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Home> Encyclopedia >Others>Pharmaceutical Intermediates>Organic Intermediate
DCM structure
DCM structure


Iupac Name:dichloromethane
CAS No.: 75-09-2
Molecular Weight:84.927
Modify Date.: 2022-10-26 19:43
Introduction: Also known as methylenedichloride and dichloromethane,CH2Cl2 is a colorless, volatile liquid with a penetrating ether-like odor that is soluble in alcohol and ether,and slightly soluble in water. Non-flammable and nonexplosive in air. Derivation is the chlorination of methylchloride and subsequent distillation. It is used in paint removers,solvent degreasing, plastics processing. blowing agent in foams, solvent extraction, solvent for cellulose acetate,and as an aerosol propellant. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
1.2 Synonyms

Dichloromethane EINECS 200-838-9 F30 F30(chlorocarbon) Freon 30 Freon30 HCC30 Khladon30 M-clean D Metaclen Methane dichloride Methane,dichloro Methylene bichloride methylene chloride methylene dichloride MFCD00672695 Solaesthin Solmethine

1.3 CAS No.
1.4 CID
1.6 Molecular Formula
CH2Cl2 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
1.8 InChkey
1.9 Canonical Smiles
1.10 Isomers Smiles
2. Properties
2.1 Density
2.1 Melting point
2.1 Boiling point
-142.1° F (NTP, 1992)
2.1 Refractive index
2.1 Flash Point
2.2 Precise Quality
2.2 PSA
2.2 logP
2.2 Solubility
Miscible in ethyl acetate, alcohol, hexanes, methanol, diethyl ether, n-octanol, acetone benzene, carbon tetrachloride, diethyl ether and chloroform.
2.3 Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. It describes the internal friction of a moving fluid.
2.4 VaporDensity
2.93 (Air = 1.02)
2.5 AnalyticLaboratory Methods
Method: NIOSH 1005, Issue 3; Procedure: gas chromatography with flame ionization detector; Analyte: dichloromethane;; Matrix: air; Detection Limit: 0.4 ug/sample.
2.6 Appearance
Colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. [Note: A gas above 104F.]
2.7 Atmospheric OH Rate Constant
1.42e-13 cm3/molecule*sec
2.8 AutoIgnition
1184° F (USCG, 1999)
2.9 Storage
Prior to working with Methylene Chloride you should be trained on its proper handling and storage.A regulated, marked area should be established where Methylene Chloride is handled, used or stored as required by the OSHA Methylene Chloride Standard (29 CFR 1910.1052).Methylene Chloride reacts violently With OXIDIZING AGENTS(such as PERCHLORATES, PEROXIDES PERMANGANATES CHLORATES NITRATES CHLORINE, BROMINE and FLUORINE CHEMICALLY ACTIVE METALS (such as POTASSIUM, SODIUM MAGNESIUM and ALUMINUM) and STRONG BASES(such as SODIUM HYDROXIDE and POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE).Methylene Chloride is not compatible with liquid oxygen;Titanium and Amines.Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area away from Metals and Ligh.Methylene Chloride attacks some forms OFPLASTIC RUBBER and COATINGS and will corrode iron. some STAINLESS STEELS COPPER and NICKEL in the presence of WATER. Methylene Chloride Preparation Products And Raw materials Preparation Products
2.10 Autoignition Temperature
1184 °F (USCG, 1999)
2.11 Carcinogenicity
Dichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
2.12 Chemical Properties
Methylene chloride, a chlorinated solvent, is a volatile, colorless liquid with a sweet-smelling odor. It is often referred to as dichloromethane. Methylene chloride has many industrial uses, such as paint stripping, metal cleaning and degreasing.
2.13 Physical Properties
A common synonym for methylene chloride is dichloromethane.Methylene chloride is a colorless liquid with a sweetish odor.The chemical formula for methylene chloride is CH2Cl2, and the molecular weight is 84.93 g/mol.The vapor pressure for methylene chloride is 349 mmHg at 20 °C, and it has an octanol/water coefficient (log K ow ) of 1.30.Methylene chloride has an odor threshold of 250 parts per million (ppm).Methylene chloride is slightly soluble in water and is nonflammable.
2.14 Color/Form
Colorless liquid [Note: A gas above 104 degrees F].
2.15 Corrosivity
Liquid methylene chloride; will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.
2.16 Decomposition
It can be decomposed by contact with hot surfaces and open flame, and then yield toxic fumes that are irritating and give warning of their presence. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of phosgene; and /hydrogen chloride;/.
2.17 Flammability and Explosibility
Noncombustible. Dichloromethane vapor concentrated in a confined or poorly ventilated area can be ignited with a high-energy spark, flame, or high-intensity heat source.
2.18 Heat of Vaporization
28.82 kJ/mol at 25 deg C; 28.06 kJ/mol at boiling point
2.19 HenrysLawConstant
0.00 atm-m3/mole
2.20 Ionization Potential
11.32 eV
2.21 Odor
Sweet, pleasant odor, like chloroform;
2.22 Odor Threshold
205-307 ppm
2.23 Physical
DICHLOROMETHANE; is a colorless liquid with a sweet, penetrating, ether-like odor. Noncombustible by if exposed to high temperatures may emit toxic chloride; fumes. Vapors are narcotic in high concentrations. Used as a solvent and paint remover.
2.24 Water Solubility
20 g/L (20 oC)
2.25 Spectral Properties
Index of refraction: 1.4244 @ 20 deg C/D
IR: 4354 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
NMR: 6401 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 117 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
