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Paclitaxel structure
Paclitaxel structure


Iupac Name:[(1S,2S,3R,4S,7R,9S,10S,12R,15S)-4,12-diacetyloxy-15-[(2R,3S)-3-benzamido-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy-1,9-dihydroxy-10,14,17,17-tetramethyl-11-oxo-6-oxatetracyclo[,10.04,7]heptadec-13-en-2-yl] benzoate
CAS No.: 33069-62-4
Molecular Weight:858.949
Modify Date.: 2022-11-06 03:30
Introduction: Paclitaxel is a potent anticancer medication which can promote microtubule (MT) assembly, inhibit MT depolymerization, and change MT dynamics required for mitosis and cell proliferation. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
1.2 Synonyms

(1S,2S,3R,4S,7R,9S,10S,12R,15S)-4,12-bis(acetyloxy)-1,9-dihydroxy-15-({(2R,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-phenyl-3-[(phenylcarbonyl)amino]propanoyl}oxy)-10,14,17,17-tetramethyl-11-oxo-6-oxatetracyclo[]heptadec-13-en-2-yl benzoate (1S,2S,3R,4S,7R,9S,10S,12R,15S)-4,12-Bis(acetyloxy)-1,9-dihydroxy-15-({(2R,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-phenyl-3-[(phenylcarbonyl)amino]propanoyl}oxy)-10,14,17,17-tetramethyl-11-oxo-6-oxatetracyclo[]heptadec-13-en-2-ylbenzolcarboxylat (2a,5b,7b,10b,13a)-4,10-bis(acetyloxy)-13-{[(2R,3S)-3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}-1,7-dihydroxy-9-oxo-5,20-epoxytax-11-en-2-yl benzoate (2α,3Ξ,5Β,7Β,10Β,13α)-4,10-Diacetoxy-13-{[(2R,3S)-3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}-1,7-dihydroxy-9-oxo-5,20-epoxytax-11-en-2-yl benzoate (2α,5Β,7Β,10Β,13α)-4,10-bis(acetyloxy)-1,7-dihydroxy-13-({(2R,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-phenyl-3-[(phenylcarbonyl)amino]propanoyl}oxy)-9-oxo-5,20-epoxytax-11-en-2-yl benzoate (2α,5Β,7Β,10Β,13α)-4,10-Diacetoxy-13-{[(2R,3S)-3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}-1,7-dihydroxy-9-oxo-5,20-epoxytax-11-en-2-yl benzoate 5b,20-Epoxy-1,2a,4,7b,10b,13a-hexahydroxytax-11-en-9-one 4,10-Diacetate 2-Benzoate 13-Ester with (2R,3S)-N-Benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine ABI 007 Anzatax benzenepropanoic acid, b-(benzoylamino)-a-hydroxy-, (2aR,4S,4aS,6R,9S,11S,12S,12aR,12bS)-6,12b-bis(acetyloxy)-12-(benzoyloxy)-2a,3,4,4a,5,6,9,10,11,12,12a,12b-dodecahydro-4,11-dihydroxy-4a,8,13,13-tetramethyl-5-oxo-7,11-methano-1H-cyclodeca[3,4]benz[1,2-b]oxet-9-yl ester, (aR,bS)- Benzenepropanoic acid, Β-(benzoylamino)-α-hydroxy-, (2aR,4S,4aS,6R,9S,11S,12S,12aR,12bS)-6,12b-bis(acetyloxy)-12-(benzoyloxy)-2a,3,4,4a,5,6,9,10,11,12,12a,12b-dodecahydro-4,11-dihydroxy-4a,8,13 ,13-tetramethyl-5-oxo-7,11-methano-1H-cyclodeca[3,4]benz[1,2-b]oxet-9-yl ester, (αR,ΒS)- Benzenepropanoic acid, Β-(benzoylamino)-α-hydroxy-, (2aR,4S,4aS,6R,9S,11S,12S,12aR,12bS)-6,12b-bis(acetyloxy)-12-(benzoyloxy)-2a,3,4,4a,5,6,9,10,11,12,12a,12b-dodecahydro-4,11-dihydroxy-4a,8,13,13-tetramethyl-5-oxo-7,11-methano-1H-cyclodeca[3,4]benz[1,2-b]oxet-9-yl ester, (αR,ΒS)- Benzenepropanoic acid, Β-(benzoylamino)-α-hydroxy-, (2aR,4S,4aS,6R,9S,11S,12S,12bS)-6,12b-bis(acetyloxy)-12-(benzoyloxy)-2a,3,4,4a,5,6,9,10,11,12,12a,12b-dodecahydro-4,11-dihydroxy-4a,8,13,13-t etramethyl-5-oxo-7,11-methano-1H-cyclodeca[3,4]benz[1,2-b]oxet-9-yl ester, (αR,ΒS)- benzenepropanoic acid, Β-(benzoylamino)-α-hydroxy-, (2aR,4S,4aS,6R,9S,11S,12S,12bS)-6,12b-bis(acetyloxy)-12-(benzoyloxy)-2a,3,4,4a,5,6,9,10,11,12,12a,12b-dodecahydro-4,11-dihydroxy-4a,8,13,13-tetramethyl-5-oxo-7,11-methano-1H-cyclodeca[3,4]benz[1,2-b]oxet-9-yl ester, (αR,ΒS)- BMS 181339-01 Capxol DHP 107 Ebetaxel EMPAC LipoPac MFCD00869953 N-BENZYL-BETA-PHENYLISOSERINE ESTER NK 105 Onxal Onxol Paclitaxel HCL Paclitaxel(natural crude) PACLITAXEL, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA PACLITAXEL, TAXUS SPECIES Paclitaxelx PACLITAXOL Paxceed Paxene Peclitaxel Plaxicel taxal TaxAlbin Taxol Taxol A TAXUS UNII-P88XT4IS4D Yewtaxan

