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Lauric acid structure
Lauric acid structure

Lauric acid

Iupac Name:dodecanoic acid
CAS No.:143-07-7
Molecular Weight:200.31776
Introduction: Lauric acid ( systematically: dodecanoic acid ), the saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus falling into the medium chain fatty acids, is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Lauric acid
1.2 Synonyms

Dodecanoic Acid Dodecanoic Acid(C12:0) EINECS 205-582-1 Emery651 lauric acid, pure Laurosteaic acid MFCD00002736 yeuguisuan

1.3 CAS No.
143-07-7
1.4 CID
3893
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
205-582-1
1.6 Molecular Formula
C12H24O2 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/C12H24O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12(13)14/h2-11H2,1H3,(H,13,14)
1.8 InChkey
POULHZVOKOAJMA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.9 Canonical Smiles
CCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O
1.10 Isomers Smiles
CCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O
2. Properties
3.1 Density
0.883
3.1 Melting point
44-46℃
3.1 Boiling point
225℃ (100 mmHg)
3.1 Refractive index
1.4304
3.1 Flash Point
156℃
3.1 Vapour pressure
0.000661mmHg at 25°C
3.1 Precise Quality
200.17800
3.1 PSA
37.30000
3.1 logP
3.99190
3.1 Solubility
4.81mg/l
3.2 Λmax
207nm(MeOH)(lit.)
3.3 Viscosity
7.30 mPa.sec at 50 °C
3.4 Appearance
clear liquid
3.5 Carcinogenicity
Lauric acid was not carcinogenicin the BALB/c:CFW mouse after repeated subcutaneousinjections. Lauric acid applied twice weekly for 20weeks did not promote tumors in mice initiated with 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. After more extendedapplication (daily, 6 days/week, for 31 weeks), lauric acidcaused an increase in skin papillomas, but no histologicallymalignant tumors were found. Lauric acid was notcarcinogenic in rats after exposure in the diet to 35% lauricacid for 2 years.
3.6 Chemical Properties
Colorless needle-like crystals. Soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in acetone and petroleum ether.
3.7 Color/Form
Colorless needles
Needles from alcohol
White, crystalline powder
3.8 Decomposition
When heated to decomp it emits acrid smoke and fumes.
3.9 Heat of Combustion
-7,413.7 kJ/mol
3.10 Odor
Characteristic, like oil of bay
3.11 Odor Threshold
Detection: 01 mg/cu m; recognition: 0.004-005 mg/cu m.
3.12 pKa
pKa 4.92(H2O,t =25.0) (Uncertain)
3.13 Water Solubility
insoluble
3.14 Spectral Properties
Index of refraction: 1.41830 at 82 deg C/D
IR: 6281 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
NMR: 10325 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 36481 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral database, 1990 version); 2032 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
3.15 Stability
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents.
3.16 StorageTemp
2-8°C
3.17 Surface Tension
26.6 mN/m at 70 °C
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Definition
ChEBI: A straight-chain, twelve-carbon medium-chain saturated fatty acid with strong bactericidal properties; the main fatty acid in coconut oil and palm kernel oil.
4.2 Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: May cause dust explosion.
4.3 General Description
White solid with a slight odor of bay oil.
4.4 Purification Methods
Distil the acid in a vacuum. Also crystallise it from absolute EtOH, or from acetone at -25o. Alternatively, purify it via its methyl ester (b 140.0o/15mm), as described for capric acid. It has also been purified by zone melting. [cf Beilstein 1 III 2913.]
4.5 Storage
Lauric acid is stable at normal temperatures and should be stored ina cool, dry place. Avoid sources of ignition and contact withincompatible materials.
4.6 Usage
1. lauric acid Used for the preparation of alkyd resins, as well as wetting agents, detergents and pesticides2. Used for peeling vegetables and fruits with a maximum amount of 3.0g/kg.3. Used as defoamer; GB 2760-86 provides for the spices allowed to use; used for the preparation of other food grade additives.4. lauric acid is widely used in the surfactant industry and can be, according to the classification of surfactants, divided into cationic, anionic, non-ionic and amphoteric type. The surfactants types of dodecanoic acid are listed in the attached table of this item. Some surfactants of the derivatives of dodecanoic acid and dodecanol are also antiseptics, such as dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (geramine), dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium bromide (bromo-geramine) and dodecyl dimethyl (2-phenoxyethyl) ammonium bromide (domiphen bromide). The dodecyldimethyllammonium-2,4,5-trichlorophenolate in these derivatives can be used as citrus preservative. Dodecanoic acid also has many applications in plastic additives, food additives, spices and pharmaceutical industries.
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Symbol
GHS05
5.1 Hazard Codes
Xi
5.1 Signal Word
Danger
5.1 Risk Statements
R36/38
5.1 Safety Statements
S26;S37/39
5.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Lauric acid is a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption, as long as 1) the quantity of the substance added to food does not exceed the amount reasonably required to accomplish its intended physical, nutritive, or other technical effect in food, and 2) any substance intended for use in or on food is of appropriate food grade and is prepared and handled as a food ingredient.
5.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow = 4.60
5.3 Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
5.4 Hazard Declaration
H318
5.4 DisposalMethods
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for lauric acid: Concentration process: Biological treatment.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for lauric acid: Concentration process: Activated carbon.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for lauric acid: Concentration process: Resin adsorption.
5.5 RIDADR
OTH
5.5 FirePotential
Combustible when exposed to heat or flame.
Combustible
5.6 Caution Statement
P280-P305 + P351 + P338 + P310
5.6 Formulations/Preparations
Grade: 99.8% pure, technical, Food Chemicals Codex
5.7 Incompatibilities
Lauric acid is incompatible with strong bases, reducing agents, andoxidizing agents.
5.8 WGK Germany
1
5.8 RTECS
OE9800000
5.8 Protective Equipment and Clothing
... Interviews with workers indicated that lauric acid exposure caused local irritation of moist body surfaces (eye, nose, throat, sweaty skin). Severe irritation was reported by 1 worker after exposure of moist occluded skin areas to lauric acid ...
5.9 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Can react with oxidizing materials.
5.10 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
... Interviews with workers indicated that lauric acid exposure caused local irritation of moist body surfaces (eye, nose, throat, sweaty skin). Severe irritation was reported by 1 worker after exposure of moist occluded skin areas to lauric acid ...
5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Serious eye damage, Category 1

