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Guar gum structure
Guar gum structure

Guar gum

Iupac Name:disodium;[[[5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3-hydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-oxidophosphoryl] hydrogen phosphate
CAS No.:9000-30-0
Molecular Weight:535.146
Introduction: Background. Guar gum, like locust bean gum, is a galactomannanderived from the seed of a leguminous plant. The source of guar, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is widely grown in Pakistan and India as cattle feed, and was introduced to the United States as a cover crop in 1903. The U.S. is now also a producer. It was not until 1953, however, that guar gum was produced on a commercial scale, primarily as a replacement for locus bean gum in the paper, textile and food industries. The most important property of guar is the ability to hydrate rapidly in cold water to attain a very high viscosity. In addition to the food industry, guar is used in the mining, paper, textile, ceramic, paint, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, explosive, and other industries.Sources, Harvesting, and Producing Areas. The guar is a hardy and drought-resistant plant which grows three to six feet high with vertical stalks. The guar pods, which grow in clusters along the vertical stems, are about six inches long and contain 6 to 9 seeds, which are considerably smaller than locus bean seeds. As in the case of locust bean gum, the endosperm, which comprises 35-42%. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Guar gum
1.2 Synonyms

1212a a-20d burtonitev7e burtonitev-7-e cyamopsisgum dealcatp1 EINECS 232-536-8 Guar Gum - HPMC Guar GuM Hydrolyzed guaran MFCD00131250

1.3 CAS No.
9000-30-0
1.4 CID
44134661
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
232-536-8
1.6 Molecular Formula
C10H14N5Na2O12P3 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/C10H16N5O12P3.2Na/c11-9-8-10(13-3-12-9)15(4-14-8)7-1-5(16)6(25-7)2-24-29(20,21)27-30(22,23)26-28(17,18)19;;/h3-7,16H,1-2H2,(H,20,21)(H,22,23)(H2,11,12,13)(H2,17,18,19);;/q;2*+1/p-2
1.8 InChkey
JEKDCIBJADJZSK-UHFFFAOYSA-L
1.9 Canonical Smiles
C1C(C(OC1N2C=NC3=C(N=CN=C32)N)COP(=O)(O)OP(=O)([O-])OP(=O)(O)[O-])O.[Na+].[Na+]
1.10 Isomers Smiles
C1C(C(OC1N2C=NC3=C(N=CN=C32)N)COP(=O)(O)OP(=O)([O-])OP(=O)(O)[O-])O.[Na+].[Na+]
2. Properties
3.1 Melting point
220 DEG C
3.1 PSA
0.00000
3.1 logP
0.00000
3.1 Appearance
yellowish powder
3.2 Chemical Properties
White to light yellowish.Free flowing powder.Close to odorless.Form viscous liquid after dispersing in hot or cold water. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution is about 4~5Pa which is the highest viscosity in natural rubber. After adding small amount of sodium tetraborate it changes to gel.After dispersing in cold water for about 2h it shows strong viscosity and the viscosity gradually increases reached the highest point after 24h.Its viscosity is 5 to 8 times than that of starch and quickly reaches the highest point under heat.The aqueous solution is neutral.The viscosity is highest with pH between 6 and 8 and substantially decreases when pH is above10. And viscosity decreases sharply along with pH value dropping when pH value is 6.0 to 3.5. The viscosity below 3.5 increases again.
3.3 Physical Properties
Guar gum is a white to yellowish-white powder It is dispersible in either hot or cold water, forming a solution having a pH between 5.4 and 7.0 that may be converted to gel by the addition of a small amount of sodium borate.
3.4 Color/Form
STOUT OCTAHEDRA OR RHOMBS FROM BENZENE
WHITE TO CREAMY POWDER
COLORLESS CRYSTALLINE SOLID
3.5 Odor
Odorless
3.6 Water Solubility
slight