IR PRISM: 6620 (gas), 1011, IR GRATING: 28523
Intense mass spectral peaks: 49 m/z, 84 m/z
2.26 Stability
In the absence of moisture at ordinary temp, dichloromethane; is relatively stable when compared with its congeners, chloroform; and carbon tetrachloride;.
2.27 StorageTemp
Store at RT.
2.28 Surface Tension
28.20 dyne/cm at 25 deg C
2.29 Toxicity Summary
IDENTIFICATION AND USE: Dichloromethane; is a clear colorless, volatile, sweet-smelling lipophilic liquid. It is commonly used as a solvent in wood varnishes, paints, strippers, cements, vapor degreasing of metal parts. Methylene chloride; is also widely used as a process solvent in the manufacture of a variety of products including food, textiles, insecticides, herbicides, steroids, antibiotics and vitamins. Not registered for current pesticide use in the U.S., but approved pesticide uses may change periodically and so federal, state and local authorities must be consulted for currently approved uses. HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: Methylene chloride; is rapidly absorbed following inhalation, through the alveoli of the lungs into the systemic circulation. It is also absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and dermal exposure results in absorption but at a slower rate than via the other routes of exposure. Methylene chloride; is quite rapidly excreted, mostly via the lungs in the exhaled air. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and be transferred across the placenta, and small amounts can be excreted in urine or in milk. Its biotransformation by the hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) leads to formation of carbon monoxide; (CO) and elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Human exposure is mainly due to inhalation but there are incidences of toxicity from oral and dermal contact.Dermally, dichloromethane; irritates the skin and eyes especially when evaporation is prevented; prolonged contact may cause chemical burns. Following inhalation of dichloromethane; pulmonary edema, hearing loss, CNS depression, liver dysfunction, renal dysfunctions, cardiac stress, and effects on hematological parameters have been reported. Exposure at extremely high levels from use as a paint stripper by consumers or in an occupational setting, has been fatal. Dichloromethane; is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals. ANIMAL STUDIES: Dichloromethane; is not teratogenic in rats or mice at concentrations up to 16,250 mg/cu m. Developmentally, dichloromethane; is able to cross the placental barrier, and minor skeletal variations, fetal weight reduction, and more rapid behavioral habituation was evident in rats exposed before and during gestation. Single ip injection of dichloromethane; (1330 mg/kg) into adult male rats caused renal proximal tubular degeneration. Morphological effects were observed in the cortex and the outer medulla. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of methylene chloride; (> or = 17,700 mg/cu m) caused reversible CNS effects, slight eye irritation and mortality in several laboratory species. Neurological damage was reversible in rats exposed to 7, 100 mg/cu m dichloromethane; for 13 weeks via inhalation. Body weight reduction was observed in rats at 3500 mg/cu m and in mice from 17,700 m/cu m. Effects on the liver were noted in dogs continuously exposed to 3,500 mg/cu m for up to 100 days. After intermittent exposure, effects on the liver were observed in rats at 3500 mg/cu m and in mice at 14,100 mg/cu m. Other target organs are the lungs and the kidneys. Dichloromethane; is considered a carcinogen. When administered at levels of 0, 60, 125, 185 and 250 mg/kg body weight/day to mice in deionized drinking water; for 104 wk, the high dose male and female mice showed a transitory increase in mean leucocyte counts. There was a slight elevation of proliferative hepatocellular lesions in the treated males but no dose related trend was apparent and the effect was absent in the females. Neoplastic lesions observed in the study were homogeneous among all groups and were within the range of incidence in historical controls. The results of this study demonstrated a toxicological no observable effect level of 185 mg/kg body weight/day in both sexes. In a 2 year study, female rats exposed to 500, 1500, or 3500 ppm had an increase in the total number of benign mammary tumors in an exposure-related manner. This effect was also evident in male rats in the 1500- and 3500-ppm exposure groups. Male rats exposed to 1500 or 3500 ppm had an increased number of sarcomas located in or around the salivary glands. In contrast, hamsters exposed to the same concentrations had less extensive spontaneous geriatric changes, decreased mortality (females), and lacked evidence of definite target organ toxicity. Dichloromethane; is mutagenic in prokaryotic microorganisms with or without metabolic activation (Salmonella or Escherichia coil). In eukaryotic systems it gives either negative or, in one case, weakly positive results.
3. Use and Manufacturing
3.1 Chemical Reactivity
Reacts vigorously with active metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) and with strong bases (potassium tert-butoxide) (Sax, 1984)
3.2 GHS Classification
Signal: Warning
GHS Hazard Statements
H351: Suspected of causing cancer [Warning Carcinogenicity]