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H318 Causes serious eye damage

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

Response

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

Storage

none

Disposal

none

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

9. Other Information
9.0 Merck
14,5384
9.1 BRN
1099477
9.2 Chemical properties
Colorless needle-like crystals. Soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in acetone and petroleum ether.
9.3 Uses
1. lauric acid Used for the preparation of alkyd resins, as well as wetting agents, detergents and pesticides
2. Used for peeling vegetables and fruits with a maximum amount of 3.0g/kg.
3. Used as defoamer; GB 2760-86 provides for the spices allowed to use; used for the preparation of other food grade additives.
4. lauric acid is widely used in the surfactant industry and can be, according to the classification of surfactants, divided into cationic, anionic, non-ionic and amphoteric type. The surfactants types of dodecanoic acid are listed in the attached table of this item. Some surfactants of the derivatives of dodecanoic acid and dodecanol are also antiseptics, such as dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (geramine), dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium bromide (bromo-geramine) and dodecyl dimethyl (2-phenoxyethyl) ammonium bromide (domiphen bromide). The dodecyldimethyllammonium-2,4,5-trichlorophenolate in these derivatives can be used as citrus preservative. Dodecanoic acid also has many applications in plastic additives, food additives, spices and pharmaceutical industries.
9.4 What Is Lauric Acid?
Lauric acid is a medium-length long-chain fatty acid, or lipid, that makes up about half of the fatty acids within coconut oil. It’s a powerful substance that is sometimes extracted from the coconut for use in developing monolaurin. Monolaurin is an antimicrobial agent that is able to fight bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and other pathogens. Because you can’t ingest lauric acid alone (it’s irritating and not found alone in nature), you’re most likely to get it in the form of coconut oil or from fresh coconuts.
Though coconut oil is being studied at a breakneck pace, much of the research doesn’t pinpoint what in the oil is responsible for its reported benefits. Because coconut oil contains much more than just lauric acid, it would be a stretch to credit it with all of the coconut oil benefits. Still, a 2015 analysis suggests that many of the benefits tied to coconut oil are directly linked to lauric acid. Among the benefits, they suggest lauric acid could aid weight loss and even protect against Alzheimer’s disease. Its effects on blood cholesterol levels still need to be clarified.
This research suggests that the benefits of lauric acid are due to how the body uses it. The majority of lauric acid is sent directly to the liver, where it’s converted to energy rather than stored as fat. When compared with other saturated fats, lauric acid contributes the least to fat storage.
9.5 Including Lauric Acid in Your Diet
Lauric acid can be taken as a supplement, but it is most commonly consumed as part of coconut oil or palm kernel oil. It is considered to be safe based on the amounts generally found in food. According to NYU Langone Medical Center, coconut and palm kernel oil contain up to 15 percent MCTs, along with a number of other fats. However, because they are still pure oil, limit your intake of MCTs to stay within the recommended 5 to 7 teaspoons of oil per day as set out by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. You can use coconut and palm kernel oil for stir-fries because both oils withstand high heat. They can also be used in baking, adding a natural richness to your food.
9.6 Toxicity
Natural fatty acids, non-toxic.
Safe for use in food products (FDA, §172.860, 2000).
LD50 12 g/kg (rat, oral).
9.7 Usage limits
FEMA (mg/kg): soft drinks 15, cold drinks 16, candy 2.4, baked food 39, pudding class 25, oil 315.
GB 2760-1996: fruit and vegetable peeling 3.0g/kg.
9.8 Medium-Chain Triglycerides
Medium-chain triglycerides, or fatty acids, such as lauric acid, are characterized by a specific chemical structure that allows your body to absorb them whole. This makes them more easily digestible--your body processes them as it would carbohydrates, and they are used as a source of direct energy. Compared to long-chain triglycerides, the type in other saturated fats, MCTs have fewer calories per serving, roughly 8.3 calories per gram rather than the standard 9 calories per gram, according to an article in "Nutrition Review."
9.9 Production methods
