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Glycerol structure
Glycerol structure


Iupac Name:propane-1,2,3-triol
CAS No.: 56-81-5
Molecular Weight:92.09382
Modify Date.: 2022-10-28 09:16
Introduction: Glycerol is a colorless, viscous, hygroscopic, sweet-tasting trihydric alcohol. It is also calledglycerin or glycerine, with the term glycerol being preferred as the pure chemical form andthe term glycerin(e) being primarily used when the compound is used commercially in variousgrades. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
1.2 Synonyms

1,2,3-trihydroxypropane Emery 912 Glycerin USP glycerin(mist) Glycerin, anhydrous Glycerin, synthetic glycerin,anhydrous glycerin,synthetic MFCD00675440

1.3 CAS No.
1.4 CID
1.6 Molecular Formula
C3H8O3 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
1.8 InChkey
1.9 Canonical Smiles
1.10 Isomers Smiles
2. Properties
2.1 Density
2.1 Melting point
2.1 Boiling point
2.1 Refractive index
2.1 Flash Point
2.2 Precise Quality
2.2 PSA
2.2 logP
2.2 Solubility
>500 g/L (20 oC)
2.3 Viscosity
2.4 VaporDensity
3.17 (NTP, 1992) (Relative to Air)
2.5 Appearance
Clear, colorless, viscous liquid
2.6 Storage
ventilated, low temperature and dry
2.7 Autoignition Temperature
698 °F (USCG, 1999)
2.8 Chemical Properties
Pure glycerol appears as colorless, odorless and sweet viscous liquid. Boiling point: 290 ° C, melting point: 17.9 ° C, the relative density: 1.2613. It can be miscible with water infinitely. It can be dissolved in 11 times ethyl acetate, about 500 times ether. It is insoluble in benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, petroleum ether and oil. Anhydrous glycerol has a strong water absorption property.Glycerol is weakly acidic, being able to react with alkaline hydroxide. For example, it reaction with copper hydroxide can produce bright blue cupric glycerinate (can be used to identify polyols). Glycerol can react with nitric acid to generate glyceryl trinitrate, also known as nitroglycerin, being a strong explosive.Because glycerol has water absorption property, it is often used as the moisturizing agent of cosmetics, leather, tobacco, food and textile. Glycerol also has effect on lubricating the intestine, being able to be used for enema or suppository treatment of constipation. Nitroglycerides have the effect of dilating coronary arteries and can be used to treat angina. Nitroglycerin can be used as an explosive and propellant. Glycerol can react with binary acid to generate alkyd resin, widely being used in paints and coatings.In nature, glycerol is widely presented in the form of esters. For example, a variety of animal and vegetable oils are glycerol carboxylate with hydrolyzing grease being capable to generate fatty acids and glycerol. At present, one of the major sources of glycerol is the byproduct of the soap industry (grease is hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions). The other major source is from petroleum pyrolysis gas, propylene.
2.9 Color/Form
2.10 Decomposition
Pure gycerin is not prone to oxidation by the atmosphere under ordinary conditions, but is decomposes on heating with the evolution of toxic acrolein.
2.11 Heat of Combustion
-4310 cal/g
2.12 Heat of Vaporization
160 cal/g
2.13 HenrysLawConstant
1.73e-08 atm-m3/mole
2.14 Odor
2.15 PH
5.5-8 (25℃, 5M in H2O)
2.16 pKa
14.15(at 25℃)
2.17 Water Solubility
>500 g/L (20 oC)
2.18 Spectral Properties
Imdex of Refraction: 1.4730 @ 25 DEG C/D