1.3 CAS No.
1.4 CID
1.6 Molecular Formula
C47H51NO14 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
1.8 InChkey
1.9 Canonical Smiles
1.10 Isomers Smiles
2. Properties
2.1 Density
2.1 Melting point
2.1 Boiling point
957.115 °C at 760 mmHg
2.1 Refractive index
-49 ° (C=1, MeOH)
2.1 Flash Point
532.644 °C
2.1 Precise Quality
2.1 PSA
2.1 logP
2.1 Solubility
methanol: 50?mg/mL, clear, colorless
2.2 Λmax
2.3 AnalyticLaboratory Methods
Analyte: paclitaxel;; matrix: pharmaceutical preparation (injection solution); procedure: micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 230 nm
2.4 Appearance
White Powder
2.5 Storage
Store at -20°C.
2.6 Chemical Properties
White Powder
2.7 Color/Form
2.8 Physical
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Needles (from aqueous methanol;) or fine white powder. An anti-cancer drug.
2.9 pKa
2.10 Water Solubility
methanol: 50?mg/mL, clear, colorless
2.11 Spectral Properties
Specific optical rotation: -49 deg at 20 deg C/D (methanol); UV max absorption 2 (methanol): 227, 273, nm (E= 29,800,1700)
2.12 Stability
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Combustible.
2.13 StorageTemp
3. Use and Manufacturing
3.1 General Description
Needles (from aqueous methanol) or fine white powder. An anti-cancer drug.
3.2 GHS Classification
Signal: Danger
GHS Hazard Statements
Aggregated GHS information provided by 129 companies from 21 notifications to the ECHA C&L Inventory. Each notification may be associated with multiple companies.

H315 (82.95%): Causes skin irritation [Warning Skin corrosion/irritation]
H317 (66.67%): May cause an allergic skin reaction [Warning Sensitization, Skin]
H318 (80.62%): Causes serious eye damage [Danger Serious eye damage/eye irritation]
H334 (21.71%): May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled [Danger Sensitization, respiratory]
H335 (81.4%): May cause respiratory irritation [Warning Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; Respiratory tract irritation]
H340 (15.5%): May cause genetic defects [Danger Germ cell mutagenicity]
H341 (35.66%): Suspected of causing genetic defects [Warning Germ cell mutagenicity]
H360 (31.01%): May damage fertility or the unborn child [Danger Reproductive toxicity]
H361 (66.67%): Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child [Warning Reproductive toxicity]
H372 (18.6%): Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Danger Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure]
H413 (45.74%): May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life [Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard]

Information may vary between notifications depending on impurities, additives, and other factors. The percentage value in parenthesis indicates the notified classification ratio from companies that provide hazard codes. Only hazard codes with percentage values above 10% are shown.

