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Home> Encyclopedia >   /  Alcohol & Hydroxybenzene & Ether  /  Pharmaceutical Intermediates  /  Organic Intermediate
Ethanol structure
Ethanol structure

Ethanol

Iupac Name:ethanol
CAS No.: 64-17-5
Molecular Weight:46.069
Modify Date.: 2022-11-29 07:51
Introduction: Ethyl alcohol, also called ethanol, absolute alcohol, or grain alcohol, is a clear, colorless, flammableliquid with a pleasant odor. It is associated primarily with alcoholic beverages, but ithas numerous uses in the chemical industry. The word alcohol is derived from the Arabicword al kuhul, which was a fine powder of the element antimony used as a cosmetic. InMedieval times, the word al kuhul came to be associated with the distilled products knownas alcohols. The hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon, characterizes alcohols. Ethyl isderived from the root of the two-carbon hydrocarbon ethane. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Ethanol
1.2 Synonyms

Absolute alcohol alcohol ALCOHOL DENAT. cologne spirit drinking alcohol ETHANOL 200 PROOF HPLC/SPECTROPHOTOME& ETHANOL CONTROL-H ETHANOL, DENATURATED 'S15' Ethyl alcohol ETHYL ALCOHOL, REAGENT, ANHYDROUS, DENAT URED Ethyl hydrate Ethyl hydroxide ethylic alcohol ethylol EtOH grain alcohol hydroxyethane methylcarbinol TOYOPEARL SUPER Q-650M, 250ML

1.3 CAS No.
64-17-5
1.4 CID
702
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
200-578-6
1.6 Molecular Formula
C2H6O (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3
1.8 InChkey
LFQSCWFLJHTTHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.9 Canonical Smiles
CCO
1.10 Isomers Smiles
CCO
2. Properties
3.1 Density
0.789
3.1 Melting point
-114℃
3.1 Boiling point
-173.4° F (NTP, 1992)
3.1 Refractive index
1.3614
3.1 Flash Point
55° F (NTP, 1992)
3.2 Precise Quality
46.04190
3.2 PSA
20.23000
3.2 logP
-0.00140
3.2 Solubility
water: soluble (completely)
3.3 Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. It describes the internal friction of a moving fluid.
3.4 VaporDensity
1.59
3.5 AnalyticLaboratory Methods
Method: EPA-RCA 8015C; Procedure: Nonhalogenated Organics by GC-FID; Analyte: ethanol;; Matrix: surface water;, ground water;, and solid matrices; Detection Limit: 12 ug/L.
3.6 Appearance
Ethanol with a small amount of an adulterant added so as to be unfit for use as a beverage.
3.7 Atmospheric OH Rate Constant
3.27e-12 cm3/molecule*sec
3.8 AutoIgnition
689° F (USCG, 1999)
3.9 Storage
Ethyl alcohol should be protected from physical damage. It should be kept stored in a cool,dry, well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fi re hazard may be acute.Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles. Containers shouldbe bonded and grounded for transfer to avoid static sparks. The storage and use areasshould be free from smoking areas.
3.10 Carcinogenicity
In 1987, the International Agencyfor Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated the cancer data onethanol and alcoholic beverages in humans and animals. The IARC concluded that there was inadequateevidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol and of alcoholicbeverages in experimental animals, but there was sufficientevidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages inhumans. The IARC classified alcoholic beverages as a Group1 carcinogen based on the occurrence of malignant tumors ofthe oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver thathave been causally related to the consumption of alcoholicbeverages.
3.11 Chemical Properties
Ethanol is highly soluble in water and organic solvents, but poorly soluble in fats and oils. Ethanol itself is a good solvent, which is used in cosmetics, paints and tinctures[2]. Density of ethanol at 68 °F (20 °C) is 789 g/l. Pure ethanol is neutral (pH ~7). Most alcoholic beverages are more or less acidic.Ethanol/ethyl alcohol is highly flammable liquid, hygroscopic, and fully miscible in water. Ethanol is incompatible with a large number of chemicals such as strong oxidising agents, acids, alkali metals, ammonia, hydrazine, peroxides, sodium, acid anhydrides, calcium hypochlorite, chromyl chloride, nitrosyl perchlorate, bromine pentafluoride, perchloric acid, silver nitrate, mercuric nitrate, potassium tert-butoxide, magnesium perchlorate, acid chlorides, platinum, uranium hexafluoride, silver oxide, iodine heptafluoride, acetyl bromide, disulphuryl difluoride, acetyl chloride, permanganic acid, ruthenium (VIII) oxide, uranyl perchlorate, and potassium dioxide.
3.12 Color/Form
Clear, colorless, very mobile liquid
3.13 Contact Allergens
Ethanol is widely used for its solvent and antisepticproperties. It is rather an irritant and sensitization hasrarely been reported.
3.14 Flammability and Explosibility
Ethanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Ethanol vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4.3 to 19% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in ethanol fires include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethanol fires.
3.15 Heat of Combustion
1336.8 kJ/mol at 25 deg C
3.16 Heat of Vaporization
42.32 kJ/mol at 25 deg C
3.17 HenrysLawConstant
5.00e-06 atm-m3/mole
3.18 Ionization Potential
10.47 eV
3.19 Odor
Pleasant
3.20 Odor Threshold
10 PPM
3.21 PH
7.0 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)
3.22 Physical
Ethanol; with a small amount of an adulterant added so as to be unfit for use as a beverage.
3.23 pKa
16(at 25℃)
3.24 Water Solubility
Miscible
3.25 Spectral Properties
Index of refraction: 1.361 at 20 deg C/D
MAX ABSORPTION (GAS): 181 NM (LOG E= 2.51); SADTLER REFERENCE NUMBER: 188 (IR, PRISM); 64 (IR, GRATING)
IR: 6986 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
NMR: 14 (Varian Associates NMR Spectra Catalogue)
MASS: 37886 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral database, 1990 version)
Intense mass spectral peaks: 31 m/z , 45 m/z, 46 m/z
3.26 Stability
Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, peroxides, acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, alkali metals, ammonia, moisture. Forms explosive mixtures with air. Hygroscopic.
3.27 StorageTemp
room temp
3.28 Surface Tension
21.97 mN/m at 25 deg C
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Chemical Reactivity
Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
4.2 Definition
ChEBI: A primary alcohol that is ethane in which one of the hydrogens is substituted by a hydroxy group.
4.3 GHS Classification
Signal: Danger
GHS Hazard Statements
H225: Highly Flammable liquid and vapor [Danger Flammable liquids]