1. Industrial production methods can be grouped into two categories: 1) derived from the saponification or high temperature and pressure decomposition of natural vegetable oils and fats; 2) separated from the synthetic fatty acid. Japan mainly uses coconut oil and palm kernel oil as the raw materials for the preparation of lauric acid. The natural vegetable oils used to produce dodecanoic acid include coconut oil, litsea cubeba kernel oil, palm kernel oil and mountain pepper seed oil. Other plants oil, such as palm kernel oil, tea tree seed oil and camphor tree seed oil, can also service industry to produce dodecanoic acid. The residual C12 distillate from the extraction of dodecanoic acid, containing a large number of dodecenoic acid, can be hydrogenated at atmospheric pressure, without catalyst, to convert into dodecanoic acid with a yield of more than 86%.
2. Derived from the separation and purification of coconut oil and other vegetable oil.
3. Lauric acid naturally exists in coconut oil, litsea cubeba kernel oil, palm kernel oil and pepper kernel oil in the form of glyceride. It can be derived from the hydrolysis of natural oils and fats in industry. The coconut oil, water and catalyst are added into the autoclave and hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acid at 250 ℃ under the pressure of 5MPa. The content of dodecanoic acid is 45%~80%, and can be further distilled to obtain dodecanoic acid.
9.10 Description
Lauric acid is a medium-chain saturated fatty acid. It has been found at high levels in coconut oil. Lauric acid induces the activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and IL-1α in RAW 264.7 cells when used at a concentration of 25 μM.
9.11 Description
Lauric acid ( systematically: dodecanoic acid ), the saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus falling into the medium chain fatty acids, is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap.
9.12 Chemical Properties
Like many other fatty acids, lauric acid is inexpensive, has a long shelf-life, and is non-toxic and safe to handle. It is mainly used for the production of soaps and cosmetics. For these purposes, lauric acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide to give sodium laurate, which is a soap. Most commonly, sodium laurate is obtained by saponification of various oils, such as coconut oil. These precursors give mixtures of sodium laurate and other soaps.
9.13 Chemical Properties
Lauric acid occurs as a white crystalline powder with a slight odor of bay oil.
9.14 Chemical Properties
white solid with a faint odour of bay oil
9.15 Chemical Properties
Laurie acid has a fatty odor.
9.16 Chemical Properties
Lauric acid has a fatty odor. It is a common constituent of most diets; large doses may produce gastrointestinal upset
9.17 Occurrence
Lauric acid, as a component of triglycerides, comprises about half of the fatty acid content in coconut oil, laurel oil, and in palm kernel oil (not to be confused with palm oil) , Otherwise it is relatively uncommon. It is also found in human breast milk ( 6.2 % of total fat), cow's milk (2.9%), and goat's milk (3.1 %).
9.18 Usage
Dodecanoic acid is used in the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, alkyd resins and wetting agents. It is also used to measure the molar mass of an unknown substance through freezing point depression. It is also used as a food additive and an active component in a treatment for acne. In addition to this, it is a substrate for acylation of certain proteins based on the murine studies.
9.19 Uses
Intermediates of Liquid Crystals
9.20 Uses
Given its foaming properties, the derivatives of lauric acid (h-dodecanoic acid) are widely used as a base in the manufacture of soaps, detergents, and lauryl alcohol. Lauric acid is a common constituent of vegetable fats, especially coconut oil and laurel oil. It may have a synergistic effect in a formula to help fight against mircoorganisms. It is a mild irritant but not a sensitizer, and some sources cite it as comedogenic.
9.21 Uses
Lauric Acid is a fatty acid obtained from coconut oil and other veg- etable fats. it is practically insoluble in water but is soluble in alco- hol, chloroform, and ether. it functions as a lubricant, binder, and defoaming agent.
9.22 Definition
ChEBI: A straight-chain, twelve-carbon medium-chain saturated fatty acid with strong bactericidal properties; the main fatty acid in coconut oil and palm kernel oil.
9.23 Production Methods
Lauric acid is a fatty carboxylic acid isolated from vegetable and animal fats or oils. For example, coconut oil and palm kernel oil both contain high proportions of lauric acid. Isolation from natural fats and oils involves hydrolysis, separation of the fatty acids, hydrogenation to convert unsaturated fatty acids to saturated acids, and finally distillation of the specific fatty acid of interest.
9.24 Definition
A white crystalline carboxylic acid, used as a plasticizer and for making detergents and soaps. Its glycerides occur naturally in coconut and palm oils.
9.25 Aroma threshold values
Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: fatty, creamy, cheeselike, candle waxy with egglike richness