Precautionary Statement Codes
P201, P202, P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P272, P273, P280, P281, P285, P302+P352, P304+P340, P304+P341, P305+P351+P338, P308+P313, P310, P312, P314, P321, P332+P313, P333+P313, P342+P311, P362, P363, P403+P233, P405, and P501
3.3 Methods of Manufacturing
... First isolated, as the l-form, from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus breviofolia, Taxacaea
3.4 Usage
glucocorticoid, antiinflammatory
4. Safety and Handling
4.1 Symbol
GHS05, GHS07, GHS08
4.1 Hazard Codes
4.1 Signal Word
4.1 Risk Statements
4.1 Safety Statements
4.1 Packing Group
4.1 Fire Hazard
Flash point data for Paclitaxel are not available. Paclitaxel is probably combustible.
4.2 Other Preventative Measures
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Accidental contamination of the health-care environment, resulting in exposure of personnel, patients, visitors, and family members to hazardous substances, is prevented by maintaining the physical integrity and security of packages of hazardous drugs. 1. Access to all areas where hazardous drugs are stored is limited to specified authorized staff. 2. A method should be present for identifying to personnel those drugs that require special precautions (eg, cytotoxics). One way to accomplish this is to apply appropriate warning labels to all hazardous drug containers, shelves, and bins where the drug products are stored. ... 3. A method of identifying, for patients and family members, those drugs that require special precautions in the home should be in place. This may be accomplished in the health-care setting, by providing specific labeling for discharge medications, along with written instructions. 4. Methods for identifying shipping cartons of hazardous drugs should be required from manufacturers and distributors of these drugs. 5. Written procedures for handling damaged packages of hazardous drugs should be maintained. Personnel involved in shipping and receiving hazardous drugs should be trained in these procedures, including the proper use of protective garments and equipment. Damaged shipping cartons of hazardous drugs should be received and opened in an isolated area (eg, in a laboratory fume hood, if available, not in a vertical laminar airflow biological safety cabinet used for preparing sterile products). /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Facilities (eg, shelves, carts, counters, and trays) for storing hazardous drugs are designed to prevent breakage and to limit contamination in the event of leakage. Bins, shelves with barriers at the front, or other design features that reduce the chance of drug containers falling to the floor should be used. Hazardous drugs requiring refrigeration should be stored separately from nonhazardous drugs in individual bins designed to prevent breakage and to contain leakage. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Until the reproductive risks (or lack thereof) associated with handling hazardous drugs within a safety program have been substantiated, staff who are pregnant or breast-feeding should be allowed to avoid contact with these drugs. Policies should be in effect that provide these individuals with alternative tasks or responsibilities if they so desire. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ The pharmacy should provide access to information on toxicity, treatment of acute exposure (if available), chemical inactivators, solubility and stability of hazardous drugs (including investigational agents) used in the workplace. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Appropriate engineering controls should be in place to protect the drug product from microbial contamination and to protect personnel and the environment from the potential hazards of the product. These engineering controls should be maintained according to applicable regulations and standards. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Biological safety cabinets should be cleaned and disinfected regularly to ensure a proper environment for preparation of sterile products. For routine cleanups of surfaces between decontaminations, water should be used (for injection or irrigation) with or without a small amount of cleaner. If the contamination is soluble only in alcohol, then 70% isopropyl or ethyl alcohol may be used in addition to the cleaner. In general, alcohol is not a good cleaner, only a disinfectant, and its use in a biohazard cabinet should be limited. The biohazard cabinet should be disinfected with 70% alcohol before any aseptic manipulation is begun. The excessive use of alcohol should be avoided in biohazard cabinets where air is recirculated ... because alcohol vapors may build up in the cabinet. A lint-free, plastic-backed disposable liner may be used in the biological safety cabinet to facilitate spill cleanup. ... If used, the liner should be changed frequently ... /or/ whenever it is overtly contaminated. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ The biological safety cabinets should be decontaminated on a regular basis (ideally at least weekly) and whenever there is a spill or the biological safety cabinet is moved or serviced, including for certification. ... Currently, no single reagent will deactivate all known hazardous drugs; therefore, decontamination of a biological safety cabinet used for such drugs is limited to removal of contamination from a nondisposable surface (the cabinet) to a disposable surface (eg, gauze or towels) by use of a good cleaning agent that removes chemicals from stainless steel. The cleaning agent selected should have a pH approximating that of soap and be appropriate for stainless steel. Cleaners containing chemicals such as quaternary ammonium compounds should be used with caution, because they may be hazardous to humans and their vapors may build up in any biological safety cabinet where air is recirculated. Similar caution should be used with any pressurized aerosol cleaner; spraying a pressurized aerosol into a biological safety cabinet may disrupt the protective containment airflow, damage the high efficiency particulate air filter, and cause an accumulation of the propellant within a biological safety cabinet where air is recirculated, resulting in a fire and explosion hazard. During decontamination, the operator should wear a disposable closed front gown, disposable latex gloves covered by disposable utility gloves, safety glasses or goggles, a hair covering, and a disposable respirator, because the glass shield of the biological safety cabinet occasionally must be lifted. The blower must be left on, and only heavy toweling or gauze should be used in the biological safety cabinet to prevent it from being "sucked" up the plenum and into the high efficiency particulate air filter. Decontamination should be done from top to bottom (areas of lesser contamination to greater) by applying the cleaner, scrubbing, and rinsing thoroughly with distilled or deionized water. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ The high efficiency particulate air filters /or other exhaust scrubbing system/ of the biohazard cabinet must be replaced whenever they restrict required airflow velocity or if they are overtly contaminated (eg, by a breach in technique that causes hazardous drug to be introduced onto the clean side of the supply high efficiency particulate air filter). Personnel and environmental protection must be maintained during replacement of a contaminated high efficiency particulate air filter. Because replacement of a high efficiency particulate air filter generally requires breaking the integrity of the containment aspect of the cabinet, this procedure may release contamination from the filter into the pharmacy or intravenous preparation area if carried out in an inappropriate manner. Before replacement of a high efficiency particulate air filter contaminated with hazardous drugs, the biological safety cabinet service agent should be consulted for a mutually acceptable procedure for replacing and subsequently disposing of a contaminated high efficiency particulate air filter. One procedure would include moving the biological safety cabinet to a secluded area or using plastic barriers to segregate the contaminated area. Protective clothing and equipment must be used by the servicer. The biological safety cabinet should be decontaminated before filter replacement. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ During removal of gloves, ... avoid touching the inside of the glove or the skin with the contaminated glove fingers. ... The worker should wear a protective disposable gown made of lint free, low-permeability fabric with a solid front, long sleeves, and tight-fitting elastic or knit cuffs when preparing hazardous drugs. Washable garments are immediately penetrated by liquids and therefore provide little, if any protection. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ When double gloving, one glove should be placed under the gown cuff and one over. The glove-gown interface should be such that no skin on the arm or wrist is exposed. Gloves and gowns should not be worn outside the immediate preparation area. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Eyewash fountains should be available in areas where hazardous drugs are routinely handled. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Although noninjectable dosage forms of hazardous drugs contain varying proportions of drug to nondrug (nonhazardous) components, there is potential for personnel exposure and environmental contamination with the hazardous components. Procedures should be developed to avoid the release of aerosolized powder or liquid into the environment during manipulation of these drugs. Drugs designated as hazardous should be labeled or otherwise identified as such to prevent their improper handling. Tablet and capsule forms of these drugs should not be placed in automated counting machines, which subject them to stress and may introduce powdered contaminants into the work area. During routine handling of hazardous drugs and contaminated equipment, workers should wear one pair of gloves of good quality and thickness. The counting and pouring of hazardous drugs should be done carefully, and clean equipment dedicated for use with these drugs should be used. ... When hazardous drug tablets in unit-of-use packaging are being crushed, the package should be placed in a small sealable plastic bag and crushed with a spoon or pestle; caution should be used not to break the plastic bag. Disposal of unused or unusable oral or topical dosage forms of hazardous drugs should be performed in the same manner as for hazardous injectable dosage forms and waste. ... Hazardous drug work areas should have a sink (preferably with an eyewash fountain) and appropriate first aid equipment to treat accidental skin or eye contact according to the protocol. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ A distinctive warning label with an appropriate CAUTION statement should be attached to all hazardous drug materials, consistent with state laws and regulations. This would include, for example, syringes, IV containers, containers of unit-dose tablets and liquids, prescription vials and bottles, waste containers, and patient specimens that contain hazardous drugs. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Supplies of disposable gloves and gowns, safety glasses, disposable plastic-backed absorbent liners, gauze pads, hazardous waste disposal bags, hazardous drug warning labels, and puncture-resistant containers for disposal of needles and ampuls should be conveniently located for all areas where hazardous drugs are handled. Assembling a "hazardous drug preparation and administration kit" is one way to furnish nursing and medical personnel with the materials needed to reduce the risk of preparing and administering a hazardous drug. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Prospective temporary and permanent employees who may be required to work with hazardous drugs should be so notified and should receive adequate information about the policies and procedures pertaining to their use. This notification should be documented during the interview process and retained as part of the employment record for all employees. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ All personnel involved with the transportation, preparation, administration, and disposal of cytotoxic and hazardous substances should continually be updated on new or revised information on safe handling of cytotoxic and hazardous substances. Policies and procedures should be updated accordingly. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ The work area should be designed to provide easy access to those items necessary to prepare, label, and transport final products; contain all related waste; and avoid inadvertent contamination of the work area. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Each health-care setting should have an established first aid protocol for treating cases of direct contact with hazardous drugs, many of which are irritating or caustic and can cause tissue destruction. Medical care providers in each setting should be contacted for input into this protocol. The protocol should include immediate treatment measures and should specify the type and location of medical follow-up and work-injury reporting. Copies of the protocol, highlighting emergency measures, should be posted wherever hazardous drugs are routinely handled. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Only individuals trained to administer hazardous drugs should be allowed to perform this function. Training programs should contain information on the therapeutic and adverse effects of these drugs and the potential, long term health risk to personnel handling these drugs. Each individual's knowledge and technique should be evaluated before administration of these drugs. This should be done by written examination and direct observation of the individual's performance. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ ... exposure may be through inadvertent ingestion of the drug on foodstuffs (eg, workers' lunches), inhalation of drug dusts or droplets or direct skin contact. /Antineoplastic agents/
4.3 Hazard Class
4.3 Hazard Declaration
4.3 DisposalMethods
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ All contaminated disposables should be contained in sealable bags for transfer to larger waste containers. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ All bottles must be discarded as contaminated waste after decontamination of the biohazard cabinet. All protective apparel (gown, gloves, goggles, and respirator) should be discarded as contaminated waste. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ The contaminated filters must be removed, bagged in thick plastic and prepared for disposal in a hazardous waste dump site or incinerator licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ The gown should be removed and placed in a sealable container before removal of the inner gloves. The inner gloves should be removed last and placed in the container with the gown. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Hazardous drug waste should be placed in specially marked (specifically labeled CAUTION: HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE) thick plastic bags or leakproof containers. These receptacles should be kept in all areas where the drugs are commonly used. All and only hazardous drug waste should be placed in them. Receptacles used for glass fragments, needles, and syringes should be puncture resistant. Hazardous drug waste should not be mixed with any other waste. Waste containers should be handled with uncontaminated gloves. ... Gloves, gowns, drug vials, etc, should be sealed in specially labeled (CAUTION: HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE) thick plastic bags or leakproof containers. ... All hazardous waste collected from drug preparation and patient-care areas should be held in a secure place in labeled, leakproof drums or cartons (as required by state or local regulation or disposal contractor) until disposal. This waste should be disposed of as hazardous or toxic waste in an EPA-permitted state-licensed hazardous waste incinerator. Transport to an offsite incinerator should be done by a contractor licensed to handle and transport hazardous waste. ... If access to an appropriately licensed incinerator is not available, transport to and burial in an EPA-licensed hazardous waste dump site is an acceptable alternative. While there are concerns that destruction of carcinogens by incineration may be incomplete, newer technologies and stringent licensing criteria have improved this disposal method. ... Chemical deactivation of hazardous drugs should be undertaken only by individuals who are thoroughly familiar with the chemicals and the procedures required to complete such a task. The IARC recently published a monograph describing methods for chemical destruction of some cytotoxic (antineoplastic) drugs in the laboratory setting. The chemicals and equipment described, however, are not generally found in the clinical setting, and many of the deactivating chemicals are toxic and hazardous. Most procedures require the use of a chemical fume hood. The procedures are generally difficult, and the deactivation is not always complete. Serious consideration should be given to the negative aspects of chemical deactivation before one commits to such a course of action. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Regulatory agencies such as the EPA and state solid and hazardous waste agencies and local air and water quality control boards must be consulted regarding the classification and appropriate disposal of drugs that are defined as hazardous or toxic chemicals. EPA categorizes several of the antineoplastic agents as toxic wastes, while many states are more stringent and include as carcinogens certain cytotoxic drugs and hormonal preparations. EPA also allows exemptions from toxic waste regulations for small quantity generators, whereas certain states do not. It is critical to research these regulations when disposal procedures are being established. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ If the biological safety cabinet is equipped with a drainpipe and valve, it may be used to collect rinse water. The collection vessel used must fit well around the drain valve and not allow splashing. Gauze may be used around the connection to prevent aerosol from escaping. The collection vessel must have a tight fitting cover, and all rinse water (gauze, if used) must be disposed of as contaminated waste. /Antineoplastic agents/
4.4 Caution Statement
P261-P280-P284-P304 + P340-P305 + P351 + P338 + P310-P342 + P311
4.4 Formulations/Preparations
Parenteral: For injection, concentrate, for IV infusion: 6 mg/mL Onxol (with dehydrated alcohol 49.7% (v/v) and polyoxyl 35 castor oil 527 mg/mL) (Teva), Paclitaxel Injection (with dehydrated alcohol 49.7% (v/v) and polyoxyl 35 castor oil 527 mg/mL) (Bedford, Mayne, UDL), Taxol (with dehydrated alcohol 49.7% (v/v) and polyoxyl 35 castor oil 527 mg/mL) (Bristol-Myers Squibb).
Parenteral: For injectable suspension, for IV infusion: 100 mg (of paclitaxel) Abraxane (Abraxis). /Paclitaxel (albumin-bound)/
Paclitaxel is commercially available as protein-bound particles consisting of paclitaxel bound to albumin; the mean particle size of albumin-bound paclitaxel is about 130 nm. Albumin-bound paclitaxel is a sterile, white to yellow lyophilized powder that must be reconstituted for use as an injectable suspension; there are no solvents. Each single-use vial contains 100 mg of paclitaxel and approximately 900 mg of human albumin.
Because paclitaxel is extremely hydrophobic, the commercially available injection concentrate is a sterile, nonaqueous solution of the drug in polyoxyl 35 castor oil (Cremophor EL, polyoxyethylated castor oil) and dehydrated alcohol. Commercially available paclitaxel for injection concentrate is a clear, colorless to slightly yellow, viscous solution. Following dilution of paclitaxel for injection concentrate with 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose and Ringer's injection, solutions containing 0.6 or 1.2 mg of paclitaxel per mL maintain a pH of 4.4-5.6 for up to 27 hours.
4.5 WGK Germany
4.5 Protective Equipment and Clothing
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Protective apparel: Disposable closed-front gown or coveralls, disposable utility gloves over disposable latex gloves, NIOSH-approved air-purifying half-mask respirator equipped with a high efficiency filter, and eye protection should be worn. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Class 100 clean-air work stations, both horizontal and vertical airflow (with no containment characteristics), are inappropriate engineering controls for handling hazardous drugs because they provide no personnel protection and permit environmental contamination. Although there are no engineering controls designed specifically for the safe handling of hazardous chemicals as sterile products, Class II contained vertical-flow biological safety cabinets (biohazard cabinets) have been adopted for this use. Biohazard cabinetry is, however, designed for the handling of infectious agents, not hazardous chemicals. ... Based on design, ease of use, and cost considerations, Class II contained-vertical-flow biohazard cabinetry is currently recommended for use in preparing sterile doses of hazardous drugs. Class II cabinetry design and performance specifications are defined in NSF Standard 49. Biological safety cabinets selected for use with hazardous drugs should meet NSF Standard 49 specifications to ensure the maximum protection from these engineering controls. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Workers should wear powder free, disposable surgical latex gloves of good quality when preparing hazardous drugs. Selection criteria for gloves should include thickness (especially at the fingertips where stress is the greatest), fit, length, and tactile sensation. ... The practice of double gloving is supported by research that indicates that many glove materials vary in drug permeability even within lots; therefore, double gloving is recommended. ... In general, surgical latex gloves fit better, have appropriate elasticity for double gloving and maintaining the integrity of the glove-gown interface, and have sufficient tactile sensation (even during double gloving) for stringent aseptic procedures. ... Powdered gloves should be avoided. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Workers who are not protected by the containment environment of a biohazard cabinet should use respiratory protection when handling hazardous drugs. Respiratory protection should be an adjunct to and not a substitute for engineering controls. Surgical masks of all types provide no respiratory protection against powdered or liquid aerosols of hazardous drugs. In situations where workers may be exposed to potential eye contact with hazardous drugs, an appropriate plastic face shield or splash goggles should be worn. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ During compounding of hazardous drugs (eg, crushing, dissolving, and preparing an ointment), workers should wear low permeability gowns and double gloves. Compounding should take place in a protective area such as a disposable glove box. If compounding must be done in the open, an area away from drafts and traffic must be selected, and the worker should use appropriate respiratory protection. /Antineoplastic agents/
4.6 Safety