Precautionary Statement Codes
P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405, and P501
3.3 Methods of Manufacturing
The predominant method of manufacturing methylene chloride; employs as a first step the reaction of hydrogen chloride; and methanol; to give methyl chloride;. Excess methyl chloride; is then mixed with chlorine; and reacts to give methylene chloride;, chloroform;, and carbon tetrachloride; as coproducts. This reaction is usually carried out in the gas phase thermally but can also be done catalytically or photolytically. Parallel reactor trains operating on different feeds, CH4-CH3Cl or CH3Cl-CH2Cl2, are known. At low temperature and high pressure, the liquid-phase process is capable of giving high selectivities to methylene chloride;.
3.4 Potential Exposure
The principal route of human exposure to methylene chloride is inhalation of ambient air.Occupational and consumer exposure to methylene chloride in indoor air may be much higher, especially from spray painting or other aerosol uses. People who work in these places can breathe in the chemical or it may come in contact with the skin.Methylene chloride has been detected in both surface water and groundwater samples taken at hazardous waste sites and in drinking water at very low concentrations.
3.5 Purification Methods
Shake it with portions of conc H2SO4 until the acid layer remains colourless, then wash with water, aqueous 5% Na2CO3, NaHCO3 or NaOH, then water again. Pre-dry with CaCl2, and distil it from CaSO4, CaH2 or P2O5. Store it away from bright light in a brown bottle with Linde type 4A molecular sieves, in an atmosphere of dry N2. Other purification steps include washing with aqueous Na2S2O3, passage through a column of silica gel, and removal of carbonyl-containing impurities as described under Chloroform. It has also been purified by treatment with basic alumina, distillation, and stored over molecular sieves under nitrogen [Puchot et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 2353 1986]. Dichloromethane from Japanese sources contained MeOH as stabiliser which is not removed by distillation. It can, however, be removed by standing over activated 3A Molecular Sieves (note that 4A Sieves cause the development of pressure in bottles), passed through activated Al2O3 and distilled [Gao et al. J Am Chem Soc 109 5771 1987]. It has been fractionated through a platinum spinning band column, degassed, and distilled onto degassed molecular sieves Linde 4A (heated under high vacuum at over 450o until the pressure readings reached the low values of 10-6 mm, ~1-2hours ). Stabilise it with 0.02% of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol [Mohammad & Kosower J Am Chem Soc 93 2713 1971]. [Beilstein 1 IV 35.] Rapid purification: Reflux over CaH2 (5% w/v) and distil it. Store it over 4A molecular sieves.
3.6 Shipping
UN1593Dichloromethane, Hazard Class: 6.1;Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials
3.7 Usage
Methylene chloride is used as a solvent, especially where high volatility is required. It is a good solvent for oils, fats, waxes, resins, bitumen, rubber and cellulose acetate and is a useful paint stripper and degreaser. It is used in paint removers, in propellant mixtures for aerosol containers, as a solvent for plastics, as a degreasing agent, as an extracting agent in the pharmaceutical industry, and as a blowing agent in polyurethane foams. Its solvent property is sometimes increased by mixing with methanol, petroleum naphtha, or tetrachloroethylene.Methylene chloride is the active ingredient in many formulations of paint removers including industrial paint and commercial furniture strippers, home paint removers, and products used for aircraft maintenance. The chemical has a unique ability to penetrate, blister, and lift a wide variety of paint coatings. Formulations of the chemical are used extensively in both flow-over and immersion (dip) tanks in furniture refmishing operations. For the maintenance of military and commercial aircraft, a methylene chloride-based product is often required to inspect the surface for damage.Since the mid-1990s methylene chloride has replaced 1,1,1-trichloroethane in nonflammable adhesive formulations for industrial applications, including fabrication of upholstery foam. It provides adhesive formulations with strong, instant bonding characteristics and efficacy under extremes of temperature and humidity. In foam applications, use of methylene chloride eliminates the possibility of hard seams and allows for ready compliance with flammability requirements for upholstered furniture.Methylene chloride is used in aerosols as a strong solvent, a flammability suppressant, vapor pressure depressant, and viscosity thinner. Current aerosol uses of methylene chloride include spray paints and lubricants.Methylene chloride is a leading auxiliary blowing agent used in the production of slabstock flexible polyurethane foams for the furniture and bedding industries. Methylene chloride is used as an extractant in the recovery and purification of a wide variety of materials including oils, fats, and waxes. The chemical is used for the decaffeination of coffee and tea, oleoresin extraction from a variety of spices, and for the extraction of hops. As with tablet coatings, little or none of the chemical remains in the finished product.
