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Metalaxyl structure
Metalaxyl structure

Metalaxyl

Iupac Name:methyl 2-(N-(2-methoxyacetyl)-2,6-dimethylanilino)propanoate
CAS No.: 57837-19-1
Molecular Weight:279.33
Modify Date.: 2022-04-21 20:48
Introduction: Metalaxyl (chemical name: methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2, 6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate) is an acylalanine fungicide of systemic function. It can be used for the treatment of pythium and phytophthora in many kinds of vegetables and peas. However, there are severe problem of drug resistance in current days. Metalaxyl exhibits strong activity against the mycelial growth of various sensitive fungi such as pythium splendens. The primary effect of metalaxyl seems to be related to its effect of interfering with the normal synthesis of RNA and DNA in sensitive fungi strains. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Metalaxyl
1.2 Synonyms

1OVY1&NV1O1&R B1 F1 &&(RS) Form 1OVY1&NV1O1&R B1 F1 &&(RS)- or DL- Form 2-[(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-(2-methoxyacetyl)amino]propionic acid methyl ester Acylon(Ciba-Geigy) Alanine, N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxyacetyl)-, methyl ester Alanine, N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-, methyl ester, DL- APRON Apron 350FW Apron 35J Apron 35WS Apron TL Bleu cg117 EINECS 260-979-7 Fubol INFRA METAX Metaxanine Methyl 2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)(methoxyacetyl)amino]propanoate Methyl N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)alaninate methyl N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-DL-alaninate Methyl N-(2-methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-D-alaninate methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-2,6-xylyl-DL-alaninate MFCD00055447 MILOR N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-DL-alanine methyl ester n-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-n-(methoxyacetyl)-dl-alaninemethylester n-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-n-(methoxyacetyl)-dl-alaninmethylester n-(methoxyacetyl)-n-(2,6-xylyl)-,methylester,dl-alanin ridomil2e SPAN Subdue subdue2e TOKAT