Precautionary Statement Codes
P210, P233, P240, P241, P242, P243, P280, P303+P361+P353, P370+P378, P403+P235, and P501
4.4 History
Ethanol has been known to humans since prehistory as the active ingredient of alcoholic beverages. Its isolation as a relatively pure compound was probably achieved first by Islamic alchemists who developed the art of distillation[1].
4.5 Methods of Manufacturing
Direct catalytic hydration of ethylene;. ... Ethylene; and deionized water; (molar ratio range 1:0.3 -1:0.8) are heated to 250 - 300 deg C at 6-8 MPa by passage through a heat exchanger and a superheater. Since hydration is exothermic, the gaseous reaction products leave the reactor at a temperature 10-20 deg C higher than when they entered and thus are used as a source of heat in the heat exchanger. Some phosphoric acid; is entrained by the gas stream and is neutralized by injecting a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide;. After condensation and separation of the liquid reaction products, the gas is freed from residual ethanol; by water; washing and then recompressed and recycled to the reactor. The phosphoric acid; lost by entrainment and evaporation is replaced continuously or periodically by spraying it on the catalyst bed. Crude product collects in the sump of the washer and contains ca. 10-25 wt% ethanol;. It is decompressed to recover the dissolved ethylene;, which is recycled. The ethanol; is then purified, ideally by extractive distillation followed by rectification, to obtain a 95 vol% ethanol;-water; azeotrope. The azeotrope can be dehydrated by azeotropic distillation to give anhydrous ethanol;.
4.6 Potential Exposure
Ethyl alcohol is used, topical antiinfective agent; solvent to make beverages; in the chemicalsynthesis of a wide variety of compounds, such as acetaldehyde, ethyl ether, ethyl chloride, and butadiene. It is a solventor processing agent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals;plastics, lacquers, polishes, plasticizers, perfumes, cosmetics,rubber accelerators; explosives, synthetic resins; nitrocellulose, adhesives, inks, and preservatives. It is also used as anantifreeze and as a fuel. It is an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs and pesticides.
4.7 Produe Method
Ethanol is manufactured by the controlled enzymatic fermentationof starch, sugar, or other carbohydrates. A fermented liquid isproduced containing about 15% ethanol; ethanol 95% v/v is thenobtained by fractional distillation. Ethanol may also be prepared bya number of synthetic methods.
4.8 Shipping
UN1170 Ethyl alcohol or Ethanol or Ethanolsolutions or Ethyl alcohol solutions, Hazard Class: 3;Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
4.9 Usage
MedicalA solution of 70-85% of ethanol is commonly used as a disinfectant and it kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids. It is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores. This disinfectant property of ethanol is the reason that alcoholic beverages can be stored for a long time[9]. Ethanol also has many medical uses, and can be found in products such as medicines, medical wipes and as an antiseptic in most antibacterial hand sanitizer gels. Ethanal can also be used as antidote. It competitively blocks the formation of toxic metabolites in toxic alcohol ingestions by having a higher affinity for the enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH). Its chief application is in methanol and ethylene glycol ingestions. Ethanol can be administered by the oral, nasogastric or intravenous route to maintain a blood ethanol concentration of 100-150 mg/dl (22-33 mol/L)[10].FuelEthanol is flammable and burns more cleanly than many other fuels. Ethanol has been used in cars since Henry Ford designed his 1908 Model T to operate on alcohol. In Brazil and the United States, the use of ethanol from sugar cane and grain as car fuel has been promoted by government programs[11].The Brazilian ethanol program started as a way to reduce the reliance on oil imports, but it was soon realized that it had important environmental and social benefits[12]. The fully combusted products of ethanol are only carbon dioxide and water. For this reason, it is environmental friendly and has been used to fuel public buses in the US. However, pure ethanol attacks certain rubber and plastic materials and cannot be used in unmodified car engines[13].The alcohol-based alternative fuel that is blended with gasoline to produce a fuel with a higher octane rating and fewer harmful emissions than unblended gasoline. A mixture containing gasoline with at least 10% ethanol is known as gasohol. Specifically, gasoline with 10% ethanol content is known as E10. Another common gasohol variant is E15, which contains 15% ethanol and 85% gasoline. E15 is only appropriate for use in Flex Fuel vehicles or a very small percentage of the newest vehicles[14]. In addition, E85 is a term used for a mixture of 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol. E85 keeps the fuel system clean because it burns cleaner than regular gas or diesel and doesn't leave behind gummy deposits. Beginning with the model year 1999, a number of vehicles in the U.S. were manufactured so as to be able to run on E85 fuel without modification. These vehicles are often labeled dual fuel or flexible fuel vehicles, since they can automatically detect the type of fuel and change the engine's behavior to compensate for the different ways that they burn in the engine cylinders[15].The use of ethanol-diesel fuel blends is growing around the world, and are designed to provide renewable, cleaner burning fuel alternatives for off-road equipment, buses, semi-trucks and other vehicles that run on diesel fuel. With the addition of ethanol and other fuel additives to diesel, the characteristic black diesel smoke is eliminated and there are significant reductions in particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions. It is also possible to use ethanol for cooking as a replacement for wood, charcoal, propane, or as a substitute for lighting fuels, such as kerosene[16].Brazil and the United States lead the industrial production of ethanol fuel, accounting together for 89% of the world's production in 2008. In comparison with the USA and Brazil, Europe ethanol for fuel production is still very modest. Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol fuel and the world's largest exporter[17].BeverageSignificant volumes of ethanol are produced for the beverage and industrial markets from agricultural feedstock. Ethanol produced for these industries differs from ethanol for fuel only in its strength, which can vary between 96% and 99.9% and in its purity, depending on the end use. Beverage and drinks industry may be the best-known end-user of ethanol. It is used to make many kinds of spirits, such vodka, gin and anisette. High standards and processes are required for ethanal used in the production of spirit drinks.OthersThe ethanol used as an intermediary product by the chemical, pharmaceutical or cosmetics industry is in many cases of the highest and purest possible quality. These are premium markets due to the additional steps in the alcohol production process that are necessary to achieve the required purity. Same high standards and purity requirements apply in food industry, such as flavors and aromas extraction and concentrations, as well as paints and thermometers. Ethanol can be used in de-icer or anti-freeze to clear the car windscreen. It also is contained in perfumes, deodorants, and other cosmetics[18].
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Symbol
GHS02, GHS07
5.1 Hazard Codes
F
5.1 Signal Word
Danger
5.1 Risk Statements
R11
5.1 Safety Statements
S16;S7
5.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Ethanol is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
5.2 Packing Group
II
5.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow = -0.31
5.3 Other Preventative Measures
Good ventilation will prevent the formation of harmful concentrations of alcohol vapors ... Arrangements should be made by the provision of sills and curbs and by the design of floors to limit the spread of escaping liquid and to conduct it to a safe place ... Precautions should be taken ... by the provision of flameproof electrical installations and equipment, to prevent sources of ignition where large quantities of ethyl alcohol are made or used /and/or stored/.
If material /is/ not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to disperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid.
Personel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
Evacuation: If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from downwind area based on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
5.4 Hazard Class
3
5.4 Hazard Declaration
H225-H319
5.4 Cleanup Methods
Land spill: Apply appropriate foam to diminish vapor and fire hazard.
Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Allow to aerate.
Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors.
5.5 DisposalMethods
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for ethanol: Biological Treatment.
5.6 DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Health: Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters (1000 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Wash skin with soap and water. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adherencing to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Ethanol; Ethanol, solution; Ethyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol, solution/
5.7 RIDADR
UN 1170/1986/1987
5.7 Fire Fighting Procedures
The most appropriate extinguishers are carbon dioxide and dust; Water may be used, provided it is /used/ in large amounts.
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical ... .
5.8 FirePotential
Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame ... .
5.9 Caution Statement
P210-P280-P305 + P351 + P338-P337 + P313-P403 + P235
5.9 Formulations/Preparations
Grades: USP (95% by vol); absolute; pure; completely denatured; specially denatured; industrial, various proofs ... .
Materials containing alcohol: Apple Distillate K 2/032410; Arnica Distillate 2/378370; Birch Distillate 2/384280; Chamomille Distillate 2/380930; Linden Blossom Distillate 2/382920
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Four gal of methyl alcohol and one gal of methyl isobutyl ketone; or four gal methyl alcohol and 1/8 avoirdupois oz denatonium benzoate, NF
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One-half gal benzene or one-half gal rubber hydrocarbon solvent.
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Thirty-three pounds, or more, metallic sodium and either one-half gal benzene or one-half gal rubber hydrocarbon solvent
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Five gal methyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One gal of pine tar NF
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One gal of the following solution: Five gal of an aq soln containing 40% nicotine; and 3.6 avoirdupois oz of methylene blue, NF; water sufficient to make 100 gal
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Five gal of benzene
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Ten gal of ethyl ether
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Five-hundredths gal of bone oil (Dipple's oil)
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One hundred gal of ethyl ether
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Ten gal of formaldehyde soln (USP)
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Ten gal of acetone, NF
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Three pounds of salicyclic acid, USP, one pound resorcin, USP, and 1 gal bergamont oil, NF, or bay oil, NF
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Eight gal of acetone, NF and 1.5 gal of methyl isobutyl ketone
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Twenty pounds of iodine, USP and 15 pounds of either potassium or sodium iodide USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: A soln composed of 20 pounds of iodine USP, 15 pounds of potassium or sodium iodide USP and 15 pounds of water.
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One gal of rosemary oil, NF and 30 lb of camphor, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Thirty-five lb of camphor, USP and 1 gal of clove oil, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One gal of lavender oil, USP and 100 lb of medicinal soft soap, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Ten gal of methyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One hundred lb of glycerol, USP and 20 lb of hard soap, NF
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Thirty lb of methyl violet, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: 29.75 gal of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100% by wt or the equivalent thereof not to exceed 35 gal of ethyl acetate with an ester content of not less than 85% by wt
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: 4.25 gal of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100% by wt or the equivalent thereof not to exceed 5 gal of ethyl acetate with an ester content of not less than 85% by wt
