0 to 500 μm. The relative density is 1.8 to 2.1. It is insoluble in water and organic solvents.
3.10 Color/Form
Fine black powder
Black solid
3.11 Heat of Combustion
14,100 btu/lb= 7,830 cal/g= 3.28x10+5 J/kg
3.12 Odor
Odorless
3.13 Physical Properties
Carbon black [1333-86-4] is virtually pure elemental carbon (diamond and graphite are other forms of nearly pure carbon) in the form of near-spherical colloidal particles that are produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons. Its physical appearance is that of a black, finely divided pellet or powder, the latter sometimes small enough to be invisible to the naked eye. Its use in tires, rubber and plastic products, printing inks and coatings is related to the properties of specific surface area, particle size and structure, conductivity and color.It is in the top 50 industrial chemicals manufactured worldwide, based on annual tonnage. Current worldwide production is about 15 billion pounds per year (6.81 million metric tons). Approximately 90% of carbon black is used in rubber applications, 9% as a pigment, and the remaining 1% as an essential ingredient in hundreds of diverse applications.Modern carbon black products are direct descendants of early “lampblack”, first produced in China over 3500 years ago. These early lampblacks were not very pure and differed greatly in their chemical composition from current carbon blacks. Since the mid-1970s most carbon black has been produced by the oil furnace process, which is most often referred to as furnace black.Unlike diamond and graphite, which are crystalline carbons, carbon black is an amorphous carbon composed of fused particles called aggregates. Properties, such as surface area, structure, aggregate diameter and mass differentiate the various carbon black grades.
3.14 Solubility
H2O: soluble0.1mg/mL
3.15 Stability
Stable. Combustible.
3.16 StorageTemp
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials.
3.17 Water Solubility
Insoluble in water
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Definition
A finely divided form of carbon, practically all ofwhich is made by burning vaporized heavy-oil frac-tions in a furnace with 50% of the air required forcomplete combustion (partial oxidation). This typeis also called furnace black. Carbon black can alsobe made from methane or natural gas by crack-ing (thermal black) or direct combustion (channelblack), but these methods are virtually obsolete. Alltypes are characterized by extremely fine particlesize, which accounts for their reinforcing and pig-menting effectiveness.
4.2 Potential Exposure
Used as reinforcing agent and fillerfor rubber; colorants for ink, paint, and plastics. Workers incarbon black production or in its use in rubber compounding, ink and paint manufacture, plastics compounding, drycell battery manufacture.
4.3 Safety Profile
Mildly toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. Questionable carcinogen. Mutation data reported. See also CARBON. A nuisance dust in high concentrations. We it is true that the tiny particulates of carbon black contain some molecules of carcinogenic materials, the carcinogens are apparently held tightly and are not eluted by hot or cold water, gastric juices, or blood plasma.
4.4 Shipping
Carbon black oil: UN1993 Flammable liquids,n.o.s., Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid,Technical Name Required.
4.5 Storage
Ambient temperatures.
4.6 Usage
1. It is edible black pigment. It can be used for pastry with the usage amount of 0.001% to 0.1%.2. It can be used for food coloring agent. China provides that it can be used for rice, flour products, candy, biscuits and pastries with the maximum usage amount of 5.0g/kg.3. Rubber industry uses it as a reinforcing filler. 2. Paint Inks applies it as coloring pigments in paint inks. 3. Used for the manufacturing of black paper such as packaging materials for photographic materials and the black paper made of high-conductivity black carbon in the radio equipment. 4. Carbon paper and typewriter; it is used when it is required for darker colors and can remain on the carrier. 5. Plastic coloring, ink, phonograph records, shoe polish, paint cloth, leather coatings, colored cement, electrodes, electronic brushes, batteries and so on.4. As electric conductive agent of lithium ion battery;5. Mainly used for rubber, paint, ink and other industries;6. Used for the reinforcement of car tread and sidewall, hose, groove, industrial rubber products as well as conveyor belt.7. Used for tire tread, surface tire repair, automotive rubber parts, conveyor belts, conveyor pads, etc., The vulcanized glue of this carbon black shows excellent tensile strength and abrasion resistance8. It is mainly used for the reinforcement of tire belt, sidewall, solid tires, outer layer of roller, hose surface, industrial rubber products and car tire tread.9. It is used for the reinforcement of the tire tread of car and truck, surface of conveyor belt and industrial rubber products.10. For rubber reinforcement, coloring agent, metallurgy, rocket propellant11. For rubber products to fill and reinforcement.12. For rubber products, carcass, valves and other filling .13. For paints and inks, plastics and other industries.14. Mainly used for raw materials of battery as well as for conductive and anti-static rubber products.15. In the rubber industry, it is used as the reinforcing agent and filter for the manufacturing of natural rubber and butyl rubber, being able to endow the vulcanized rubber with excellent tensile strength, elongation and tear resistance and so on. It should be mostly used for natural rubber-based large-scale engineering tires and a variety of off-road tires as well as being used for carcass and sidewall. In addition, it can also be used for high-strength conveyor belt, cold rubber products and drilling device. In light industry, it can be used as the filter of the paint, ink, enamel and plastic products.
4.7 Waste Disposal
Dump into a landfill or incinerate as a slurry. Carbon Black Preparation Products And Raw materials Preparation Products
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Hazard Codes
F,Xi,Xn
5.2 Risk Statements
R36/37/38
5.3 Safety Statements
S26
5.4 HazardClass
4.1
5.5 Hazard Note
H351
5.6 PackingGroup
III
5.7 Transport
UN 1361
5.8 Cleanup Methods
Electroflotation coagulation separation of carbon black from acetylene production wastewater was studied.
If carbon black is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken: Remove all ignition sources. Ventilate area of spill or leak. Carbon black dust may be collected by vacuuming with an appropriate high efficiency filtration system or by using wet methods; it should then be placed in an appropriate container. If a vaccum system is used, there should be no sources of ignition in the vicinity of the spill, and flashback prevention devices should be provided.
/SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Land spill - Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents.
Environmental considerations: Water spill Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Environmental Considerations: Air spill Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.9 DisposalMethods
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.10 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Carbon black, channel process is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
5.11 Fire Fighting Procedures
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped Use water in flooding quantities as fog Solid streams of water may spread fire Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water Apply water from as far a distance as possible Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide
5.12 FirePotential
SLIGHT, WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT OR FLAME.