1.3 CAS No.
57837-19-1
1.4 CID
42586
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
260-979-7
1.6 Molecular Formula
C15H21NO4 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/C15H21NO4/c1-10-7-6-8-11(2)14(10)16(13(17)9-19-4)12(3)15(18)20-5/h6-8,12H,9H2,1-5H3
1.8 InChkey
ZQEIXNIJLIKNTD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.9 Canonical Smiles
CC1=C(C(=CC=C1)C)N(C(C)C(=O)OC)C(=O)COC
1.10 Isomers Smiles
CC1=C(C(=CC=C1)C)N(C(C)C(=O)OC)C(=O)COC
2. Properties
3.1 Density
1.1083 (rough estimate)
3.1 Melting point
72-73°C
3.1 Boiling point
422.1°C (rough estimate)
3.1 Refractive index
1.5130 (estimate)
3.1 Flash Point
100 °C
3.1 Vapour pressure
7.5 x 10-4 Pa (25 °C)
3.1 Precise Quality
279.14700
3.1 PSA
55.84000
3.1 logP
1.84430
3.1 Solubility
0.84 g/100 mL
3.2 Chemical Properties
Pale Beige Solid
3.3 Color/Form
Fine, white powder
... Colorless crystals ... .
3.4 pKa
1.41±0.50(Predicted)
3.5 Water Solubility
0.84 g/100 mL
3.6 Stability
Stable at normal temperatures and pressures.
3.7 StorageTemp
Sealed in dry,2-8°C
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Agricultural Uses
Fungicide: Metalaxyl is used as a systemic fungicide on a variety of food and non-food crops including tobacco, turf and conifers, and ornamentals. Used in combination with fungicides of different mode of action as a foliar spray on tropical and subtropical crops; as a seed treatment to control downy mildew; and as a soil fumigant to control soilborne pathogens.
4.2 Environmental Fate
Soil. Little information is available on the degradation of metalaxyl in soil; however,Sharom and Edgington (1986) reported metalaxyl acid as a possible metabolite. Repeatedapplications of metalaxyl decreases its persistence. Following an initial application, theaverage half-life was 28 days. After repeated applications, the half-life decreased to 14days (Bailey and Coffey, 1985).Carsel et al. (1986) studied the persistence of metalaxyl in various soil types. Theapplication rate was 2.2 kg/ha. In a fine sand, metalaxyl concentrations at soil depths of15, 20, 45 and 60 cm were 100, 150, 100 and 75 ppb, respectively, 55 days afterPlant. In plants, metalaxyl undergoes ring oxidation, methyl ester hydrolysis, ethercleavage, ring methyl hydroxylation and N-dealkylation (Owen and Donzel, 1986). Metalaxylacid was identified as a hydrolysis product in both sunflower leaves anIn pigeon peas, metalaxyl may persist up to 12 days (Indira et al., 1981; Chaube etal., 1984).
4.3 Potential Exposure
Metalaxyl is phenylamide systemicfungicide used on a variety of food and nonfood cropsincluding tobacco, turf and conifers, and ornamentals. Usedin combination with fungicides of different mode of actionas a foliar spray on tropical and subtropical crops; as a seedtreatment to control downy mildew; and as a soil fumigantto control soil-borne pathogens. Banned for use in EU.
4.4 Shipping
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances,solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardousmaterial, Technical Name Required.
4.5 Usage
Systemic fungicide used to control a variety of diseases on a wide range of temperate,subtropical and tropical crops.
4.6 Waste Disposal
Small amounts may bedestroyed by alkaline hydrolysis. Admixture with alkalican be followed by soil burial. Larger quantities can bedisposed of by incineration in admixture with acetone orxylene and using effluent gas scrubbing. Do not reuseempty container; proper disposal required. Metalaxyl Preparation Products And Raw materials Raw materials
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Symbol
GHS07
5.1 Hazard Codes
Xn,F
5.1 Signal Word
Warning
5.1 Risk Statements
22-43-52/53-36-20/21/22-11
5.1 Safety Statements
13-24-37-46-61-36-26-16
5.1 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow = 1.65
5.2 Hazard Declaration
H302-H317-H412
5.2 DisposalMethods
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
5.3 RIDADR
UN 1648 3/PG 2
5.3 Safety Profile
Moderately toxic by ingestion. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
5.4 Caution Statement
P273-P280
5.4 Formulations/Preparations
Emulsifiable concentrate, granule, flowable & wettable powder.
USEPA/OPP Pesticide Code: 113501; Trade Names: Ridomil; Ridomil MZ, component of (with 014504); CGA-48988; Subdue; Apron.
Trade names: ... Fubol, Acylon.
5.5 Incompatibilities
Incompatible with alkaline materials,strong acids, oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates,perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.);contact may cause fires or explosions. Compounds of thecarboxyl group react with all bases, both inorganic andorganic (i.e., amines) releasing substantial heat, water and asalt that may be harmful. Incompatible with arsenic compounds(releases hydrogen cyanide gas), diazo compounds,dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, andsulfides (releasing heat, toxic, and possibly flammablegases), thiosulfates and dithionites (releasing hydrogen sulfateand oxides of sulfur).
5.6 WGK Germany
2
5.6 RTECS
AY6910000
5.6 Safety

Hazard Codes:?HarmfulXn,FlammableF
Risk Statements: 22-43-52/53-36-20/21/22-11
R22:Harmful if swallowed.?
R43:May cause sensitization by skin contact.?
R52/53:Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.?
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.?
R11:Highly flammable.
Safety Statements: 13-24-37-46-61-36-26-16?
S13:Keep away from food, drink and animal foodstuffs.?
S24:Avoid contact with skin.?
S37:Wear suitable gloves.?
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.?
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.?
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing.?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition.
RIDADR: UN 1648 3/PG 2
RTECS: AY6910000
Hazardous Substances Data 57837-19-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
Moderately toxic by ingestion. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.

5.7 Specification

??Metalaxyl ,? its cas register number is 57837-19-1. It also can be called?Allegiance ; Apron ; Apron SD 35 ; Caswell No. 375AA ; D,L-N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(2'-methoxyacetyl)alaninate de methyle ; Metalaxil ; Metanaxin ; Methyl N-(2-methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate ; N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester ; Ridomil ;
?Subdue .

5.8 Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
rat LD50 oral 566mg/kg (566mg/kg) ? Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Immunology. Vol. 35, Pg. 375, 1991.
rat LD50 skin > 3100mg/kg (3100mg/kg) ? Pesticide Manual. Vol. 9, Pg. 554, 1991.