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: 3 gal of ammonia, aq, 27 to 30% by wt: three gal of strong ammonia soln, USP: 17.5 lb of caustic soda, liq grade, containing 50% sodium hydroxide by wt: or 12.0 lb of caustic soda, liq grade, containing 73% sodium hydroxide by wt.
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: 45 fluid oz of eucalyptol, USP, 30 avoirdupois oz of thymol, NF and 20 avoirdupois oz of mentol, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Ten lb of any one or a total of 10 lb of two or more of the oils and substances listed below: anethole, USP; anise oil, USP; bay oil (myrcia oil), NF; benzaldehyde, NF; bergamot oil, NF; bitter almond oil, NF; camphor, USP; cedar leaf oil, USP, XIII; chlorothymol, NF; cinnamic aldehyde, NF, IX; cinnamon oil (cassia oil), USP; citronella oil, natural; clove oil, USP; coal tar, USP; eucalyptol, USP; eucalyptus oil, NF; eugenol, USP; guaiacol, NF; lavender oil, USP; menthol, USP; mustard oil, volatile (allyl isothiocyanate), USP, XII; peppermint oil, USP; phenol, USP; phenyl salicylate (salol), NF; pine oil, NF; pine needle oil, dwarf, NF; rosemary oil, NF; safrol; sassafras oil, NF; spearmint oil, NF; spearmint oil, terpeneless; spike lavender oil, natural; storax, USP; thyme oil, NF; thymol, NF; tolu balsam, USP; turpentine oil, NF; wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate), USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: 10 lb of menthol, USP and 1.25 gal of formaldehyde soln, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Two and one-half lb of menthol, USP and 2.5 gal of formaldehyde soln, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: (1) Six lb of boric acid, USP, 1 and 1/3 lb thymol, NF, 1 and 1/3 lb chlorothymol, NF and 1 and 1/3 lb menthol, USP; or (2) Seven lb of boric acid, USP, and a total of 3 lb of any two or more denaturing materials listed under SDA No 38-B
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Nine lb of sodium salicylate or salicylic acid, USP, 1.25 gal fluid extract of quassia, NF, VII and 1/8 gal of tertiary butyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Sixty avoirdupois oz of any one of the following alkaloids or salts together with 1/8 gal of tertiary butyl alcohol: quinine, NF; quinine bisulfate, NF; quinine hydrochloride, USP; cinchonidine; cinchonidine sulfate, NF, IX
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Two and 1/2 gal of diethylphthalate and 1/8 gal of tertiary butyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One gal of diethylphthalate
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One gal of bay oil, NF and either 50 avoirdupois oz of quinine sulfate, USP, 50 avoirdupois oz of quinine bisulfate, NF, or 200 avoirdupois oz of sodium salicylate, USP
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One and one-half avoirdupois oz of brucine (alkaloid), or brucine sulfate (NF, IX), or quassin, or one and one-half av oz of any combination of two or of three of those denaturants, and 1/8 gal of tertiary butyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One lb of sucrose octa-acetate and 1/8 gal of tertiary butyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: One-sixteenth avoirdupois oz of denatonium benzoate, NF, (Bitrex) and 1/8 gal of tertiary butyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Three gal of tertiary butyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Eighty g of potassium iodide, USP and 109 g of red mercuric iodide, NF or 95 g of thimerosal, NF or 76 g of any of the following: phenyl mercuric nitrate, NF; phenyl mercuric chloride, NF; or phenyl mercuric benzoate
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Ten gal of n-butyl alcohol
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: Three hundred lb of refined white or orange shellac
To every 100 gal of ethyl alcohol add: 25 fluid oz of phenol, USP and 4 fluid oz of wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate), USP
Grades of purity: Anhydrous (200 proof); 190 proof
Preparations: Alcohol & Dextrose Injectio, USP; Ethanol for Disinfection; Evaporating Lotion; High alcoholic Elixir; Iso-alcoholic Elixir; Low alcoholic Elixir; Spirit Ear-drops
5.10 Incompatibilities
In acidic conditions, ethanol solutions may react vigorously withoxidizing materials. Mixtures with alkali may darken in colorowing to a reaction with residual amounts of aldehyde. Organicsalts or acacia may be precipitated from aqueous solutions ordispersions. Ethanol solutions are also incompatible with aluminumcontainers and may interact with some drugs.
5.11 WGK Germany
nwg
5.11 RTECS
KQ6300000
5.11 Protective Equipment and Clothing
All-purpose canister; safety goggles.
Personal protective equipment ... should be provided where there is ... prolonged skin contact.
Protective clothing should be worn by persons who are exposed to ethanol and should be composed of natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, or vitron as these compounds have breakthrough times (ie the time it takes for a compound to move from the outer surface of protective clothing to the inner surface) of at least an hour or more.
Breakthrough times greater than one hour reported by (normally, two or more testers for butyl rubber (butyl), natural rubber (nat.rub) neoprene (neop), nitrile rubber (nitrile) and viton. Breakthrough times less (usually significantly less) than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). No data for neoprene/styrene-butadiene rubber (neop/SBR), nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (nitrile/PVC), polyethylene (PE), polyurethane (PU), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR).
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 3300 ppm: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator/(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode/(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
5.12 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Many explosions have been experienced during the gravimetric determination of either perchlorates or potassium as potassium perchlorate by a standard method involving ethanol extraction. During subsequent heating, formation and explosion of ethyl perchlorate is very probable.
Strong oxidizing agents such as chlorine, permanganate, or chromate in acid solution react, in some cases violently, with alcohol to produce oxidation products.
A solution of permanganic acid (or its explosive anhydride dimanganese heptoxide) ... will explode on contact with ... ethanol ... .
Solid /ruthenium (VIII) oxide/ or its concentrated solutions or vapor, tends to oxidize ethanol, cellulose fibers ... explosively.
Bromine pentafluoride ... contact with ... ethanol is likely to cause fire or explosion ... .
... Ethanol ignites then explodes /upon contact with nitrosyl perchlorate/.
... Ethanol ... ignites on contact with /chromyl/ chloride ... .
Uranium hexafluoride /reacts violently/ with ethanol ... .
... Ethanol ... ignites in contact with /iodine heptafluoride/ gas ... .
Attempted crystallization of ... /uranyl perchlorate/ from ethanol caused an explosion ... .
Interaction ... /between/ water, methanol or ethanol /and acetyl bromide/ is violent, hydrogen bromide being evolved.
Reclaimed silver nitrate crystals, damp with the alcohol used for washing, exploded violently when touched with a spatula ... .
A 15% soln of nitric acid in ethanol was used to etch a bismuth crystal. After removing the metal, the mixture decomposes vigorously.
Violent reaction on mixing /of disulfuryl difluoride and ethanol/ at ambient temperatures.
The desiccant /magnesium perchlorate/ in a drying tube, accidentally exposed to ethanol vapor, was left for several months. The explosion which occurred when the desiccant was scraped out was certainly due to formation of ethyl perchlorate.
Addition of platinum black catalyst to ethanol caused ignition. Pre-reduction with hydrogen and/or nitrogen purging of air prevented this.
Contact of 1.5 g portions of the solid /potassium tert-butoxide/ ... with ... /ethanol vapor for 7 min/ caused ignition ... .
Air must be excluded during exothermic interaction of ethanol with sodium finely dispersed in hydrocarbons to avoid the possibility of hydrogen air mixture explosions.
In the preparation of ethyl polysilicate by mixing tetrachlorosilane and industrial methylated spirit containing some water, failure of the agitator is thought to have led to layering of the alcohol over the dense chloride. Evolution of hydrogen chloride led to mixing of the layers, and a greatly incr rate of reaction and self-accelerating gas evolution which burst the reactor.
Acetyl chloride reacts violently with ethyl alcohol or water.
A mixture of silver oxide plus ethyl alcohol and aq ammonia forms the very sensitive silver nitride.
A little calcium hypochlorite added to ethyl alcohol or glycerol will result in a violent explosion after a short time.
No really safe conditions exist under which ethyl alcohol and chlorine oxides can be handled.
The addition of alcohols to highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide forms powerful explosives which can be detonated by shock.
The Petrov method of preparing 1-iodo-2-ethoxy-3-butene calls for addition of 15 g of mercuric oxide to 0.11 molar ethyl alcohol in 25 mL of methyl alcohol, followed by 25 g of powdered iodine at -10 to -15 deg C, filtration, and dilution. A change in the procedure used 1 molar ethyl alcohol. While the alcohol was being distilled off under vacuum, a violent explosion occurred.
A violent explosion occurred when manganese perchlorate, absolute alcohol and 2,2-dimethoxypropane were gently refluxed for about two hr under a stream of nitrogen.
Alcohols should not be mixed with mercuric nitrate, as explosive mercury fulminate may be formed.
Certain metal perchlorates recrystallized from benzene or ethyl alcohol can explode spontaneously. /Metal perchlorates/
In mineral analysis the potassium cation is sometimes identified by adding perchloric acid in the presence of ethyl alcohol concn. Explosions frequently occur that are due to the spontaneous decomp of ethyl perchlorate formed during concn and of residual perchloric acid.
To dispose of a sodium-potassium waste, it was placed in a glove box, which was then purged with argon for 10 min. When 10 mL of alcohol was added to the waste, an immediate pressure rise caused the glove to burst and flame issued from the port. Also, a highly oxidized sphere of potassium was cut in two and one half was dropped into a dish of alcohol; an immediate explosion shattered the dish. Potassium superoxide was considered the cause of both incidents.
Addition of air, or alcohol, or moisture to sodium hydrazide can produce an explosion.
Strong oxidizers, potassium dioxide, bromine pentafluoride, acetyl bromide, acetyl chloride, platinum, sodium.
Accidental presence of the acid salt /acetic anhydride/ vigorously catalysed a large scale preparation of ethyl acetate, causing violent boiling and emission of vapor which became ignited and exploded.
The residues from a cortisol assay procedure (5 cc dichloromethane, 2.5 cc of a fluorescent reagent in 15:85 ethanol-sulfuric acid) were added to a 500 cc bottle and screw capped. After a 90 s delay, the bottle burst violently and brown fumes were seen. It was surmised that a nitrate or nitrite contaminant in the bottle had liberated oxides of nitrogen or nitric acid which had oxidised the organics exothermically.
Action of silver on nitric acid in presence of ethanol may form the readily detonable silver fulminate.
/Tetraphosphorus hexaoxide/ ignites immediately with ethanol at ambient temperature.
Distillation of /barium perchlorate/ mixtures with C1-C3 alcohols gives the highly explosive alkyl perchlorates.
/Chloryl perchlorate/ violently or explosively oxidizes ethanol... .
When /ethanol/ was used to rinse a pestle and mortar which had been used to grind coarse chromium trioxide, immediate ignition occurred due to vigorous oxidation of the solvent.
/Dioxygen difluoride/ explodes with solid ethanol below -130 deg C...
The very powerful liquid oxident, /Fluorine nitrate/, explodes when vigorously shaken, or immediately on contact with /ethanol/...
In the analytical determination of potassium as perchlorate, heating the solid containing traces of ethanol and perchloric acid caused a violent explosion. Contact of drops of anhydrous perchloric acid and ethanol caused immediate violent explosion.
In a demonstration of the powerful oxidant effect of manganese heptoxide on ethanol layered on top of sulfuric acid, it is essential to observe all the precautions given to prevent violent exothermic reactions.
The ethanol complex /with silver perchlorate/... exploded...
The exothermic oxidation of ethanol /and sodium peroxide/... may lead to fire or explosion.
5.13 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Alcohol vapor exposure at sufficiently high concentrations may cause prompt stinging and watering of the eyes, but there appear to be no reports of eye injury from industrial exposure to alcohol vapors.
An eye and skin irritant.
... A splash on human eye causes immediate burning and stinging discomfort with reflex closure of the lids.
5.14 Safety