9.26 Taste threshold values
Taste characteristics at 5 ppm: waxy,fatty and oily, tallowlike, creamy and dairylike with a coating mouthfeel
9.27 Synthesis Reference(s)
Tetrahedron Letters, 32, p. 5931, 1991 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)79429-9
9.28 General Description
White solid with a slight odor of bay oil.
9.29 Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
9.30 Reactivity Profile
Lauric acid is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in Lauric acid to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. A wide variety of products is possible. Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions. Lauric acid can react with oxidizing materials.
9.31 Health Hazard
May be harmful by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. Vapor or mist is irritating to eyes, mucous membrane and upper respiratory tract. Causes eye and skin irritation.
9.32 Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: May cause dust explosion.
9.33 Pharmaceutical Applications
pharmaceutical applications it has also been examined for use as an enhancer for topical penetration and transdermal absorption, rectal absorption, buccal delivery,(14) and intestinal absorption. It is also useful for stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. Lauric acid has also been evaluated for use in aerosol formulations.
9.34 Biochem/physiol Actions
Substrate for CYP 4A11
9.35 Safety
Lauric acid is widely used in cosmetic preparations, in the manufacture of food-grade additives, and in pharmaceutical formulations. General exposure to lauric acid occurs through the consumption of food and through dermal contact with cosmetics, soaps, and detergent products. Lauric acid is toxic when administered intravenously.
Occupational exposure may cause local irritation of eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract, although lauric acid is considered safe and nonirritating for use in cosmetics. No toxicological effects were observed when lauric acid was administered to rats at 35% of the diet for 2 years. Acute exposure tests in rabbits indicate mild irritation. After subcutaneous injection into mice, lauric acid was shown to be noncarcinogenic.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.13 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 12 g/kg
9.36 Chemical Synthesis
Produced from synthetic lauryl alcohol
9.37 Carcinogenicity
Lauric acid was not carcinogenic in the BALB/c:CFW mouse after repeated subcutaneous injections. Lauric acid applied twice weekly for 20 weeks did not promote tumors in mice initiated with 9,10- dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. After more extended application (daily, 6 days/week, for 31 weeks), lauric acid caused an increase in skin papillomas, but no histologically malignant tumors were found. Lauric acid was not carcinogenic in rats after exposure in the diet to 35% lauric acid for 2 years.
9.38 storage
Lauric acid is stable at normal temperatures and should be stored in a cool, dry place. Avoid sources of ignition and contact with incompatible materials.
9.39 Purification Methods
Distil the acid in a vacuum. Also crystallise it from absolute EtOH, or from acetone at -25o. Alternatively, purify it via its methyl ester (b 140.0o/15mm), as described for capric acid. It has also been purified by zone melting. [cf Beilstein 1 III 2913.]
9.40 Incompatibilities
Lauric acid is incompatible with strong bases, reducing agents, and oxidizing agents.
9.41 Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Lauric acid is listed as a food additive in the EAFUS list compiled by the FDA. Reported in the EPA TSCA Inventory.
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:200.31776g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:C12H24O2
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:
  • Exact Mass:200.177630004
  • Monoisotopic Mass:200.177630004
  • Complexity:132
  • Rotatable Bond Count:10
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:1
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:2
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:37.3
  • Heavy Atom Count:14
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
11. Question & Answer
  • Refined vs. Unrefined Coconut Oil: What’s the Difference? Coconut oil has emerged as one of the most popular cooking oils worldwide over the past several years. This article reviews the differences between unrefined and refined coconut oil, and which type you should use in certain instances. https...
  • I am trying to find a (relatively) simple process to separate lauric acid from other MCTs contained within coconut oil. I am wanting to obtain a separation of +-5% purity. One process I am trying is heating the coconut oil until it is completely liquid (~50'C), and then slowly cooling it to ~22'C u...
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