5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 4

Skin sensitization, Category 1

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term (Chronic) - Category Chronic 3

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Warning

Hazard statement(s)

H302 Harmful if swallowed

H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction

H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P273 Avoid release to the environment.

Response

P301+P312 IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

P330 Rinse mouth.

P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P333+P313 If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

Storage

none

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

8. Precursor and Product
9. Other Information
9.0 BRN
2947777
9.1 Description
Metalaxyl (chemical name: methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2, 6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate) is an acylalanine fungicide of systemic function. It can be used for the treatment of pythium and phytophthora in many kinds of vegetables and peas. However, there are severe problem of drug resistance in current days. Metalaxyl exhibits strong activity against the mycelial growth of various sensitive fungi such as pythium splendens. The primary effect of metalaxyl seems to be related to its effect of interfering with the normal synthesis of RNA and DNA in sensitive fungi strains.
9.2 References
Kerkenaar, A. "On the antifungal mode of action of metalaxyl, an inhibitor of nucleic acid synthesis in Pythium splendens." Pesticide Biochemistry & Physiology 16.1(1981):1-13.
Fisher, David J., and A. L. Hayes. "Mode of action of the systemic fungicides furalaxyl, metalaxyl and ofurace." Pest Management Science13.3(2010):330-339.
Davidse, L. C., et al. "A comparison between the antifungal mode of action of metalaxyl, cyprofuram, benalaxyl and oxadixyl in phenylamide-sensitivity and -resistant strains. " Crop Protection 7.6(1988):347-355.
Metalaxyl showed the highest activity amongst the four fungicides against mycelial growth of sensitive strains on agar media.
9.3 Description
As an important fungicide group, acylanilides have a longer history than triazoles. Metalaxyl (44) is one of the most important fungicides in the group. It originates from the class of herbicidal chloroacetanilides, particularly metolachlor (45). Metolachlor, having a chiral carbon center and a chiral axis, is composed of four stereoisomers, the most herbicidally active one of which is the (αR, 1S)-isomer (32). For the stereoselective synthesis of this isomer, novel iridium-ferrocenyldiphosphine catalysts for the enantioselective hydrogenation of N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)- N-(1 -methoxymethyl)-ethylidene-amine are reported. In the most effective approach, the catalyst is generated in situ from [Ir(cod)Cl]2(cod = cyclooctadiene) and the ferrocenyldiphosphine ligand (R)-(S)-PPF-P(3,5-xyl)2 (46) (33).When the substrate to catalyst ratio is 106, the conversion is complete in 2 to 3 h, producing metolachlor in optical yields over 80% (34).
9.4 Chemical Properties
Pale Beige Solid
9.5 Chemical Properties
Combustible, white crystalline solid or powder. Odorless.
9.6 Uses
Systemic fungicide used to control a variety of diseases on a wide range of temperate, subtropical and tropical crops.
9.7 Uses
Metalaxyl is used for the control of air-borne pathogens by foliar application and of soil-borne pathogens by soil application on a wide range of crops. It is particularly useful against Oomycetes including soil-borne Phytophthora diseases.
9.8 Uses
Agricultural fungicide. Phenylamide fungicide or use in food crops, shrubs and turf.
9.9 Hazard
Moderately toxic by ingestion.
9.10 Agricultural Uses
Fungicide: Metalaxyl is used as a systemic fungicide on a variety of food and non-food crops including tobacco, turf and conifers, and ornamentals. Used in combination with fungicides of different mode of action as a foliar spray on tropical and subtropical crops; as a seed treatment to control downy mildew; and as a soil fumigant to control soilborne pathogens.
9.11 Trade name
AGROX? PREMIERE; ALLEGIENCE?; APRON?; CG 117?; CGA-48988?; CHLORAXYL?; COTGUARD?; EPERON?; DELTA-COAT; FOLIO? GOLD; GAUCHO?; KODIAK?; METALAXIL?; METAXANIN?; PACE?; PREVAIL?; RAXIL? (tebu- conazole + metalaxyl); RIDOMIL? GOLD/BRAVO?; RIDOMIL?; RIDOMIL 2E?; SUBDUE?
9.12 Pharmacology
In mycelium of Phytophthora megasperma,metalaxyl affected primarily rRNA synthesis (polymerase I), whereas mRNA was much less sensitive; therefore, inhibition of rRNA synthesis is considered as the primary site of action of PAFs (23).