Safety Information about? Paclitaxel (CAS NO.33069-62-4):
Hazard Codes:?HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 37/38-41-42/43-62-68-40-48-20/21/22
R20/21/22: Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.?
R37/38: Irritating to respiratory system and skin.?
R40: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R41: Risk of serious damage to the eyes.?
R42/43: May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact.?
R48: Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.?
R62: Risk of impaired fertility.?
R68: Possible risk of irreversible effects.
Safety Statements: 22-26-36/37/39-45
S22: Do not breathe dust.?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S36/37/39: Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.?
S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
RIDADR: 1544
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: DA8340700
F: 10-21
HazardClass: 6.1(b)
PackingGroup: III

4.7 Specification

? Paclitaxel (CAS NO.33069-62-4), its Synonyms are 7,11-Methano-5H-cyclodeca[3,4]benz[1,2-b]oxete benzenepropanoic acid deriv ; Taxal ; Taxol A? .

4.8 Toxicity
LD50 intraperitoneal in mouse: 128mg/kg

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin irritation, Category 2

Skin sensitization, Category 1

Serious eye damage, Category 1

Specific target organ toxicity \u2013 single exposure, Category 3

Reproductive toxicity, Category 2

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term (Chronic) - Category Chronic 4

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Signal word


Hazard statement(s)

H315 Causes skin irritation

H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction

H318 Causes serious eye damage

H335 May cause respiratory irritation

H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child

H413 May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life

Precautionary statement(s)

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

P273 Avoid release to the environment.


P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P332+P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P333+P313 If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.


P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P405 Store locked up.