Carbon black can be ignited in the presence of open flames, and burns slowly with production of carbon monoxide.
5.13 Formulations/Preparations
DEPENDING ON THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE THERE ARE VARIATIONS IN THE CHEM COMPOSITION OF CARBON BLACK. IT CONTAINS 88-99.5% OF CARBON; 0.3-11% OF OXYGEN; 0.1-1% OF HYDROGEN; UP TO 1% INORG MATERIALS; SMALL AMT OF TARRY MATTER AND TRACES OF SULFUR.
FORMS: POWDER; PELLETS; PASTES. GRADES: (ASTM) /AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING & MATERIALS/ N660, N550, N330, N110, N220, N761, N762, N601, 5300 (CHANNEL), 5301.
Grades: HAF (high abrasion furnace), FEF (fast extrusion furnace), SRF (semireinforcing furnace), HMF (high modules furnace), GPF (general purpose furnace), SAF (super abrasion furnace), ISAF (intermediate abrasion furnace), FF (fine furnace), XCF (electrically conductive furnace), APF (all-purpose furnace), FT (fine thermal), MT (medium thermal), MT-NS-FF (medium thermal, non-staining, free flowing)
5.14 Incompatibilities
Carbon blacks containing over 8% volatiles may pose an explosion hazard. Dust can form anexplosive mixture in air. A reducing agent; keep away fromstrong oxidizers, such as chlorates, bromates, nitrates.
5.15 Other Preventative Measures
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
... SUBSTITUTION OF LESS IRRITATING SUBSTANCES ... REDESIGN OF OPERATIONS ... PREVENT CONTACT, PROVISION OF A PHYSICAL BARRIER AGAINST CONTACT, PROPER WASHING FACILITIES, WORK CLOTHING AND STORAGE FACILITIES, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, AND BARRIER CREAMS. MEDICAL CONTROL ...
The employer shall ensure that respirators are adequately maintained, and stored in a dust free condition and that employees are instructed and drilled at least annually in the proper use, fit, and testing for leakage of respirators assigned to them. ... The employer shall ensure that, at the conclusion of the workshift, all clothing is removed only in change rooms. ... And that contaminated protective clothing that is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of is placed in a closed container in the change room.
The employer shall ensure that each employee ... /exposed/ to carbon black is informed of the hazards and relevant symptoms of exposure to carbon black. Workers shall be advised that exposure to carbon black may cause transient or permanent lung damage or skin irritation, and that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in preparation pose a carcinogenic risk.
Eating, preparing, storing, or the dispensing of food (including vending machines) shall be prohibited in all work areas where exposures to carbon black may occur. Smoking shall be prohibited in all the work areas where there is occupational exposure to carbon black. Employees who handle carbon black or who work in an area where they are exposed to carbon black shall be instructed to wash their hands with soap or skin cleaners and water before using toilet facilities, drinking, eating, or smoking and to shower or bathe using soap or other skin cleansers at the end of each workshift before leaving the work premises. The employer shall provide change rooms equipped with shower facilities, and separate storage facilities for street clothes and for protective clothing and equipment. The change rooms shall be in a nonexposure area.
The worker should wash daily at the end of each work shift, and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, etc.
Clothing which is contaminated with carbon black should be removed immediately and placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of carbon black from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or cleaned, the person performing the operation should be informed of carbon black's hazardous properties. Reusable clothing and equipment should be checked for residual contamination before reuse or storage.
Workers who handle carbon black should wash their faces, hands, and forearms thoroughly with soap and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away Keep material out of water sources and sewers Build dikes to contain flow as necessary Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard Use water spray to knock-down vapors
Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Wear appropriate chemical protective gloves, boots and goggles. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: Wastewater from contaminant suppression, cleaning of protective clothing/equipment, or contaminated sites should be contained and evaluated for subject chemical or decomposition product concentrations. Concentrations shall be lower than applicable environmental discharge or disposal criteria. Alternatively, pretreatment and/or discharge to a POTW is acceptable only after review by the governing authority. Due consideration shall be given to remediation worker exposure (inhalation, dermal and ingestion) as well as fate during treatment, transfer and disposal. If it is not practicable to manage the chemical in this fashion, it must meet Hazardous Material Criteria for disposal.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... Clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.16 Protective Equipment and Clothing
The employer shall provide and shall require employees working with carbon black to wear appropriate full body clothing, with elastic cuffs at the wrists and ankles, gloves, and shoes, which are resistant to penetration by carbon black to minimize skin contact with carbon black. ... Chemical safety glasses shall be provided to employees experiencing eye irritation during exposure.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 17.5 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 5 Any quarter-mask respirator.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 35 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 10 Any particulate respirator equipped with an N95, R95, or P95 filter (including N95, R95, and P95 filtering facepieces) except quarter-mask respirators. The following filters may also be used: N99, R99, P99, N100, R100, P100. APF = 10 Any supplied-air respirator.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 87.5 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 25 Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. APF = 25 Any powered air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 175 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 50 Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter. APF = 50 Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and a high-efficiency particulate filter. APF = 50 Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. APF = 50 Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 1750 mg/cu m Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 1000 Any supplied-air respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 10,000 Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. APF = 10,000 Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape conditions: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 50 Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter./Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus In presence of polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons: NIOSH.
Respirator Recommendations: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 10,000 Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. APF = 10,000 Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape conditions: Assigned Protection Factor (APF) Respirator Recommendation APF = 50 Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter./Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... Gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.17 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizers such as chlorates, bromates, and nitrates.
5.18 Safety