Max Absorption(Undiluted): 270 NM (LOG E= -1.2); SADTLER REF NUMBER: 169 (IR, PRISM)
IR: 10001 (Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Grating Collection)
UV: 3-12 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
NMR: 4979 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 188 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
2.19 Stability
Stable. Incompatible with perchloric acid, lead oxide, acetic anhydride, nitrobenzene, chlorine, peroxides, strong acids, strong bases. Combustible.
2.20 StorageTemp
3. Use and Manufacturing
3.1 Chemical Reactivity
Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
3.2 Definition
ChEBI: A triol with a structure of propane substituted at positions 1, 2 and 3 by hydroxy groups.
3.3 General Description
A colorless to brown colored liquid. Combustible but may require some effort to ignite. Residual sodium hydroxide (lye) causes crude material to be corrosive to metals and/or tissue.
3.4 Potential Exposure
Glycerol is used as a humectant intobacco; it is used in cosmetics, antifreezes and inks. It isused as a fiber lubricant. It is used as a raw material foralkyd resins and in explosives manufacture.
3.5 Shipping
UN1760 Corrosive liquids, n.o.s., Hazard class:8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, Technical Name Required.
3.6 Usage
Glycerol's properties make it useful for numerous applications. The three hydroxyl groups in glycerol allow extensive hydrogen bonding that gives glycerol its characteristic syrupy viscous texture and hygroscopic character. Approximately 40% of glycerol's use is for personal care products such as cosmetics, soaps, shampoos, lotions, mouthwash, and toothpaste. Glycerol's hygroscopic properties make it a good moisturizer in skin products. Another 25% of glycerol's annual production is used in food production. In the food industry glycerol is used as a moistening agent, as a solvent for food coloring and syrups, to prevent crystallization of sugar in candies and icings, as a preservative, and as a sweetening agent. Approximately 10% of glycerol's use goes into tobacco processing, where it is sprayed on tobacco leaves before they are shredded to serve as a moistening agent. Glycerol has the added benefit of imparting a sweet taste to chewing tobacco. The remaining 25% of glycerol's use is distributed among various industrial uses. It is used in cough syrups and elixir medicines. In industry, glycerol is found in lubricants, plasticizers, adhesives, antifreezes, resins, and insulating foams. At one time it was used almost exclusively in its nitrated form as an explosive (see Nitroglycerin), which today accounts for about 3% of its use.
3.7 Waste Disposal
Mixture with a more flamma ble solvent followed by incineration.
4. Safety and Handling
4.1 Symbol
4.1 Hazard Codes
4.1 Signal Word
4.1 Risk Statements
4.1 Safety Statements
4.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Glycerin used as a multiple purpose GRAS food substance in food for human consumption is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice.
Glycerin used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
4.2 Packing Group
4.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow = -1.76
4.3 Fire Hazard
Glycerol is combustible.
4.4 Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
4.5 Hazard Declaration
H225; H302; H312; H332
4.5 Cleanup Methods
Absorb with paper. Evaporate completely all spilt surface. Dispose by burning the paper after complete ventilation of vapor.
4.6 DisposalMethods