P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification


8. Other Information
8.0 Usage
Promotes assembly and inhibits disassembly of microtubules (anti-cancer agent)Paclitaxel is widely used in chemotherapeutic compound. It is used to treat certain types of cancer such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and pancreatic cancer among others. It interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows down their growth and spread in the body. It is also used to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
8.1 Merck
8.2 BRN
8.3 Indications and Usage
Paclitaxel is a monomeric diterpene compound extracted from Chinese yew bark and is a complicated secondary metabolite. Stage II-III clinical studies show that paclitaxel is most suitable for ovarian and breast cancer, and has certain efficacy in treating prostate cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, germ cell tumors, endometrial cancer, lymphoma, brain tumors, bladder cancer, upper gastrointestinal cancer, small cell and non-small cell lung cancer.
8.4 Mechanisms of Action
Paclitaxel is currently the only known drug that can promote microtubule polymerization and stabilize polymerized microtubules. It can only form on polymerized microtubules and does not react with non-polymerized microtubule protein dipolymers. After coming in contact with paclitaxel, cells will accumulate a large number of microtubules within themselves, which disrupts cell functions, especially cell division, which is forced to cease at the mitotic stage.
8.5 Warnings and Precautions
1. Hermatological toxicity: the main factor in increased dosage limitations; when white blood cells are below 1500/mm3, supplement with G-CSF; when platelets are below 30000/mm3, transfuse component blood.
2. Allergic reaction: Aside from preconditions, if there are only minor symptoms such as flushed face, skin reactions, slightly increase heart rate, slightly lowered blood pressure, etc., do not stop treatment and decrease injection speed. If there are serious reactions such as hypotension, vascular edema, difficulty breathing, measles, etc., stop treatment and treat accordingly. Patients with serious allergic reactions should not use paclitaxel in the future.
3. Nervous system: Common reactions include numb toes. Approximately 4% patients, especially with high dosage, experience significant sensory and motor difficulty and decreased tendon reflex. There have been individual reports of epilepsy.
4. Cardiovascular: Transient tachycardia and hypotension are common and do not usually require attention. However, monitor closely during first hour of injection. Afterwards, only patients with serious injection difficulty require hourly check-ins.
5. Join and muscle: Approximately half of the patients will experience some joint and muscle pain within the first 2-3 days following injection, which is related to dosage, and usually subsides after a couple days. Patients who are also administered G-CSF will experience heightened muscle pain.
6. Liver and gall: As paclitaxel is mainly excreted through bile, patients with liver and gall diseases must be monitored carefully. Among thousands of cases, 8% of patients experienced increased bilirubin, 23% experienced increased alkaline phosphatase, and 18% experienced increased glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase. However, there is currently no evidence indicating that paclitaxel causes any severe liver damage.
7. Other: Digestive tract reactions are common but rarely severe, with few cases of diarrhea and mucosa infection. Slight alopecia is also common.
8.6 Description
Paclitaxel, a natural product isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew, is effective in treating refractory metastatic ovarian cancer. Unlike any other antineoplastic agents, paclitaxel appears to have several possible mechanisms of action, including an antimicrotubule action through the promotion of tubulin polymerization and stabilization of microtubules, thereby, halting mitosis and promoting cell death. The supply of paclitaxel is limited by its low natural abundance and currently it is being manufactured by a semi-synthetic route from deacetylbaccatin Ⅲ that is isolated from the needles of the yew tree. Recent completion of two total syntheses of taxol conquered the structural complexity of the title compound and may be useful in obtaining certain closely related analogs, some of which have been found to have antitumor activity. Paclitaxel has potential uses in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, and malignant melanoma.
8.7 Chemical Properties
White Powder
8.8 Physical properties
Appearance: Odorless and tasteless white or kind of white crystal powder. Solubility: Poorly soluble in water but slightly soluble in ether. Soluble in methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, acetone, and other organic solvents. Melting point: 213–216?°C. Specific optical rotation: ?49° (C?=?1, MeOH); Curl: 20° to D?=?49.0–55.0° (10?mg/mL of methanol solution) in anhydrous dry goods without solvents.
8.9 Originator
NIH (U.S.A.)
8.10 History
The toxic ingredients in branches and leaves of Taxus chinensis were separated in 1856 and named “taxine,” which was identified as a kind of white alkaloid’s component. Currently, among all the antitumor drugs, the sale of paclitaxel becomes the first in the world as a well-recognized anticancer drug with potent broad-spectrum activity. In October of 1995, China became the second country with formal production of paclitaxel and its injection in the world. The achievement was gained under the unremitting efforts of researchers in the Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
8.11 Uses
glucocorticoid, antiinflammatory
8.12 Uses
An antineoplastic. Used in the study of structure and function of microtubles into tubulin. Paclitaxel is now used to treat patients with lung, ovarian, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, and advanc ed forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy.
8.13 Uses
Tool in study of structure and function of microtubules.
8.14 Indications
Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a highly complex, organic compound isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree. It binds to tubulin dimers and microtubulin filaments, promoting the assembly of filaments and preventing their depolymerization. This increase in the stability of microfilaments results in disruption of mitosis and cytotoxicity and disrupts other normal microtubular functions, such as axonal transport in nerve fibers. The major mechanism of resistance that has been identified for paclitaxel is transport out of tumor cells, which leads to decreased intracellular drug accumulation. This form of resistance is mediated by the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.