Hazard Codes :?FlammableF,IrritantXi,HarmfulXn
Risk Statements : 36/37-18-11-40
R36/37:? Irritating to eyes and respiratory system?
R18:? In use may form flammable/explosive vapor-air mixture?
R11:? Highly Flammable?
R40:? Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
Safety Statements : 26-36-24/25-22
S26:? In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice?
S36:? Wear suitable protective clothing?
S24/25:? Avoid contact with skin and eyes?
S22:? Do not breathe dust
RIDADR : UN 1325 4.1/PG 3
WGK Germany : 3?
HazardClass : 4.1
PackingGroup : III
RTECS : FF5250100

5.19 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
May cause skin and respiratory irritation.
As superficial foreign bodies, carbon black ... may be slightly irritating mechanically and may cause discoloration of lids and conjunctivae, but they are chemically inert.
5.20 Specification

? Carbon black (CAS NO.1333-86-4), its Synonyms are D&C Black No. 2 ; Pigment black 6 ; Pigment black 7 ; Acetylene black ; Animal bone charcoal ; Aroflow ; Arogen ; Arotone ; Arovel ; Arrow ; Atlantic ; Black Kosmos 33 ; Black pearls .

5.21 Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
rabbit LD50 skin > 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg) ? Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. Vol. 15(Suppl,
rat LD50 oral > 15400mg/kg (15400mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. Vol. 15(Suppl,

5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Not classified.

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s) No symbol.
Signal word

No signal word.

Hazard statement(s)

none

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

none

Response

none

Storage

none

Disposal

none

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

6. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:16.04246g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:C
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:0.6
  • Exact Mass:12
  • Monoisotopic Mass:12
  • Complexity:0
  • Rotatable Bond Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:0
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:0
  • Heavy Atom Count:1
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
7. Question & Answer
  • I'm new to the subject of carbon nanotubes; However, I recently studied a little about them. But I failed to understand the gas phase functionalization. As I understand, this technique is used to improve the solubility of the nanotubes. However, I failed to understand the chemistry and physics of t...
  • I'm reading a paper where the author has come with these consecutive elementary reactions Where C 2 H 4   a d s " style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-2-Frame" class="MathJax" C 2 H 4 a d s C 2 H 4 a d s is ethylene adsorved, C a d s " style="position: relative;" ta...
  • I am searching for the carbon nanotubes for very low cost. I have one idea, which is to use graphite (such as that found in pencils.) Can it be converted to carbon nanotubes? If so, what would be the procedure for this?
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