Hazard Codes:?F,T,Xn
Risk Statements: 11-10-36/37/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-68/20/21/22-20/21/22-52/53
R11:? Highly Flammable?
R10:? Flammable
R36/37/38:? Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin?
R39/23/24/25:? Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed?
R23/24/25:? Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed?
R68/20/21/22:? Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed?
R20/21/22:? Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed?
R52/53:? Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
Safety Statements: 16-7-36-26-45-36/37-61-24/25
S16:? Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking?
S7:? Keep container tightly closed
S36:? Wear suitable protective clothing?
S26:? In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice?
S45:? In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)
S36/37:? Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves
S61:? Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet?
S24/25:? Avoid contact with skin and eyes
HazardClass: 3
PackingGroup: II
RTECS: KQ6300000

5.15 Sensitive
Hygroscopic
5.16 Specification

? Ethanol (CAS NO.64-17-5), its Synonyms are Ethanol, undenatured ; Ethyl alcohol, undenatured ; Alcohol ; Distilled spirits ; 1-Hydroxyethane ; AI3-01706 ; Absolute ethanol ; Denatured alcohol CD-5a ; Denatured alcohol SD-1 ; Denatured alcohol SD-13a . It is?clear colorless liquid with a characteristic vinous odor and pungent taste.

5.17 Toxicity
LD50 in young, old rats (g/kg): 10.6, 7.06 orally (Wiberg)
5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Flammable liquids, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapour

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P210 Keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. No smoking.

P233 Keep container tightly closed.

P240 Ground and bond container and receiving equipment.

P241 Use explosion-proof [electrical/ventilating/lighting/...] equipment.

P242 Use non-sparking tools.

P243 Take action to prevent static discharges.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

Response

P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

P370+P378 In case of fire: Use ... to extinguish.