3.7 Spectral Properties
MAX ABSORPTION: 286 NM, 325 NM
SPECIFIC OPTICAL ROTATION: +370 DEG @ 17 DEG C/D (SATURATED CHLOROFORM SOLN)
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.5403 @ 25 DEG C/D
MAX ABSORPTION (ALCOHOL): 291 NM (LOG E= 4.37); 325 NM (LOG E= 3.77); SPECIFIC OPTICAL ROTATION: +337 DEG @ 21 DEG C/D (ACETONE)
IR: 5182 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 6-726 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
MASS: 2748 (National Bureau of Standards EPA-NIH Mass Spectra Data Base, NSRDS-NBS-63)
3.8 Stability
Stable. Combustible. A mixture of air and finely-divided powder is potentially explosive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
3.9 StorageTemp
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Definition
A water-soluble plant mucilage obtained from the ground endosperms of Cyanopsis tetragonoloba,cultivated in India and Pakistan as livestock feed, as well as in southwestern U.S. The water-soluble portion of the flour (85%) is called guaran and consists o
4.2 Fire Hazard
Flash point data for Guar gum are not available. However, Guar gum is probably combustible.
4.3 General Description
Off-white to yellowish-white powder. Five to eight times the thickening power of starch. Water solutions are tasteless, odorless, and nontoxic and have a pale translucent gray color with neutral pH. Water solutions converted to gel by small amounts of borax.
4.4 Produe Method
Guar gum is obtained from the ground endosperm of the guar plant,Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.) Taub. (Fam. Leguminosae), which isgrown in India, Pakistan, and the semiarid southwestern region ofthe USA.The seed hull can be removed by grinding, after soaking insulfuric acid or water, or by charring. The embryo (germ) isremoved by differential grinding, since each component possesses adifferent hardness. The separated endosperm, containing 80%galactomannan is then ground to different particle sizes dependingupon final application.
4.5 Usage
Food grade:frozen food:stop ice dreg from forming and increase the frozen stability.Baking food: keep the humidity and improve the texture. Drink:improve taste and stabilize particle suspension. Salad dressing: thickener, alternative oil. Cheese and cream: improve the texture.Cooked meat food: maintain water, increase oily slippery feeling. Vegetarian food: alternative fat ingredients,keep moisture. Pet goods: increase oily slippery feeling and keep the humidity.Industrial grade: oil well fracturing and other drilling industry. Carpets, spin printing and dyeing,leather chemical industry. Building materials, cement, paint, tiles.Paper industry, pharmaceutical industry. Shampoo, detergent, skin care products, cosmetics. Viscera. Latex paint, exterior latex paint.
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Manufacturers, packers, and distributors of drug and drug products for human use are responsible for complying with the labeling, certification, and usage requirements as prescribed by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (secs 201-902, 52 Stat. 1040 et seq., as amended; 21 U.S.C. 321-392).
5.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
LogP = 2.18
5.3 Other Preventative Measures
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... Clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.4 Cleanup Methods
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.5 DisposalMethods
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.6 RIDADR
NONH for all modes of transport
5.6 Formulations/Preparations
DUSTS 1.5-3.5% WT/WT FOR USE AT 75 LB/ACRE. WETTABLE POWDERS, DISPERSIBLE CONCENTRATES (SOLN IN DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE WITH DISPERSING AGENT). /SRP: NOT APPROVED FOR USE ON CROPS IN US./
GRISEOFULVIN, USP (FULVICIN U/F, GRIFULVIN V, GRISACTIN), IS MARKETED IN CAPSULES CONTAINING 125 OR 250 MG & IN TABLETS CONTAINING 125, 250, OR 500 MG; IT IS ALSO AVAIL AS ORAL SUSPENSION (125 MG/5 ML). ... TABLETS INCORPORATING ULTRAMICROSIZED PREPN (FULVICIN P/G, GRIS-PEG) CONTAIN 125 OR 250 MG OF GRISEOFULVIN (EQUIVALENT TO 250 OR 500 MG OF PREPN...ABOVE).
BIOAVAILABILITY OF A 500 MG MICROSIZE FORMULATION WAS COMPARED TO 2 NEW ULTRAMICROSIZE FORMULATIONS. ONE 330 MG ULTRAMICROSIZE TABLET IS BIOEQUIVALENT TO 2 165 MG ULTRAMICROSIZE TABLETS & EITHER ULTRAMICROSIZE DOSAGE REGIMEN IS BIOEQUIVALENT TO 500 MG OF THE MICROSIZE FORMULATION. [LIN C ET AL; J INT MED RES 10 (4): 274 (1982)] PubMed Abstract
THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF GRISEOFULVIN TABLETS SPRAY DRIED WITH 20% METHYLCELLULOSE WAS DETERMINED IN 10 RABBITS. COMPARED TO REGULAR TABLETS, DRUG ABSORPTION WAS GREATER IN THE SPRAY DRIED PREPN.
Tablet, 250 mg, 500 mg; suspension, 250 mg/ml /Grifulvin V/
5.7 Incompatibilities
Guar gum is compatible with most other plant hydrocolloids suchas tragacanth. It is incompatible with acetone, ethanol (95%),tannins, strong acids, and alkalis. Borate ions, if present in thedispersing water, will prevent the hydration of guar gum. However,the addition of borate ions to hydrated guar gum produces cohesivestructural gels and further hydration is then prevented. The gelformed can be liquefied by reducing the pH to below 7, or byheating.Guar gum may reduce the absorption of penicillin V from someformulations by a quarter.
5.8 WGK Germany
1
5.8 RTECS
MG0185000
5.8 Toxicity
LD50 in male, female rats (g/kg): 7.35, 6.77 orally (Graham)
5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Not classified.

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s) No symbol.
Signal word

No signal word.

Hazard statement(s)

none

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

none

Response

none

Storage

none

Disposal

none

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

6. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:535.146g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:C10H14N5Na2O12P3
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:
  • Exact Mass:534.96472046
  • Monoisotopic Mass:534.96472046
  • Complexity:758
  • Rotatable Bond Count:8
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:4
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:16
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:265
  • Heavy Atom Count:32
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:3
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:3
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