The PAFs exhibit strong preventive and curative activity. They affect especially hyphal growth (inside and outside the plant tissue) as well as haustorium and spore formation (15). Although not fully utilized for resistance management reasons, PAFs also exhibit strong eradicative and antisporulant activity in the disease cycle of target pathogens. On the other hand, PAFs do not inhibit the early stages in the disease cycle like zoospore release, spore germination, and penetration of the host tissue (15). Because spores contain many ribosomes to support early growth stages, RNA synthesis is fully operating only after spore germination; later development stages are therefore most sensitive to PAFs (23). As a consequence of RNA inhibition, the precursors of RNA synthesis (i.e., nucleoside triphosphates) are accumulated; they activate β-1,3-glucansynthetases, which are involved in cell wall formation (23). Metalaxyl-treated hyphae often produce thicker cell walls than do untreated ones.
9.13 Safety Profile
Moderately toxic by ingestion. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
9.14 Potential Exposure
Metalaxyl is phenylamide systemic fungicide used on a variety of food and nonfood crops including tobacco, turf and conifers, and ornamentals. Used in combination with fungicides of different mode of action as a foliar spray on tropical and subtropical crops; as a seed treatment to control downy mildew; and as a soil fumigant to control soil-borne pathogens. Banned for use in EU.
9.15 Environmental Fate
Soil. Little information is available on the degradation of metalaxyl in soil; however, Sharom and Edgington (1986) reported metalaxyl acid as a possible metabolite. Repeated applications of metalaxyl decreases its persistence. Following an initial application, the average half-life was 28 days. After repeated applications, the half-life decreased to 14 days (Bailey and Coffey, 1985).
Carsel et al. (1986) studied the persistence of metalaxyl in various soil types. The application rate was 2.2 kg/ha. In a fine sand, metalaxyl concentrations at soil depths of 15, 20, 45 and 60 cm were 100, 150, 100 and 75 ppb, respectively, 55 days after
Plant. In plants, metalaxyl undergoes ring oxidation, methyl ester hydrolysis, ether cleavage, ring methyl hydroxylation and N-dealkylation (Owen and Donzel, 1986). Metalaxyl acid was identified as a hydrolysis product in both sunflower leaves an
In pigeon peas, metalaxyl may persist up to 12 days (Indira et al., 1981; Chaube et al., 1984).
9.16 Metabolic pathway
O-Demethylation is one of the major routes of metalaxyl degradation in the plant cell suspension culture. Although hydroxylation of methyl groups in the phenyl ring predominates in both lettuce and grapes, species differences are evident in grapes, whereas N-dealkylation and aryl hydroxylation are less important in lettuce. Two isomeric metabolites of methyl hydroxylation and the hydroxylated metabolite of the phenyl ring are identified as fungus metabolites. By UV irradiation of metalaxyl in aqueous solution, two rearrangement products of the N-acyl group to the 4-position on the phenyl ring are identified.
9.17 Metabolism
The degradation pathways of pesticides are published in the "FAO Plant Production and Protection Papers." Because the degradation pathways are similar for all PAF). In plants, metalaxyl is metabolized by four types of phase I reaction to form eight metabolites; at phase II, most of the metabolites are sugar-conjugated. The types of reaction in phase I are hydroxylation at the phenyl ring, oxidation of one of the tolylic methyl groups (Formula d), hydrolysis of the methyl ester (Formula e), and ether cleavage (Formula b). In phases II and III, there is also a dealkylation of the nitrogen (Formula l), in addition to the combination of the above-mentioned reaction types forming the compounds of Formulas f, h, and m. In mammals, following oral administration, metalaxyl is rapidly absorbed and rapidly and almost completely eliminated with urine and feces. Metabolism proceeds via the same degradation pathways as in plants, leading to products containing an oxidized tolylic methyl group with or without the hydrolyzed ester function (Formulas d, h, and i, respectively) containing a dealkylated nitrogen and a hydroxy group formed by ether cleavage (Formula l via b or e/f), containing an oxalyl function formed by ether cleavage followed by oxidation of the generated alcohol (Formula c), and containing the hydroxylated phenyl ring (Formula a). Residues in tissues were generally low, and there was no evidence for accumulation or retention of metalaxyl or its metabolites. In soil, similar degradation products are found as in plants and animals with the exception of three additional products of Formulas k, n, and g.