Storage

P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

9. Other Information
9.0 Merck
14,3760
9.1 BRN
1718733
9.2 Introduction
Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol (or grain spirits, or alcohol), is a clear colorless, volatile, flammable solvent with a characteristic odor. The boiling point of ethanal is 78.5°C. The bio-alcohol is found in alcoholic beverages. Concentrated alcohol has a strong burning taste, but it is somewhat sweet when diluted. It is also increasingly being used as a fuel (usually replacing or complementing gasoline). Its low melting point of -114.5° C allows it to be used in antifreeze products.
Ethanol structure
9.3 History
Ethanol has been known to humans since prehistory as the active ingredient of alcoholic beverages. Its isolation as a relatively pure compound was probably achieved first by Islamic alchemists who developed the art of distillation[1].
9.4 Chemical properties
Ethanol is highly soluble in water and organic solvents, but poorly soluble in fats and oils. Ethanol itself is a good solvent, which is used in cosmetics, paints and tinctures[2]. Density of ethanol at 68 °F (20 °C) is 789 g/l. Pure ethanol is neutral (pH ~7). Most alcoholic beverages are more or less acidic.
Ethanol/ethyl alcohol is highly flammable liquid, hygroscopic, and fully miscible in water. Ethanol is incompatible with a large number of chemicals such as strong oxidising agents, acids, alkali metals, ammonia, hydrazine, peroxides, sodium, acid anhydrides, calcium hypochlorite, chromyl chloride, nitrosyl perchlorate, bromine pentafluoride, perchloric acid, silver nitrate, mercuric nitrate, potassium tert-butoxide, magnesium perchlorate, acid chlorides, platinum, uranium hexafluoride, silver oxide, iodine heptafluoride, acetyl bromide, disulphuryl difluoride, acetyl chloride, permanganic acid, ruthenium (VIII) oxide, uranyl perchlorate, and potassium dioxide.
9.5 Production
Ethanol is produced by fermenting and distilling grains. Actually, ethanol can be made from any plant that contains a large amount of sugar or components that can be converted into sugar, such as starch or cellulose. As their names imply, sugar beets and sugar cane contain natural sugar. Crops such as corn, wheat and barley contain starch that can be easily converted to sugar[3]. Today, ethanol is made primarily from corn.
Another form of ethanol, called bioethanol, can be made from lignocellulosics which are from many types of trees and grasses, although the process is more difficult[4]. Lignocellulose consists of three main components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the first two being composed of chains of sugar molecules. Those chains can be hydrolyzed to produce monomeric sugars, some of which can be fermented using yeasts to produce ethanol. Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic materials in various ways, but all processes comprise the same main components: hydrolysis of the hemicellulose and the cellulose to monomer sugars, fermentation and product recovery and concentration by distillation[5].
Currently, ethanol production processes using crops are well-established. However, utilization of a cheaper substrate, such as lignocellulose, could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. Therefore, bacterial and yeast strains have been constructed which are advantageous for ethanol production[6]. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies, and the main challenges are the low yield and high cost of the hydrolysis process. Considerable research efforts have been made to improve the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials[7]. Besides, new enzymes have revolutionized the liquefaction process in starch ethanol and improved ethanol yield and product quality[8].
9.6 Uses
Medical
A solution of 70-85% of ethanol is commonly used as a disinfectant and it kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids. It is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores. This disinfectant property of ethanol is the reason that alcoholic beverages can be stored for a long time[9]. Ethanol also has many medical uses, and can be found in products such as medicines, medical wipes and as an antiseptic in most antibacterial hand sanitizer gels. Ethanal can also be used as antidote. It competitively blocks the formation of toxic metabolites in toxic alcohol ingestions by having a higher affinity for the enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH). Its chief application is in methanol and ethylene glycol ingestions. Ethanol can be administered by the oral, nasogastric or intravenous route to maintain a blood ethanol concentration of 100-150 mg/dl (22-33 mol/L)[10].
Fuel
Ethanol is flammable and burns more cleanly than many other fuels. Ethanol has been used in cars since Henry Ford designed his 1908 Model T to operate on alcohol. In Brazil and the United States, the use of ethanol from sugar cane and grain as car fuel has been promoted by government programs[11]. The Brazilian ethanol program started as a way to reduce the reliance on oil imports, but it was soon realized that it had important environmental and social benefits[12]. The fully combusted products of ethanol are only carbon dioxide and water. For this reason, it is environmental friendly and has been used to fuel public buses in the US. However, pure ethanol attacks certain rubber and plastic materials and cannot be used in unmodified car engines[13].
The alcohol-based alternative fuel that is blended with gasoline to produce a fuel with a higher octane rating and fewer harmful emissions than unblended gasoline. A mixture containing gasoline with at least 10% ethanol is known as gasohol. Specifically, gasoline with 10% ethanol content is known as E10. Another common gasohol variant is E15, which contains 15% ethanol and 85% gasoline. E15 is only appropriate for use in Flex Fuel vehicles or a very small percentage of the newest vehicles[14]. In addition, E85 is a term used for a mixture of 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol. E85 keeps the fuel system clean because it burns cleaner than regular gas or diesel and doesn't leave behind gummy deposits. Beginning with the model year 1999, a number of vehicles in the U.S. were manufactured so as to be able to run on E85 fuel without modification. These vehicles are often labeled dual fuel or flexible fuel vehicles, since they can automatically detect the type of fuel and change the engine's behavior to compensate for the different ways that they burn in the engine cylinders[15]
The use of ethanol-diesel fuel blends is growing around the world, and are designed to provide renewable, cleaner burning fuel alternatives for off-road equipment, buses, semi-trucks and other vehicles that run on diesel fuel. With the addition of ethanol and other fuel additives to diesel, the characteristic black diesel smoke is eliminated and there are significant reductions in particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions. It is also possible to use ethanol for cooking as a replacement for wood, charcoal, propane, or as a substitute for lighting fuels, such as kerosene[16].
Brazil and the United States lead the industrial production of ethanol fuel, accounting together for 89% of the world's production in 2008. In comparison with the USA and Brazil, Europe ethanol for fuel production is still very modest. Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol fuel and the world's largest exporter[17].
Beverage
Significant volumes of ethanol are produced for the beverage and industrial markets from agricultural feedstock. Ethanol produced for these industries differs from ethanol for fuel only in its strength, which can vary between 96% and 99.9% and in its purity, depending on the end use. Beverage and drinks industry may be the best-known end-user of ethanol. It is used to make many kinds of spirits, such vodka, gin and anisette. High standards and processes are required for ethanal used in the production of spirit drinks.
Others
The ethanol used as an intermediary product by the chemical, pharmaceutical or cosmetics industry is in many cases of the highest and purest possible quality. These are premium markets due to the additional steps in the alcohol production process that are necessary to achieve the required purity. Same high standards and purity requirements apply in food industry, such as flavors and aromas extraction and concentrations, as well as paints and thermometers. Ethanol can be used in de-icer or anti-freeze to clear the car windscreen. It also is contained in perfumes, deodorants, and other cosmetics[18].
9.7 Safety and hazards
Even though ethanol is very commonly used, it is a dangerous chemical. As ethanal is highly flammable, it has exact flash points which needs to be noticed. While ethanol is consumed when drinking alcoholic beverages, consuming ethanol alone can cause coma and death. Ethanol may also be a carcinogenic[19].
Exposure to ethanol can be in vapor form (breathing it in), skin/body contact or ingestion. All are serious and need to be managed appropriately to ensure more damage is not incurred while trying to attend to the exposure.
Common side effects of ethanol include: intoxication, low blood pressure (hypotension) with flushing, agitation, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), nausea, vomiting and excessive urination[20].
9.8 References
[1] http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-definition/Ethyl_alcohol/
[2] http://www.nutrientsreview.com/alcohol/definition-physical-chemical-properties.html
[3] http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2010/ph240/luk1/
[4] http://www.highwaterethanol.com/index.cfm?show=10&mid=24
[5] M. Galbe, G. Zacchi, A review of the production of ethanol from softwood, Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 59(2002) 618-28.
[6] J. Zaldivar, J. Nielsen, L. Olsson, Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration, Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 56(2001) 17-34.
[7] Y. Sun, J. Cheng, Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review, Bioresource technology, 83(2002) 1-11.
[8] P.V. Harris, F. Xu, N.E. Kreel, C. Kang, S. Fukuyama, New enzyme insights drive advances in commercial ethanol production, Current opinion in chemical biology, 19(2014) 162-70.
[9] http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-definition/Ethyl_alcohol/
[10] https://lifeinthefastlane.com/tox-library/antidote/ethanol/
[11] https://www.worldofmolecules.com/fuels/ethanol.htm
[12] J. Goldemberg, Ethanol for a sustainable energy future, science, 315(2007) 808-10.
[13] https://www.worldofmolecules.com/fuels/ethanol.htm
[14] https://www.exxon.com/en/ethanol
[15] http://renewkansas.com/ethanol-advantages-benefits/
[16] http://energybc.ca/biofuels.html
[17] C. Ibeto, A. Ofoefule, K. Agbo, A global overview of biomass potentials for bioethanol production: a renewable alternative fuel, Trends Appl Sci Res, 6(2011) 410e25.
[18] https://www.epure.org/about-ethanol/beverage-industrial-use/
[19] https://www.msdsonline.com/2014/04/21/ethanol-versatile-common-and-potentially-dangerous/
[20] https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_ethanol_alcohol/drugs-condition.htm
9.9 Description
Ethyl alcohol, also called ethanol, absolute alcohol, or grain alcohol, is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid with a pleasant odor. It is associated primarily with alcoholic beverages, but it has numerous uses in the chemical industry. The word alcohol is derived from the Arabic word al kuhul, which was a fine powder of the element antimony used as a cosmetic. In Medieval times, the word al kuhul came to be associated with the distilled products known as alcohols. The hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon, characterizes alcohols. Ethyl is derived from the root of the two-carbon hydrocarbon ethane.
9.10 Chemical Properties
In the BP 2009, the term ‘alcohol’; used without other qualification refers to ethanol containing ≥99.5% v/v of C2H6O. The term‘alcohol’, without other qualification, refers to ethanol 95.1–96.9% v/v. Where other strengths are intended, the term ‘alcohol’ or ‘ethanol’is used, followed by the statement of the strength. In the PhEur 6.0, anhydrous ethanol contains not less than 99.5% v/v of C2H6O at 208℃. The term ethanol (96%) is used to describe the material containing water and 95.1–96.9% v/v of C2H6O at 208℃.
9.11 Chemical Properties
Ethyl alcohol is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid with a sweet, fruity odor. The Odor Threshold is 0.1355 ppm.