Mixture with a more flammable solvent followed by incineration.

250kgs in
4.7 Fire Fighting Procedures
Alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical.
Water fog. Water or foam may cause frothing.
4.8 FirePotential
Fire Hazard: Low, when exposed to heat, flame, or powerful oxidizers.
4.9 Safety Profile
Poison by subcutaneous route. Mildly toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects by ingestion: headache and nausea or vomiting. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A skin and eye irritant. In the form of mist it is a nuisance particulate and inhalation irritant. Combustible liquid when exposed to heat, flame, or powerful oxidizers. Mixtures with hydrogen peroxide are highly explosive. Ignites on contact with potassium permanganate, calcium hypochlorite. Mixture with nitric acid + sulfuric acid forms the explosive glyceql nitrate. Mixture with perchloric acid + lead oxide forms explosive perchlorate esters. Confined mixture with chlorine explodes if heated to 70-80'. Can react violently with acetic anhydride, aniline + nitrobenzene, Ca(OCl)2, Cr03,Cr203, F2 + PbO, phosphorus triiodide, ethylene oxide + heat, KMnO4, K2O2, AgClO4, Na2O2, NaH. Energetic reaction with sodium hydride. Mixture with nitric acid + hydrofluoric acid is a storage hazard due to gas evolution. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.
4.10 Formulations/Preparations
Glycerin, oral soln, 50% VOL/VOL (0.628 G/ML) osmoglyn (with potassium sorbate; in lime-flavored, alcon.
Glycerin (anhydrous), ophthalmic soln, ophthalgan (with chlorobutanol) wyeth-ayerst.
USP, CP (pharmaceutical & commercial, where highest grade is required); Saponification, soap lye, crude yellow distilled high gravity or dynamite(dehydrated to 99.8-99.9% purity); Natural; synthetic; "Food Chemical Codex".
Several grades of glycerin are available commercially. They differ somewhat in their glycerol content and in other characteristics such as color, odor, and trace impurities.
50% (v/v) (equivalent to 3.1 g/5 ml) (Rx) (Osmoglyn); 75% (v/v) (equivalent to 4.7 g/5 ml) (Rx) (Glyrol).
Grades of Purity: CP: 99.5%; USP: 96%
4.11 WGK Germany
4.11 RTECS
4.11 Protective Equipment and Clothing
Persons engaged in synth processes should wear suitable personal protective equipment & eye protective equipment. As with plant used for saponification & hydrolysis high standard of maintenance should be observed.
Rubber gloves, goggles.
4.12 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Exothermic interaction of granular /sodium/ hydride with undiluted (viscous) glycerol with inadequate stirring caused charring to occur.
Incompatibilities: Strong oxidizers
Can react violently with acetic anhydride, (aniline + nitrobenzene), Ca(OCl)2, chromium trioxide, chromic oxide, (fluoride + lead monoxide), (HClO4 + lead monoxide), potassium permanganate, K2O2, silver perchlorate, sodium peroxide, NaH.
Strong oxidizers (e.g., chromium trioxide, potassium chlorate, potassium permanganate) [Note: Hygroscopic (i.e., absorbs moisture from the air)].
4.13 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Glycerin dropped on the human eye causes a strong stinging and burning sensation, with tearing and dilation of the conjunctival vessels, but no obvious injury.
4.14 Safety

Hazard Codes: FlammableF,HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 36-20/21/22-11
36:Irritating to the eyes
20/21/22: Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
11: Highly Flammable
Safety Statements: 24/25-39-26
24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes
39: Wear eye/face protection
26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
RIDADR: UN 1282 3/PG 2
WGK Germany: 1
F: 3: Hygroscopic.
HS Code: 29054500

4.15 Sensitive
4.16 Specification

Glycerol , its cas register number is 56-81-5. It also can be called Glycerine ; 1,2,3-Propanetriol ; Clyzerin, wasserfrei ; and 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane ;Glycerin .

4.17 Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LD50 oral 7750mg/kg (7750mg/kg) ? Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.
human TDLo oral 1428mg/kg (1428mg/kg) BHAVIORAL: HEADACHE
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 288, 1969.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 8700mg/kg (8700mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 28, Pg. 1579, 1978.
mouse LD50 intravenous 4250mg/kg (4250mg/kg) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. Vol. 39, Pg. 583, 1950.
mouse LD50 oral 4090mg/kg (4090mg/kg) Farmatsevtichnii Zhurnal Vol. (6), Pg. 56, 1977.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 91mg/kg (91mg/kg) Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 215, 1982.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 53gm/kg (53000mg/kg) Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 215, 1982.
rabbit LD50 oral 27gm/kg (27000mg/kg) Delaware State Medical Journal. Vol. 31, Pg. 276, 1959.
rabbit LD50 skin > 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg) BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 9-4/1970,
rat LC50 inhalation > 570mg/m3/1H (570mg/m3) BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 9-4/1970,
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 4420mg/kg (4420mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: TOXIC PSYCHOSIS
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. Vol. 56, Pg. 125, 1987.
rat LD50 intravenous 5566mg/kg (5566mg/kg) Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 26, Pg. 1581, 1976.
rat LD50 oral 12600mg/kg (12600mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 4, Pg. 142, 1945.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 100mg/kg (100mg/kg) Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 215, 1982.
Nephron. Vol. 20, Pg. 47, 1978.