9.18 Shipping
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
9.19 Toxicity evaluation
If used according to label recommendations, PAFs are considered to be safe to humans, animals, and the environment. The active ingredients represent only low-to-moderate acute oral and dermal hazard to rats, mice, and rabbits. The compounds do not exhibit mutagenic, oncogenic, and teratogenic hazards. No or only weak (furalaxyl, ofurace) skin irritant potential exists in rabbits and no skin sensitization is present in guinea pigs, whereas some compounds are weak to serious eye irritants in rabbits (except benalaxyl and oxadixyl). In long-term toxicity studies, the "no-observableeffect level" (NOEL) in rats is 2.5 mg/kg body weight/day for metalaxyl, metalaxyl-M, and ofurace; 5 mg/kg for benalaxyl; and 11 mg/kg for oxadixyl, whereas in dogs, the NOEL is 8.0 mg/kg body weight/day for metalaxyl and metalaxyl-M, 7 mg/kg for benalaxyl, and 12 mg/kg for oxadixyl. Using a safety factor of 100, the "acceptable daily intake" (ADI) for PAFs ranges from 0.025 to 0.11 mg/kg. The PAFs are unlikely to pose any toxicological risk to birds (bobwhite quail, mallard ducks), fish (rainbow trout, carp), honeybees, earthworms, Daphnia, and algae. The observed LD50 (LC, EC) values are very favorable for all PAFs; only benalaxyl shows lower figures in respect to earthworm, Daphnia, and algae.
9.20 Degradation
Metalaxyl is very stable in neutral and acidic media at room temperature and it is reasonably stable to aqueous photolysis. Its calculated half-lives in buffers at 25 °C below pH 7 are <3 years and at pH 9, 12 weeks. Only at pH 11 was measurable hydrolysis seen (half-life 1.6 days) (Melkebeke et al., 1986). Thus environmental degradation can be expected to be slow.
[14C-phenyl]Metalaxy1ir radiated in aqueous solution with UV light at 30 °C was degraded with a half-life of 2-3 days at four pH values between 2.8 and 8.8. Acetone (1%) accelerated the rate of decomposition. Two rearrangement products (2 and 3) were isolated at pH 6.8; these accounted for 3 and 6% of the radioactivity, respectively. Irradiation of 2 showed that it was a precursor of compound 3 (Yao et al., 1989). Though these products appear to be unusual, there is a precedent for such reactions and the structures were determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Decomposition under simulated sunlight was slower with a half-life of 297 days (Pirisi et al., 1996). Amide bond cleavage and N-dealkylation to compounds 4 and 5 was reported. The dimethylaniline (6) was a putative product but a separate experiment showed that it was degraded at a higher rate than the parent and so was not observed from metalaxyl. The products are shown in Scheme 1.
9.21 Incompatibilities
Incompatible with alkaline materials, strong acids, oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Compounds of the carboxyl group react with all bases, both inorganic and organic (i.e., amines) releasing substantial heat, water and a salt that may be harmful. Incompatible with arsenic compounds (releases hydrogen cyanide gas), diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides (releasing heat, toxic, and possibly flammable gases), thiosulfates and dithionites (releasing hydrogen sulfate and oxides of sulfur).
9.22 Waste Disposal
Small amounts may be destroyed by alkaline hydrolysis. Admixture with alkali can be followed by soil burial. Larger quantities can be disposed of by incineration in admixture with acetone or xylene and using effluent gas scrubbing. Do not reuse empty container; proper disposal required.
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 279.33g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: C15H21NO4
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: null
  • Exact Mass: 279.14705815
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 279.14705815
  • Complexity: 335
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 6
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 4
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 55.8
  • Heavy Atom Count: 20
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 1
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
  • CACTVS Substructure Key Fingerprint: AAADceByOAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAwAAAAAAAAAAABAAAAHgAAAAAADCjhmAYyyIMABACIAiXSWAKCAAAhAAAIiAHIRIgKICLAkbWFIAhghgDYyAcQgEAOAAACAAACAAAAAAQAAAQAAAAAAAAAAA==
12. Realated Product Infomation