4. Safety and Handling
4.1 Symbol
GHS07, GHS08
4.1 Hazard Codes
4.1 Signal Word
4.1 Risk Statements
4.1 Safety Statements
4.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Certification of this color additive when used as an ink for marking fruit and vegetables is not necessary for the protection of the public health, and therefore batches thereof are exempt from the certification pursuant to section 721(c) of the act. Restriction: No residues.
Dichloromethane is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
4.2 Packing Group
4.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow= 1.25
4.3 Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Dissociation products generated in a fire may be irritating or toxic.
4.4 Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock down vapors.
Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when they fail and need to be supplemented. Respirators may also be used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and in emergency situations. In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation.
Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed.
Promptly remove nonimpervious clothing that becomes wet.
A major concern in the painting studio is solvents, including dichloromethane. Precautions include use of dilution and local exhaust ventilation, control of storage areas, disposal of solvent soaked rags in covered containers, minimizing skin exposure and the use of respirators and other personal protective equipment. The control of fire hazards is also important, since many of the solvents are highly flammable.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
Areas in which it is produced or used should be provided with adequate exhaust ventilation, sufficient to keep the atmospheric concn below the exposure limits. Special caution should be exercised when entering tanks which may have contained dichloromethane the workers involved should be equipped with oxygen masks or respirators, eye protection, safety belts and life lines, and be under the constant control of a supervisor.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should wash hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one piece & close fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. Clothing should be changed daily but discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs also, workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn. However, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Operations connected with synth & purification should be carried out under well ventilated hood. Analytical procedures should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during procedures should be removed. Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak tight. Horizontal laminar flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used. Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell culture labs Special consideration should be given to route of admin. Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of contaminated cages. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. Methods should where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should avoid contamination of permanent equipment. Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be reused. If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access limited to persons involved in expt. A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed or replaced.
4.5 Hazard Class
4.5 Hazard Declaration
4.5 Cleanup Methods
Environmental considerations - Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors.
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoon, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom. remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Environmental considerations - Land spill: Dig a pit, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents.
Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
4.6 DisposalMethods

Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U080, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number F002, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Potential candidate for liquid injection incineration, with a temperature range of 650 to 1600 deg C and a residence time of 0.1 to 2 seconds; for rotary kiln incineration with a temperature range of 820 to 1600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, hours for solids; and for fluidized bed incineration, with a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, longer for solids.
Dichloromethane is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.
Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene; an acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. Recommendable method: Incineration.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas fired type, in which a first stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for dichloromethane. Concentration Process: Stripping.

4.7 DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Health: Toxic by ingestion. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Exposure in an enclosed area may be very harmful. Contact may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Fire or Explosion: Some of these materials may burn, but none ignite readily. Most vapors are heavier than air. Air/vapor mixtures may explode when ignited. Container may explode in heat of fire.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Small liquid spills: Take up with sand, earth or other non-combustible absorbent material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Wash skin with soap and water. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
UN 1593/1912
4.8 Fire Fighting Procedures
Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, foam, or water spray. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.
Extinguishant: Dry chemical, carbon dioxide, foam.
If material involved in fire: Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources.
4.9 FirePotential
It is flammable in the range of 12-19% in air but ignition is difficult.
4.10 Safety Profile
Confirmed carcinogenwith experimental carcinogenic andtumorigenic data. Poison by intravenousroute. Moderately toxic by ingestion,subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes.Mildly toxic by inhalation. Human systemiceffects by ingestion and inhalation:paresthesia, somnolence, altered sleep time, convulsions, euphoria, and change in cardlacrate. An experimental teratogen.Experimental reproductive effects. An eyeand severe skin irritant. Human mutationdata reported. It is flammable in the range of12-19% in air but ignition is difficult. It willnot form explosive mixtures with air atordinary temperatures. Mixtures in air withmethanol vapor are flammable. It will formexplosive mixtures with an atmospherehaving a high oxygen content, in liquid O2,N2O4, K, Na, NaK. Explosive in the formof vapor when exposed to heat or flame.Reacts violently with Li, NaK, potassiumtert-butoxide, (KOH + N-methyl-Nnitrosourea).It can be decomposed bycontact with hot surfaces and open flame,and then yield toxic fumes that are irritatingand give warning of their presence. Whenheated to decomposition it emits highlytoxic fumes of phosgene and Cl-.
4.11 Caution Statement
P261-P281-P305 + P351 + P338
4.11 Formulations/Preparations
Dichloromethane is available as commercial/technical grade & grades intended specifically for vapor degreasing, aerosol use, food extraction, reagent use & spectrophotometry. Purity, when reported, ranges from 99-99.9% (reagent/high performance liq chromatography grade). Acidity (as hydrochloric acid) may be up to 5-10 mg/kg. The max concn of water in commercial grade dichloromethane is generally 100-200 mg/kg, but anhydrous dichloromethane (less than 50 mg/kg water) is also available.
Small amt of stabilizers are often added to dichloromethane at the time of manufacture. Cyclohexane (50 mg/kg) & propylene oxide have been added to commercial aerosols & reagent grades of dichloromethane for this purpose. Other reported stabilizers include 2-methyl-2-butene @ 50 mg/kg, ethanol or methanol at approx 0.2%, & small quantities (1 mg/kg) of phenol.
Additives may include 0.0001-1% of stabilizers such as: amines, 4-cresol, hydroquinone, methanol, 2-methylbut-2-ene, 1-naphthol, nitromethane + 1,4-dioxane, phenol, resorcinol, and thymol.
In the USA, a standard grade dichloromethane has the following typical specifications: a clear, water white liquid, free of suspended matter acidity, 5 mg/kg max; non volatile residue 10 mg/kg max; free halogen none; & a 100% distillation range of 39.5-40.5 deg C.
Grades available from Mallinkrodt Speciaty Chemicals include AR, ChomAR, NANOGRADE, SpectrAR, UltimAR, ACS Reagent, USP, HPLC, and GC grades.
4.12 Incompatibilities
Methylene chloride reacts with strong oxidizers, caustic substances, chemically active metals such as aluminum and magnesium powders, potassium, sodium, and concentrated nitric acid.
4.13 WGK Germany
4.13 RTECS
4.13 Protective Equipment and Clothing
Wear appropriate chemical protective boots.
Employees should be provided with & required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-in minimum), & other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact with liq methylene chloride. Employees should be provided with & required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liq methylene chloride may contact the eye.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and natural rubber should not be used for protective clothing. Use neoprene for protective clothing. Do not use closed circuit rebreathing system employing soda lime or other carbon dioxide absorber because of formation of toxic compounds capable of producing cranial nerve paralysis. Equipment should not be iron or metal, susceptible to hydrogen chloride.