8.15 Manufacturing Process
(2R,3S)-β-Phenyl-isoserine methyl ester (4.35 g, 22 mM) is dissolved in dry THF (100 ml) and the flask cooled to 0°C. To the mixture is added t-butyl isocyanate (2.8 ml, 25 mM). TLC after 15 min shows some starting material left so additional isocyanate (0.5 ml) is added. TLC after 1 h shows no starting material so the solvent is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the N(t-butylaminocarbonyl)-β-phenyl isoserine methyl ester.
Triethylamine (4.8 ml, 34.4 mmol) is added to a stirred solution of methyl (2R,3S)-phenylisoserinate (7.26 g, 31.3 mmol) in methylene chloride (80 ml) at 0°C. To this slurry of is added trimethylsilyl chloride (4.4 ml, 34.7 mmol). Additional methylene chloride (45 ml) is added. The mixture is cooled to 65°C and triethylamine (9.8 ml, 70.3 mmol) is added. p-Nitrophenylsulfonyl chloride (6.93 g, 31.3 mmol) is added. The reaction rate is too slow at -65°C so the temperature is gradually raised to 0°C. Hydrogen fluoride (10% aqueous, 5 equivalents) is added. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic (methylene chloride) phase and methanol is added to the organic phase. The methylene chloride is removed under reduced pressure and the methyl (2R,3S)-3-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-3-phenyl-2-hydroxypropionate is obtained, melting point 187-189°C.
Benzaldehyde dimethylacetal (200 μl, 1.33 mmol) and a catalytic amount of p-toluenesulfonic acid (37 mg) are added to methyl (2R,3S)-3-(4nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-3-phenyl-2-hydroxypropionate (315 mg, 0.83 mmol) in toluene 5 ml. The mixture is heated at 100°C under reduced pressure (15 mm mercury) with no condenser. After 1 h the crude reaction mixture is diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water (2 times). After drying the organic layer over magnesium sulfate the crude material is purified by column chormatography (silica gel; eluting with ethyl acetate/cyclohexane, 35/65) to give the (2S,4S,5R)-2,4-diphenyl-3-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-5methoxycarbonyl-1,3-oxazolidine, melting point 118°-120°C.
Water (8 ml), methanol (8 ml) and THF (8 ml) are added to (2S,4S,5R)-2,4diphenyl-3-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,3-oxazolidine (1.50 g, 3.19 mmol). Potassium carbonate (1.018 g, 7.71 mmol) is then added. The resulting mixture is stirred at 20°-25°C until complete by TLC. After 5 h the reaction is complete and the reaction mixture is extracted with basic methylene chloride (2 times). The aqueous phase is then acidified with hydrochloric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate phase is then washed with water, saline and dried over magnesiuim sulfate. Concentration of the organic phase (ethyl acetate) gives the (2S,4S,5R)-2,4diphenyl-3-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-5-carboxy-1,3-oxazolidine, melting point 61°-65°C.
Then the (2S,4S,5R)-2,4-diphenyl-3-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-5-carboxy1,3-oxazolidine react with the 7-SDMS Baccatin III, that is 7-(3-methylbut-2yl)dimethylsilyl baccatin III (Baccatin III: 7,11-methano-1H-cyclodeca(3,4) benz(1,2-b)oxet-5-one,6,12b-bis(acetyloxy)-12(benzoyloxy)-1,2a,3,4,4a,6, 9,10,11,12,12a,12b-dodecahydro-4,9,11-trihydroxy-4a,8,13,13-tetramethyl-, (2aR,4S,4aS,6R,9S,11S,12S,12aR,12bS), isolated from Taxus baccata).
(2S,4S,5R)-2,4-Diphenyl-3-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-5-carboxy-1,3oxazolidine(323 mg, 0.711 mmol) is mixed with toluene (2.5 ml) at 20°-25°C. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (160 mg, 0.775 mmol) is then added to the reaction mixture. 7-SDMS Baccatin III (156 mg, 0.218 mmol) is added followed by 4(dimethylamino)pyridine (35 mg, 0.286 mmol) and the reaction mixture is stirred at 20°-25°C until complete (1 h) by TLC. Sodium bicarbonate (50% aqueous, 10 ml) and more toluene (5 ml) is added to the reaction mixture and then stirred at 20°-25°C for 2 h. The reaction mixture is filtered through a medium frit to remove the urea byproduct. After filtering the phases are separated and the aqueous phase is extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phases are washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (50%), water and saline. The organic phases are dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and then concentrated. The concentrate is purified by column chromatograpy (silica gel; eluting with ethyl acetate/cyclohexane, 20/80) to give the 7-SDMS baccatin III 13-(2R,4S,5R)- and (2S,4S,5R)-2,4-diphenyl-3(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-1,3-oxazolidine-5-carboxylic acid ester.
THF (13.5 ml) and DMF (1.5 ml) are cooled to -35°C and degased by alternating reduced pressure and nitrogen three times. Thiophenol (0.22 ml, 2.14 mmol) is added followed by potassium butoxide/THF (1.978 M, 0.7 ml, 1.38 mmol). After 5 min, 7-SDMS baccatin III 13-(2R,4S,5R)- and (2S,4S,5R)-2,4-diphenyl-3-(4-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)-1,3-oxazolidine-5carboxylic acid ester (877 mg, 0.762 mmol) is added. After the solids are added, the reaction mixture is slowly warmed to -10°C. The mixture is stirred at -10°C until the red color fades to yellow. After 3 h the bath is dropped allowing the mixture to warm to 20-25°C. At 20°-25°C the reaction is stirred for 1 h before assaying by TLC and HPLC. Sodium bisulfite (241 mg, 2.31 mmol) is added in water (5 ml). The mixture is stirred at 20°-25°C and after approximately 115 h the reaction is complete (by TLC) giving the free amine 7-SDMS Sodium bicarbonate (485 mg, 5.77 mmol) and water (10 ml) are added to 7SDMS baccatin III 13-(2R,3S)-3-amino-3-phenyl-2-hydroxypropionate. The mixture is cooled to 0°C and then benzoyl chloride (150 ml, 1.3 mmol) is added. After 1 hr the reaction is complete and the reaction mixture is diluted with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and washed with water, saline and dried over magnesium sulfate. Chromatography of the crude product (silica gel column; 20% to 100% ethyl acetate gives the 7-SDMS baccatin III 13-(2R,3S)-3-benzamido-3-phenyl-2hydroxypropionate. 7-SDMS Baccatin III 13-(2R,3S)-3-benzamido-3-phenyl-2-hydroxypropionate (126 mg, 0.128 mmol) is dissolved in acetonitrile (2.5 ml). Triethylamine trihydrofluoride (123 mg, 0.763 mmol) is added under nitrogen and the resulting mixture is stirred at 5°C until complete by HPLC. When complete, the mixture is extracted with methyl t-butylether and washed with sodium bicarbonate solution. The aquesous washes are back extracted and combined with the organic phase. The combined organic phases are washed with water and saline, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the Taxol (Paclitaxel), as needle from methanol with melting point 213-216°C.