9.12 Chemical Properties
Ethyl alcohol is a colorless flammable liquid with a typical lower alcohol odor and is miscible in water in all proportions. It is stable and hygroscopic. It is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, peroxides, acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, alkali metals, ammonia, and moisture. Ethyl alcohol forms explosive mixtures with air. Ethyl alcohol is the most common solvent used in aerosols, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, alcoholic beverages, vinegar production, and in the chemical synthesis of a large variety of products in different industries. For instance, in the manufacture of plastics, lacquers, polishes, plasticizers, perfumes, adhesives, rubber accelerators, explosives, synthetic resins, nitrocellulose, inks, preservatives, and as a fuel.
9.13 Occurrence
Reported found in apple, apple aroma, apple essence, apple juice, bacon fat, banana, bean, beef fat, beef extract, blackberry, black currant, bread, brussels sprout, cabbage, carrot root, cauliflower, blue cheese, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese, cocoa bean, cherry, coffee, cream, cucumber, alcoholic beverages and many other sources
9.14 History
Alcohol is produced naturally from the fermentation of sugars, and it is assumed that prehistoric humans consumed alcohol when eating fermented fruits. The earliest direct evidence of alcohol consumption dates from the Neolithic period 10,000 years ago and consists of stone jugs used for holding alcoholic beverages. Ancient records and art from Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, and other early civilizations indicate the use of alcohol as a beverage, medicine, and ceremonial drink. Records also show that the intoxicating effects of alcohol were known for thousands of years b.c.e. Alcoholic drinks were stored in Egyptian burial tombs, and deities devoted to alcoholic beverages were worshiped by different civilizations. As the human population expanded, alcoholic drinks assumed a prominent role in different cultures; for example, numerous references are made to wine in the Bible. Ancient Islamic alchemists advanced the practice of alcohol production by using distillation techniques. Distilled alcohols began to appear in the Middle Ages and was used in many remedies and medicines. A common practice by alchemists in different regions was the preparation of special liquors and brews with healing power. Aqua vitae (water of life) could refer to brandy, gin, whiskey, wine, or another form of alcoholic depending on the geographic area.
9.15 Uses
One of the most prominent uses of ethyl alcohol is as a fuel additive and increasingly as a fuel itself. Ethyl alcohol is added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and octane number. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that oxygenated fuels be used in certain geographic areas to help meet air quality standards for carbon monoxide, especially in winter. A gasoline blended for this purpose may contain a few percent ethyl alcohol. Gasoline blended with ethyl alcohol is called gasohol. A typical gasohol may contain 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol. Gasohol reduces several common air pollutants including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and benzene. Conversely, nitrogen oxides increase with gasohol.
9.16 Uses
Ethanol is used primarily as a solvent — animportant industrial solvent for resins, lacquers, pharmaceuticals, toilet preparations,and cleaning agents; in the production of rawmaterials for cosmetics, perfumes, drugs, andplasticizers; as an antifreeze; as an automotive fuel additive; and from ancient times, inmaking beverages. Its pathway to the bodysystem is mainly through the consumption ofbeverages. It is formed by the natural fermentation of corn, sugarcane, and other crops.
9.17 Uses
Suitable for use in the precipitation of nucleic acids.
9.18 Uses
Most ethyl alcohol is used in alcoholic beverages in suitable dilutions. Other uses are as solvent in laboratory and industry, in the manufacture of denatured alcohol, pharmaceuticals (rubbing Compounds, lotions, tonics, colognes), in perfumery, in organic synthesis. Octane booster in gasoline. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).
9.19 Uses
alcohol (alcohol SD-40; alcohol SDA-40; ethanol; ethyl alcohol) is widely used in the cosmetic industry as an antiseptic as well as a solvent given its strong grease-dissolving abilities. It is often used in a variety of concentrations in skin toners for acne skin, aftershave lotions, perfumes, suntan lotions, and toilet waters. Alcohol dries the skin when used in high concentrations. It is manufactured through the fermentation of starch, sugar, and other carbohydrates.
9.20 Uses
ethyl alcohol (Etanol) is commonly known as rubbing alcohol. ethyl alcohol is ordinary alcohol and is used medicinally as a topical antiseptic, astringent, and anti-bacterial. At concentrations above 15 percent, it is also a broad-spectrum preservative against bacteria and fungi, and can boost the efficacy of other preservatives in a formulation. Cosmetic companies tend to use alcohol SD-40 in high-grade cosmetic manufacturing as they consider ethanol too strong and too drying for application on the skin. obtained from grain distillation, it can also be synthetically manufactured.
9.21 Definition
ChEBI: A primary alcohol that is ethane in which one of the hydrogens is substituted by a hydroxy group.
9.22 Indications
Ethanol is the most widely abused drug in the world. There are more than 10 million alcoholics in the United States alone. Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages has been linked to as many as half of all traffic accidents, two-thirds of homicides, and three-fourths of suicides, and it is a significant factor in other crimes, in family problems, and in personal and industrial accidents. The annual cost to the American economy has been estimated to exceed $100 billion in lost productivity, medical care, and property damage.
Alcoholism has been difficult to define because of its complex nature.A person is generally considered an alcoholic, however, when his or her lifestyle is dominated by the procurement and consumption of alcoholic beverages and when this behavior interferes with personal, professional, social, or family relations.
A light drinker generally is defined as one who consumes an average of one drink or less per day, usually with the evening meal; a moderate drinker is one who has approximately three drinks per day; and a heavy drinker is one who has five or more drinks per day (or in the case of binge drinkers, at least once per week with five or more drinks on each occasion).
9.23 Production Methods
Ethanol is manufactured by the controlled enzymatic fermentation of starch, sugar, or other carbohydrates. A fermented liquid is produced containing about 15% ethanol; ethanol 95% v/v is then obtained by fractional distillation. Ethanol may also be prepared by a number of synthetic methods.
9.24 Definition
A colorless volatile liquid alcohol. Ethanol occurs in intoxicating drinks, in which it is produced by fermentation of a sugar: C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Yeast is used to cause the reaction. At about 15% alcohol concentration (by volume) the reaction stops because the yeast is killed. Higher concentrations of alcohol are produced by distillation. Apart from its use in drinks, alcohol is used as a solvent and to form ethanal. Formerly, the main source was by fermentation of molasses, but now catalytic hydration of ethene is used to manufacture industrial ethanol. See also methylated spirits.
9.25 Indications
Intravenous use of ethanol, while once widely employed to inhibit premature labor, is now of historical interest only. Ethanol inhibits oxytocin release from the pituitary and thus indirectly decreases myometrial contractility. Today, 2-adrenomimetics and magnesium sulfate have replaced ethanol for parenteral tocolysis.
9.26 Preparation
There are several approaches to the production of ethanol; mainly ethanol is produced by fermentation.
9.27 Brand name
Absolute alcohol;Alcohol aethylicus;Alcool;Avitoin;Banatol;B-tonin;Colfin;Desqyam-x;Duonale-e;Efatin;Equithesin;Hizeneck-d;Honkon-n;Kapsitrin;Keralyt;Levovinizol;Mikrozid;Neotizol;Panoxy;Papette;Piadarn;Polislerol;Protectaderm;Sicol;Sodaphilline;Softa man;Sotracarix;Verucid;Weingeist;Xeracin.
9.28 World Health Organization (WHO)
Ethanol has been used throughout recorded history both in a medicinal and a social context. It is currently included in pharmaceutical preparations either as an active or inactive ingredient. At pharmacologically active doses ethanol is both a powerful cerebral depressant and a drug of addiction. Its use in pharmaceutical preparations has been severely restricted in several countries and in 1986 the 39th World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to prohibit such use except when ethanol is an essential ingredient which cannot be replaced by an appropriate alternative.
9.29 Aroma threshold values
Detection: 8 to 900 ppb
9.30 General Description
Reagent Alcohol is denatured alcohol that consists of ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl alcohol in the ratio 90:5:5.
9.31 Reactivity Profile
It liberates hydrogen when it reacts withmetal; forms acetaldehyde (toxic, flammable)on catalytic vapor phase dehydrogenation;ethyl ether (flammable) on dehydration withH2SO4 or a heterogeneous catalyst such asalumina, silica, SnCl2, MnCl2, or CuSO4;.
9.32 Hazard
Classified as a depressant drug. Though it is rapidly oxidized in the body and is therefore noncumulative, ingestion of even moderate amounts causes lowering of inhibitions, often succeeded by dizziness, headache, or nausea. Larger intake causes loss of m
9.33 Health Hazard
The toxicity of ethanol is much lower thanthat of methanol or propanol. However, theliterature on the subject is vastly greater thanthat of any other alcohol. This is attributableessentially to its use in alcoholic beverages.There are exhaustive reviews on alcohol toxicity and free-radical mechanisms (Nordmannet al. 1987). The health hazard arises primarily from ingestion rather than inhalation. Ingestion of a large dose, 250–500 mL,can be fatal. It affects the central nervoussystem. Symptoms are excitation, intoxication, stupor, hypoglycemia, and coma — thelatter occurring at a blood alcohol contentof 300–400 0 mg/L. It is reported to have atoxic effect on the thyroid gland (Hegeduset al. 1988) and to have an acute hypotensiveaction, reducing the systolic blood pressurein humans (Eisenhofer et al. 1987). Chronicconsumption can cause cirrhosis of the liver.Inhalation of alcohol vapors can result inirritation of the eyes and mucous membranes.This may happen at a high concentrationof 5000–10,000 ppm. Exposure may resultin stupor, fatigue, and sleepiness. There isno report of cirrhosis occurring from inhalation. Chronic exposure to ethanol vapors hasproduced brain damage in mice. The neurotoxicity increases with thiamine deficiency(Phillips 1987). Both acute and chronic dosesof ethanol elevated the lipid peroxidation inrat brain. This was found to be elevated further by vitamin E deficiency, as well as itssupplementation (Nadiger et al. 1988).
pplementation (Nadiger et al. 1988).The toxicity of ethanol is enhanced in thepresence of compounds such as barbiturates,carbon monoxide, and methyl mercury. Withthe latter compound, ethanol enhanced theretention of mercury in the kidney of ratsand thus increased nephrotoxicity (McNeilet al. 1988). When combined with cocaineand fed to rats, increased maternal and fetaltoxicity was observed (Church et al. 1988).Ethanol is reported to be synergisticallytoxic with caffeine (Pollard 1988) andwith n-butanol and isoamyl alcohol. Priorethanol consumption increased the toxicity of acetaminophen in mice (Carter1987).
9.34 Flammability and Explosibility
Ethanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Ethanol vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4.3 to 19% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in ethanol fires include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethanol fires.
9.35 Chemical Reactivity
Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
9.36 Pharmaceutical Applications
Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions of various concentrations are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics. Although ethanol is primarily used as a solvent, it is also employed as a disinfectant, and in solutions as an antimicrobial preservative. Topical ethanol solutions are used in the development of transdermal drug delivery systems as penetration enhancers. Ethanol has also been used in the development of transdermal preparations as a co-surfactant.
9.37 Contact allergens
Ethanol is widely used for its solvent and antiseptic properties. It is rather an irritant and sensitization has rarely been reported.
9.38 Biochem/physiol Actions
Positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, and negative allosteric modulator of NMDA glutamate receptors.
9.39 Mechanism of action
A great deal of attention has been focused on a class of proteins termed the ligand-gated ion channels as being important to the mechanism of action of alcohol.These integral membrane proteins function as gates or pores that allow the passage of certain ions into and out of neurons upon binding of the appropriate neurotransmitter. This flux of ions largely determines the degree of neuronal activity. Two distinct types of ligand-gated ion channels are particularly sensitive to concentrations of alcohol that produce intoxication and sedation. These are the α-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride ionophore and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor. The GABA–chloride ion channel reduces neuronal activity by hyperpolarizing the neurons, while activation of the NMDA receptor causes neuronal depolarization or excitation. Alcohol has been shown to increase chloride flux through the GABAA receptor and reduce calcium flux through the NMDA receptor. These actions result in powerful suppression of nerve cell activity, which is consistent with the depressant actions of alcohol in the brain.
9.40 Clinical Use
Generally, no treatment is required for acute ethanol intoxication. Allowing the individual to sleep off the effects of ethanol ingestion is the usual procedure. Hangovers are treated similarly; that is, no effective remedy exists for a hangover, except for controlling the amount of ethanol consumed. Sometimes ethanol overdose is a medical emergency. For example, prompt treatment is required if the patient is in danger of dying of respiratory arrest, is comatose, has dilated pupils, is hypothermic, or displays tachycardia.
Treatment for severe ethanol overdose is generally supportive. Increased intracranial pressure can be relieved by intravenous administration of hypertonic mannitol. Hemodialysis can accelerate the removal of ethanol from the body. Stimulants of ethanol metabolism, such as fructose, are not sufficiently effective, and use of analeptics is not recommended because of the possibility of precipitating convulsions.
The immediate concern in the treatment of alcoholics is detoxification and management of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Another pharmacological approach is the use of anticraving drugs, for example serotonin uptake inhibitors,dopaminergic agonists, and opioid antagonists.The only treatment that has shown considerable promise is one that uses the opioid antagonist naltrexone.
9.41 Side effects
Acute Ethanol Intoxication and Hangover
Ethanol intoxication is probably the best-known form of drug toxicity. Intoxicated individuals are a threat to themselves and others, particularly if they attempt to drive or operate machinery. Although death can result from ethanol overdose, usually the patient lapses into a coma before ingesting lethal quantities. Ethanol intoxication is sometimes mistakenly diagnosed as diabetic coma, schizophrenia, overdosage of other CNS depressant drugs, or skull fracture. An additional feature commonly associated with excessive ethanol consumption is difficulty in regulating body temperature. Hypothermia frequently results, with body temperature falling toward that of the ambient environment. This problem can be particularly severe in the elderly, who normally have difficulty regulating their body temperature.
One of the consequences of ethanol intoxication is the hangover, a condition characterized by headache, nausea, sweating, and tremor. Although unpleasant, a hangover is not dangerous, even though the person having one may feel otherwise.
9.42 Safety Profile
Confirmed human carcinogen for ingestion of beverage alcohol. Experimental tumorigenic and teratogenic data. Moderately toxic to humans by ingestion. Moderately toxic experimentally by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation and skin contact. Human systemic effects by ingestion and subcutaneous routes: sleep disorders, hallucinations, dtstorted perceptions, convulsions, motor activity changes, ataxia, coma, antipsychotic,headache, pulmonary changes, alteration in gastric secretion, nausea or vomiting, other gastrointestinal changes, menstrual cycle changes, and body temperature decrease. Can also cause glandular effects in humans. Human reproductive effects by ingestion, intravenous, and intrauterine routes: changes in female fertility index. Effects on newborn include: changes in Apgar score, neonatal measures or effects, and drug dependence. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. An eye and skin irritant. The systemic effect of ethanol differs from that of methanol. Ethanol is rapidly oxidtzed in the body to carbon dtoxide and water, and, in contrast to methanol, no cumulative effect occurs. Though ethanol possesses narcotic properties, concentrations sufficient to produce this effect are not reached in industry. Concentrations below 1000 pprn usually produce no signs of intoxication. Exposure to concentrations over 1000 pprn may cause headache, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and, if continued for an hour, drowsiness and lassitude, loss of appetite, and inability to concentrate. There is no concrete evidence that repeated exposure to ethanol vapor results in cirrhosis of the liver. Ingestion of large doses can cause alcohol poisoning. Repeated ingestions can lead to alcoholism. It is a central nervous system depressant.Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizers. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Explosive reaction with the oxidized coating around potassium metal. Ignites and then explodes on contact with acetic anhydride + sodum hydrogen sulfate. Reacts violently with acetyl bromide (evolves hydrogen bromide), dichloromethane + sulfuric acid + nitrate or nitrite, disulfuryl difluoride, tetrachlorosilane + water, and strong oxidants. Ignites on contact with disulfuric acid + nitric acid, phosphorus(IⅡ) oxide, platinum, potassium tert-butoxide + acids. Forms explosive products in reaction with ammonia + silver nitrate (forms silver nitride and silver fulminate), magnesium perchlorate (forms ethyl perchlorate), nitric acid + silver (forms silver fulminate), silver nitrate (forms ethyl nitrate), silverp) oxide + ammonia or hydrazine (forms silver nitride and silver fulminate), sodum (evolves hydrogen gas). Incompatible with acetyl chloride, BrF5, Ca(OCl)2, ClO3, Cr03, Cr(OCl)2, (cyanuric acid + H20), H202, HNO3, (H202 + H2SO4), (I + CH3OH + HgO), wn(ClO4)2 + 2,2-dimethoxy propane], Hg(NO3)2, HClO4, perchlorates, (H2SO4 + permanganates), HMn04, KO2, KOC(CH3)3, AgClO4, NaH3N2, uo2(clO4)2
9.43 Safety
Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions are widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics. It is also consumed in alcoholic beverages.
Ethanol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and the vapor may be absorbed through the lungs; it is metabolized, mainly in the liver, to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate.
Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and ingestion of low to moderate quantities can lead to symptoms of intoxication including muscle incoordination, visual impairment, slurred speech, etc. Ingestion of higher concentrations may cause depression of medullary action, lethargy, amnesia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, stupor, coma, respiratory depression, and cardiovascular collapse. The lethal human blood-alcohol concentration is generally estimated to be 400–500 mg/100 mL.
Although symptoms of ethanol intoxication are usually encountered following deliberate consumption of ethanol-containing beverages, many pharmaceutical products contain ethanol as a solvent, which, if ingested in sufficiently large quantities, may cause adverse symptoms of intoxication. In the USA, the maximum quantity of alcohol included in OTC medicines is 10% v/v for products labeled for use by people of 12 years of age and older, 5% v/v for products intended for use by children aged 6–12 years of age, and 0.5% v/v for products for use by children under 6 years of age.
Parenteral products containing up to 50% of alcohol (ethanol 95 or 96% v/v) have been formulated. However, such concentrations can produce pain on intramuscular injection and lower concentrations such as 5–10% v/v are preferred. Subcutaneous injection of alcohol (ethanol 95% v/v) similarly causes considerable pain followed by anesthesia. If injections are made close to nerves, neuritis and nerve degeneration may occur. This effect is used therapeutically to cause anesthesia in cases of severe pain, although the practice of using alcohol in nerve blocks is controversial. Doses of 1mL of absolute alcohol have been used for this purpose.
Preparations containing more than 50% v/v alcohol may cause skin irritation when applied topically.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.93 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 1.97 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 3.45 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, SC): 8.29 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IP): 3.75 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 1.44 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 7.06 g/kg
9.44 Potential Exposure
Ethyl alcohol is used, topical antiinfective agent; solvent to make beverages; in the chemical synthesis of a wide variety of compounds, such as acetaldehyde, ethyl ether, ethyl chloride, and butadiene. It is a solvent or processing agent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals; plastics, lacquers, polishes, plasticizers, perfumes, cosmetics, rubber accelerators; explosives, synthetic resins; nitrocellulose, adhesives, inks, and preservatives. It is also used as an antifreeze and as a fuel. It is an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs and pesticides.
9.45 Carcinogenicity
In 1987, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated the cancer data on ethanol and alcoholic beverages in humans and animals . The IARC concluded that there was inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol and of alcoholic beverages in experimental animals, but there was sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages in humans. The IARC classified alcoholic beverages as a Group 1 carcinogen based on the occurrence of malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver that have been causally related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
9.46 Environmental Fate
If released to the environment from natural or anthropogenic sources, ethanol will preferentially partition to the soil, water, and air. Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potential is anticipated to be low based upon the estimated bioconcentration factor and experimental octanol/water partition coefficient. If released into water, ethanol’s half-life is less than 10 days. The half-life upon release to air is less than 5 days, where wet deposition removal predominates. Biodegradation and volatilization are expected to be important fate and transport processes for ethanol.
9.47 storage
Ethyl alcohol should be protected from physical damage. It should be kept stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fi re hazard may be acute. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfer to avoid static sparks. The storage and use areas should be free from smoking areas.
9.48 Shipping
UN1170 Ethyl alcohol or Ethanol or Ethanol solutions or Ethyl alcohol solutions, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
9.49 Purification Methods