The permeation of methylene chloride through seven protective clothing materials was studied to determine the permeation parameters, and to investigate the effect of solubility (polymer weight gain) and material thickness on the permeation parameters. The materials tested were two different nitrile rubbers, neoprene, combination (a blend of natural rubber, neoprene and nitrile), two different polyvinyl chlorides, and polyvinyl alcohol. Methylene chloride permeated through all materials, except polyvinyl alcohol, with breakthrough times in the range of 2 to 8 min, and permeation rates in the range of 1250-5800 ug/sq cm min. It was shown that for /methylene chloride/, there is a correlation between the solubility (weight gain) and the ratio of permeation rate to breakthrough time (PR/BT). For all material chemical pairs, an increase in solubility, increased (PR/BT). The change in material thickness had an effect on breakthrough time and permeation rate, but no effect on normalized breakthrough time. An increase in thickness reduced permeation rate and increased breakthrough time. [Vahdat N; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 48 (7): 646-51 (1987)] PubMed Abstract
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. In animal laboratory, personnel should wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one piece & close fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn. However, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. Gowns should be of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
For methylene chloride breakthrough times less (usually significantly less) than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for natural rubber, neoprene/sytrene-butadiene rubber, neoprene/natural rubber, nitrile, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride.
For methylene chloride some data suggesting breakthrough times of approximately an hour or more for polyvinyl alcohol and viton.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL at any detectable cocentration. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
Compatible protective equipment construction material include: Polyurethane, polyvinyl alcohol, viton.
4.14 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Mixtures of /dinitrogen/ tetraoxide with dichloromethane are explosive when subjected to shock of 25 g TNT equiv or less.
Mixtures of lithium shavings with several halocarbon derivatives are impact sensitive and will explode, sometimes violently. Such materials include: dichloromethane
Dichloromethane dissolves endothermically in concentrated nitric acid to give a detonable soln.
Contact of 1.5 g portions of the solid potassium tert-butoxide with drops of dichloromethane caused ignition after 2 min.
will form explosive mixtures with an atmosphere having a high oxygen content, in liq oxygen, nitrogen tetroxide, potassium, sodium, sodium-potassium alloy.
Contact with strong oxidizers, strong caustics and chemically active metals such as aluminum or magnesium powder, sodium and potassium may cause fires and explosions.
Dichloromethane, previously considered to be nonflammable except in oxygen, becomes flammable in air at 102 deg C/1 bar, @ 27 deg C/1.7 bar or @ 27 deg C/1 bar in presence of less than 0.5 vol% of methanol.
Strong oxidizers; caustics; chemically-active metals such as aluminum, magnesium powders, potassium & sodium; concentrated nitric acid.
Mixtures in air with methanol vapor are flammable. Reacts violently with (potassium hydroxide + N-methyl-N-nitrosourea).
4.15 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Irritation of eyes and respiratory tract.
4.16 Safety
Hazard Codes of Dichloromethane (CAS NO.75-09-2):?Xn,T,F
Risk Statements: 40-39-23/24/25-11
R40:Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R39:Danger of very serious irreversible effects.
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R11:Highly flammable.
Safety Statements: 23-24/25-36/37-45-16-7
S23:Do not breathe vapour.
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition.
S7:Keep container tightly closed.
RIDADR: UN 1593 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: PA8050000
F: 3-10
Hazard Note: Harmful
HazardClass: 6.1
PackingGroup: III
4.17 Specification
Dichloromethane (CAS NO.75-09-2) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, penetrating-like ether. If exposed to high temperatures , it may emit toxic chloride fumes. Vapors are narcotic in high concentrations. Used as a solvent and paint remover. It is somewhat soluble in water, subjected to slow hydrolysis which is accelerated by light. It has some kinds of uses. Solvent is the most important use of methylene chloride. Dichloromethane with the dissolving ability, low boiling point and relatively low toxicity, so it has be made as the highest frequency use in organic synthesis. It can be used as extraction solvent, mainly as?the extraction of caffeine in coffee beans, besides it can be used as hops, spices oil-resin extraction solvents, pigment thinner, organic synthesis. As a solvent for resins and plastics industry is widely used in pharmaceutical, plastics and film industries.
4.18 Toxicity
Organic Compound; Organochloride; Solvent; Pesticide; Pollutant; Food Toxin; Metabolite; Household Toxin; Industrial/Workplace Toxin; Synthetic Compound