III 13-(2R,3S)-3-amino-3-phenyl-2-hydroxypropionate
8.16 Brand name
Abraxane (Abraxis); Taxol (Bristol-Myers Squibb).
8.17 Therapeutic Function
8.18 General Description
Needles (from aqueous methanol) or fine white powder. An anti-cancer drug.
8.19 General Description
Paclitaxel is available in single-dose vials of 30 mg/5 mLand 100 mg/16.7 mL for IV administration in the treatmentof breast, ovarian, NSCLC, and AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.Other uses have included treatment of head, neck,esophageal, cervical, prostate, and bladder cancers.
Paclitaxel is highly plasma protein bound (>90%) anddoes not penetrate the CNS. Metabolism involves CYPmediatedoxidation to give 6 -hydroxypaclitaxel (CYP2C8)and para hydroxylation of the phenyl group attached to the3'-position (CYP3A4). The 6α-hydroxy metabolite normallypredominates, but the para hydroxy metabolite mayoccur to a greater degree in those patients with liver diseaseor when CYP3A4 has been induced. Both metabolites areless active than the parent and do not undergo phase II conjugationreactions. Elimination occurs primarily in the feces,and the elimination half-life is 9 to 50 hours depending onthe infusion period.
The major toxicity seen with paclitaxel is a dose-limitingmyelosuppression that normally presents as neutropenia. Thepreviously mentioned hypersensitivity reactions occur but aregreatly reduced by antihistamine pretreatment. Interactionwith the axonal microtubules such as that seen for the vincasalso occurs and leads to numbness and paresthesias (abnormaltouch sensations including burning and prickling). Theagent is also available as an albumin-bound formulation(Abraxane) to eliminate the need for the solubilizing agentsassociated with the hypersensitivity reactions. Other adverseeffects include bradycardia, which may progress to heartblock, alopecia, mucositis, and/or diarrhea. Paclitaxel producesmoderate nausea and vomiting that is short-lived.
8.20 Air & Water Reactions
May be sensitive to prolonged exposure to moisture. .
8.21 Health Hazard
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
8.22 Fire Hazard
Flash point data for Paclitaxel are not available. Paclitaxel is probably combustible.
8.23 Biological Activity
Antitumor agent; promotes and stabilizes tubulin polymerization, causing cell cycle arrest. Induces autocatalytic activation of caspase-10 in CCRF-HSB-2 cells, triggering apoptosis.
8.24 Biochem/physiol Actions
Product does not compete with ATP.
8.25 Mechanism of action
Paclitaxel’s large volume of distribution indicates significant tissue binding. The drug is extensively metabolized by the liver, and doses must be reduced in patients with abnormal liver function or with extensive liver metastases.Very little of the drug is excreted in the urine.
8.26 Pharmacology
Paclitaxel is mainly used for the treatment of ovarian cancer and breast cancer. The mechanism of it includes:
1. The effects on cell microtubules/tubulin: Inhibition of microtubule depolymerization results in abnormal micro tube bundle arrangement and makes the spindle lose normal function and then induces cell death.
2. In the absence of bird triphosphate (GTP) and microtubule associated protein (MAP), it induces cells to form microtubule lack of function.
3. It significantly sensitized cancer cells to radiotherapy through blocking the cell cycle in the stage of G2 and M .
Paclitaxel is mainly metabolized through the liver and enters into the intestine with bile and then eliminated from the body by the feces (90%).
8.27 Clinical Use
Paclitaxel is among the most active of all anticancer drugs, with significant efficacy against carcinomas of the breast, ovary, lung, head, and neck. It is combined with cisplatin in the therapy of ovarian and lung carcinomas and with doxorubicin in treating breast cancer.
8.28 Anticancer Research
It is isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia generally known as pacific yew. It isprimarily used in ovarian, small, and non-small cell lung cancers and advancedbreast cancer (Shoeb 2006). It binds to tubulin but neither depolymerizes it nor interferes with its assembly (Balunas and Kinghorn 2005). Taxol targets activatorprotein 1 signaling pathways (Singh et al. 2016b).
8.29 Anticancer Research
Paclitaxel (commercial name, Taxol) a complex diterpene alkaloid isnaturally obtained from Taxus species (family Taxaceae). Paclitaxel has been provedas highly effective in the treatment of various types of cancers, since it acts as amicrotubule-stabilizing agent to protect against disassembly. Paclitaxel was developed by the National Cancer Institute, USA, as a drug for cancer therapy andused for the treatment of refractory ovarian cancer, metastatic breast and lung cancer,and Kaposi’s sarcoma (Srivastava et al. 2005). The natural source of paclitaxelis the bark of several Taxus species; however, the cost of extraction is very highsince the concentration of paclitaxel accumulation is very low (0.02% of dry weight)and also entails the destruction of natural resources (Cusido et al. 2014). Eventhough, paclitaxel can be chemically synthesized, but this process is not commerciallyviable. Plant cell cultures have been developed for the production of paclitaxelby Phyton Biotech in 1995, and in 2004 the FDA has approved the use of plantculture supply of paclitaxel/Taxol (Leone and Roberts 2013).
8.30 Side effects
Myelosuppression is the major side effect of paclitaxel. Alopecia is common, as is reversible dose-related peripheral neuropathy. Most patients have mild numbness and tingling of the fingers and toes beginning a few days after treatment. Mild muscle and joint aching also may begin 2 or 3 days after initiation of therapy. Nausea is usually mild or absent. Severe hypersensitivity reactions may occur. Cardiovascular side effects, consisting of mild hypotension and bradycardia, have been noted in up to 25% of patients.
8.31 Metabolism
The major use-limiting adverse effect of paclitaxel is dose-dependent myelosuppression, particularly neutropenia, and first doses may need to be decreased in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Subsequent dose reductions, if any, should be tailored to individual response. The drug should not be given to patients who have baseline neutrophil counts below 1,500 cells/mm3. The albumin-bound formulation also is associated with sensory neuropathy.
8.32 References
Wani et al.,J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 93,2325 (1971)
9. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 858.949g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: C47H51NO14
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: null
  • Exact Mass: 853.33095530
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 853.33095530
  • Complexity: 1790
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 14
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 4
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 14
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 221
  • Heavy Atom Count: 62
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 11
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
10. Question & Answer
  • Paclitaxel is a drug originally found in the bark of the Pacific Yew Tree. It binds to tubulin and thereby interferes with microtubules and their many functions, including in mitotic spindles. A lot of cell functions depend on functioning microtubules so cells die soon after exposure. For further i...
  • Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent marketed under the brand name Taxol among others. Used as a treatment for various cancers, paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor that was first isolated in 1971 from the bark of the Pacific yew tree which contains endophytic fungi that synthesize paclitaxel. It is...
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