Usual impurities of fermentation alcohol are fusel oils (mainly higher alcohols, especially pentanols), aldehydes, esters, ketones and water. With synthetic alcohol, likely impurities are water, aldehydes, aliphatic esters, acetone and diethyl ether. Traces of *benzene are present in ethanol that has been dehydrated by azeotropic distillation with *benzene. Anhydrous ethanol is very hygroscopic. Water (down to 0.05%) can be detected by formation of a voluminous precipitate when aluminium ethoxide in *benzene is added to a test portion, Rectified spirit (95% ethanol) is converted to absolute (99.5%) ethanol by refluxing with freshly ignited CaO (250g/L) for 6hours, standing overnight and distilling with precautions to exclude moisture. Numerous methods are available for further drying of absolute ethanol for making “Super dry ethanol”. Lund and Bjerrum [Chem Ber 64 210 1931] used reaction with magnesium ethoxide, prepared by placing 5g of clean dry magnesium turnings and 0.5g of iodine (or a few drops of CCl4), to activate the Mg, in a 2L flask, followed by 50-75 mL of absolute ethanol, and warming the mixture until a vigorous reaction occurs. When this subsides, heating is continued until all the magnesium is converted to magnesium ethoxide. Up to 1L of ethanol is then added and, after an hour's reflux, it is distilled off. The water content should be below 0.05%. Walden, Ulich and Laun [Z Phys Chem 114 275 1925] used amalgamated aluminium chips, prepared by degreasing aluminium chips (by washing with Et2O and drying in a vacuum to remove grease from machining the Al), treating with alkali until hydrogen evolved vigorously, washing with H2O until the washings were weakly alkaline and then stirring with 1% HgCl2 solution. After 2minutes, the chips were washed quickly with H2O, then alcohol, then ether, and dried with filter paper. (The amalgam became warm.) These chips were added to the ethanol, which was then gently warmed for several hours until evolution of hydrogen ceased. The alcohol was distilled and aspirated for some time with pure dry air. Smith [J Chem Soc 1288 1927] reacted 1L of absolute ethanol in a 2L flask with 7g of clean dry sodium, and added 25g of pure ethyl succinate (27g of pure ethyl phthalate was an alternative), and refluxed the mixture for 2hours in a system protected from moisture, and then distilled the ethanol. A modification used 40g of ethyl formate instead, so that sodium formate separated out and, during reflux, the excess of ethyl formate decomposed to CO and ethanol. Drying agents suitable for use with ethanol include Linde type 4A molecular sieves, calcium metal, and CaH2. The calcium hydride (2g) is crushed to a powder and dissolved in 100mL absolute ethanol by gently boiling. About 70mL of the ethanol are distilled off to remove any dissolved gases before the remainder is poured into 1L of ca 99.9% ethanol in a still, where it is boiled under reflux for 20hours, while a slow stream of pure, dry hydrogen (better use nitrogen or Ar) is passed through. It is then distilled [Rüber Z Elektrochem 29 334 1923]. If calcium is used for drying, about ten times the theoretical amount should be used, and traces of ammonia (from some calcium nitride in the Ca metal) would be removed by passing dry air into the vapour during reflux. Ethanol can be freed from traces of basic materials by distillation from a little 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid or sulfanilic acid. *Benzene can be removed by fractional distillation after adding a little water (the *benzene/water/ethanol azeotrope distils at 64.9o), the alcohol is then re-dried using one of the methods described above. Alternatively, careful fractional distillation can separate *benzene as the *benzene/ethanol azeotrope (b 68.2o). Aldehydes can be removed from ethanol by digesting with 8-10g of dissolved KOH and 5-10g of aluminium or zinc per L, followed by distillation. Another method is to heat under reflux with KOH (20g/L) and AgNO3 (10g/L) or to add 2.5-3g of lead acetate in 5mL of water to 1L of ethanol, followed (slowly and without stirring) by 5g of KOH in 25mL of ethanol: after 1hour the flask is shaken thoroughly, then set aside overnight before filtering and distilling. The residual water can be removed by standing the distillate over activated aluminium amalgam for 1 week, then filtering and distilling. Distillation of ethanol from Raney nickel eliminates catalyst poisons. Other purification procedures include pre-treatment with conc H2SO4 (3mL/L) to eliminate amines, and with KMnO4 to oxidise aldehydes, followed by refluxing with KOH to resinify aldehydes, and distilling to remove traces of H3PO4 and other acidic impurities after passage through silica gel, and drying over CaSO4. Water can be removed by azeotropic distillation with dichloromethane (azeotrope boils at 38.1o and contains 1.8% water) or 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. [Beilstein 1 IV 1289.] Rapid purification: Place degreased Mg turnings (grease from machining the turnings is removed by washing with dry EtOH then Et2O, and drying in a vacuum) (5g) in a dry 2L round bottomed flask fitted with a reflux condenser (protect from air with a drying tube filled with CaCl2 or KOH pellets) and flush with dry N2. Then add iodine crystals (0.5g) and gently warm the flask until iodine vapour is formed and coats the turnings. Cool, then add EtOH (50mL) and carefully heat to reflux until the iodine disappears. Cool again then add more EtOH (to 1L) and reflux under N2 for several hours. Distil and store over 3A molecular sieves (pre-heated at
9.50 Storage features
Fireproof. Separated from : see Chemical Dangers.
9.51 Toxicity evaluation
Upon acute exposure ethanol is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant that initially and selectively depresses some of the most active portions of the brain (reticular activity system and cortex). The mechanism of action most likely involves interference with ion transport at the axonal cell membrane rather than at the synapse, similar to the action of other anesthetic agents. Ethanol can bind directly to the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in the CNS and cause sedative effects. Ethanol may also have direct effects on cardiac muscle, thyroid tissue, and hepatic tissue.
Chronic and excessive ethanol ingestion has been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. At the cellular level these effects can be attributable to metabolic intermediates. Ethanol is metabolized differently at low and high concentrations. At low ethanol blood levels ethanol is metabolized very efficiently by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde and then by aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetate producing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in both reactions.
Chronic high ethanol intake induces the cytochrome P450 mediated MEOS, which can be predominant. Under these conditions ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde without reducing NADH. The MEOS pathway utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate thus producing an oxidative environment, which decreases the reducing equivalents present in the cell, increasing oxidative stress. This pathway has been associated with the release of highly reactive oxygen species in addition to acetaldehyde, which contributes to the hepatic damage observed in chronic alcohol abuse.
Acetaldehyde has been implicated as one significant contributor to the toxicity observed in chronic ethanol overexposure (see Acetaldehyde). Acetaldehyde is highly reactive and can interact with DNA and proteins to form stable adducts. These DNA adducts may induce mutations, although there is an absence of direct evidence that they are in fact the initiators of cancers associated with alcohol ingestion. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde, a product of ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation, can form protein adducts which have been found in the serum of alcoholics and rats fed ethanol. These adducts are capable of eliciting an immune response believed to be important in the inflammatory processes observed in alcoholic liver disease and possibly neurotoxicity.
9.52 Incompatibilities
In acidic conditions, ethanol solutions may react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Mixtures with alkali may darken in color owing to a reaction with residual amounts of aldehyde. Organic salts or acacia may be precipitated from aqueous solutions or dispersions. Ethanol solutions are also incompatible with aluminum containers and may interact with some drugs.
9.53 Waste Disposal
Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
9.54 Precautions
During handling of ethyl alcohol, workers should use chemical-resistant shields, monogoggles, proper gloves, laboratory coat/apron, and protective equipment as required. Workers and the workplace should have adequate ventilation vent hoods, class b extinguisher. Workers should avoid sources of heat, sparks, or flames. Waste disposal and spill should be collected in suitable containers or absorbed on a suitable absorbent material for subsequent disposal. Waste material should be disposed of in an approved incinerator or in a designated landfi ll site, in compliance with all federal, provincial, and local government regulations.
9.55 Regulatory Status
Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; inhalations; IM, IV, and SC injections; nasal and ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and tablets; rectal, topical, and transdermal preparations). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients. Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK.
9.56 Usage
Ethanol is used in antibacterial hand sanitizer gels, as an antidote to methanol poisoning and an antitussive agent. It is acting as a solvent to remove the paint and ink stain on curtains, dress and upholstery. It is utilized as a fuel in camping and primus stoves. It is likewise employed to clean the windows, manufacturing nail-polish and to test pectin levels in jam and jelly making. It finds application in personal care products such as mouthwashes, perfumes and deodorants.
9.57 Usage
Denatured ethanol is acting as a solvent to remove the paint and ink stain on curtains, dress and upholstery. It is utilized as fuel in camping and primus stoves. It is likewise employed to clean the windows, manufacturing nail-polish and to test pectin levels in jam and jelly making.
9.58 Usage
Ethanol, anhydrous, denatured is used as a mobile phase in High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry.
9.59 Usage
Ethanol, anhydrous, denatured is used in spectrophotometry and environmental testing.
9.60 Usage
It is used as an antiseptic, a solvent, a fuel, and, due to its low freezing point, the active fluid in post-mercury thermometers. It is used as an antitussive agent, fuel additive, rocket fuel, used to dissolve many water-insoluble medications. Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses.
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 46.069g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: C2H6O
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: -0.1
  • Exact Mass: 46.041864811
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 46.041864811
  • Complexity: 2.8
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 1
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 1
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 20.2
  • Heavy Atom Count: 3
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
  • CACTVS Substructure Key Fingerprint: AAADcYBAIAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGgAACAAAAACggAICAAAAAgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA==
11. Question & Answer
  • The process of converting sugar to ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is, on the surface, fairly simple. It looks like this: The conversion is done by yeast. So, you would think that you could just run the chemical reaction backwards, add carbon dioxide and ethanol to get sucrose. But, this formula hides s...
  • With great difficulty. The active ingredient in all vinegars is acetic acid (aka ethanoic acid) which is oxidised ethanol (aka ethyl alcohol). The oxidation is usually done by bacteria. If you want to make cider start from apple juice and add yeast to convert the sugar into alcohol. C6H6O6 + yeast ...
  • The above stated reaction occurs as + This reaction has a two step mechanism. It is as follows Step I : Formation of ethyl hydrogen sulphate- Ethyl alcohol molecule reacts with Sulphuric acid molecule to form Ethyl hydrogen sulphate & water + + Step II : Formation of Diethyl ether- Ethyl hydrog...
  • 30% ethyl alcohol - even without the tap water - is 60 proof vodka or rum or tequila. No flavor, but it is a little weaker than the stuff usually sold in bottles in USA (often 80–86 proof). Safe? Sure. Pleasant? De gustabus non disputandum est.
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