2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Not classified.

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s) No symbol.
Signal word

No signal word.

Hazard statement(s)


Precautionary statement(s)








2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification


8. Other Information
8.0 Usage
Glycerol is used as a solvent, sweetener, preservative, antifreezing agent, thickening agent in liqueurs and humectants in the food industry. It is also used in the preparation of pharmaceutical and personal care products, thereby improving the smoothness and provides lubrication. It is an active component in glycerin soap. It finds application in cough syrups, elixirs and expectorants, toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, and water-based personal lubricants. It is used as a starting material for the preparation of nitroglycerin, allyl iodidie, epichlorohydrin and glycerine acetate. In medical field, it is also used as a laxative and a temporary reduction in the internal pressure of the eye. In addition to this, it is involved to aid in casting gradient gels, protein stabilizer and storage buffer component.
8.1 Usage
Glycerol is used both in sample preparation and gel formation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycerol (5-10%) increases the density of a sample so that the sample will layer at the bottom of a gel?s sample well.
8.2 Usage
Used for long-term storage of bacterial cultures. Step gradients for bacteriophage/particle purification. Mammalian cell transfection. Storage buffers for enzymes.
8.3 Usage
Glycerol is widely used in cosmetics, especially for production of soaps and lotions, solvents and emulsifiers. It may also be found in inks, adhesives and pharmaceuticals. It plays an important role in the manufacture of plastics and resins. Glycerol bonded with silica gel plays an important role for effective removal of traces of Co(II) from aqueous solutions. Also useful for optical clearing of gastric tissue.
8.4 Usage
Useful as a cryoprotectant.Glycerol is evolved in the storage and concentration of enzymes. It plays a vital role in sample preparation and gel formation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is also used to aid in casting gradient gels, protein stabilizer and storage buffer component. Further, it is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent and sweetening agent.
8.5 Usage
Glycerol, ultrapure is used in sample preparation and gel formation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycerol (5-10%) increases the density of a sample so that the sample will layer at the bottom of a gel?s sample well. Glycerol is also used to aid in casting gradient gels and as a protein stabilizer and storage buffer component, glycerol is used as a solvent, plasticizer and humectant. Additional uses include as an aid in casting gradient gels, a protein stabilizer and storage buffer component.
8.6 Usage
Glycerol is used as emulsifier, thickening agent in cosmetics and foods, plasticizer in packaging, paints and paper industry, preservative in food and beverages. It is used in pharmaceutical preparations to improve smoothness and providing lubrication. It is also used in epichlorohydrin and mono propylene glycol production.
8.7 Usage
Glycerol is used as emulsifier, thickening agent in cosmetics and foods, plasticizer in packaging, paints and paper industry, preservative in food and beverages. It is used in pharmaceutical preparations to improve smoothness and providing lubrication. It is also used in epichlorohydrin and mono propylene glycol production. It is used in spectrophotometry and environmental testing.
9. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 92.09382g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: C3H8O3
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: null
  • Exact Mass: 92.047344113
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 92.047344113
  • Complexity: 25.2
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 2
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 3
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 3
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 60.7
  • Heavy Atom Count: 6
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
10. Question & Answer
  • Overview Information Glycerol is a naturally occurring chemical. People use it as a medicine. Some uses and dosage forms have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Glycerol is most commonly used for constipation, improving hydration and performance in athletes, and for certa...
  • Glycerine is also known as glycerol or glycerin. It is a colorless and odorless chemical compound with a sweet taste. Glycerine is composed of three hydroxyl groups, which makes it hygroscopic and water soluble. Production and Purification Glycerine occurs in triglycerides in animal and plant sourc...
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