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Carcinogenicity, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Signal word


Hazard statement(s)

H351 Suspected of causing cancer

Precautionary statement(s)

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.


P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.


P405 Store locked up.


P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification


9. Other Information
9.0 Usage
Dichloromethane is used in spectrophotometry and environmental testing.
9.1 Usage
Dichloromethane is employed in pharmaceutical applications. Its utilization is as a solvent in manufacturing of fine chemicals, drugs, drug intermediates and pharmaceuticals, and also in food engineering. It is the solvent of choice for caffeine extraction. It is employed as a solvent and paint remover, and as a blowing agent for polyurethane foams. It is useful for the fraction of flash pyrolysis oil and for the extraction of benzo-15-crown-5.
9.2 Usage
Dichloromethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been employed as a pharamacuetical applications. Mainly, it's utilization as a solvent in manufacturing and food engineering. It is too useful in the drinking bird heat engine. It was the solvent of choice for caffeine extraction. It is likewise employed as a solvent and paint remover. It is useful for the fraction of flash pyrolysis oil and for the extraction of benzo-15-crown-5.
9.3 Usage
Solvent for anhydrous reactions, water <0.01%.Dichloromethane is employed in pharmaceutical applications. Its utilization is as a solvent in manufacturing of fine chemicals, drugs, drug intermediates and pharmaceuticals, and also in food engineering. It is the solvent of choice for caffeine extraction. It is employed as a solvent and paint remover, and as a blowing agent for polyurethane foams. It is useful for the fraction of flash pyrolysis oil and for the extraction of benzo-15-crown-5.
9.4 Usage
Dichloromethane is used as a mobile phase in High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry.
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 84.927g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: CH2Cl2
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: 1.5
  • Exact Mass: 83.9533555
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 83.9533555
  • Complexity: 2.8
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 0
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 0
  • Heavy Atom Count: 3
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
11. Question & Answer
  • The way to assign oxidation numbers to a compound is a top-down approach. If you begin with the assumption that you don’t know any of the oxidation numbers, then you have a … situation: ( 1 &#x00D7; O C ) + ( 2 &#x00D7; O H ) + ( 2 &#x00D7; O C l ) = 0 " style="position: relative;" ta...
  • If I have a mixture of 25 vol% methanol in water and I mix it with an equal volume of dichloromethane (which is miscible with methanol but not water) can I roughly say that both phases (i.e. water and dichloromethane) will have the same methanol concentration upon reaching equilibrium? Or will it v...
  • I'm designing an experiment to extract the amygdalin from apricot leaves and kernels. I want to steam the kernels and leaves, grind them, add water and then filter it using a filter paper. Then transfer the solution to a separatory funnel, add dichloromethane (DCM), shake and collect the bottom DCM...
  • I use dichloromethane to polish 3D printed object as postprocessing step. Most of it is stored in darkened glass on my balcony (now at &#x2212; 15 &#xA0; &#x2218; C " style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-2-Frame" class="MathJax" ? 15 ° C ? 15 ° C ). What chemic...
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