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Palladium structure
Palladium structure

Palladium

Iupac Name:palladium
CAS No.:7440-05-3
Molecular Weight:106.42
Introduction: Palladium was discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston during refining and purification of- platinum metal. This new metal was found in the aqua regia extract of native platinum and was detected in solution after platinum was precipitated. It was removed as ammonium chloroplatinate. Treating this solution with mercurous cyanide precipitated a yellow palladium complex salt. The precipitate was washed and ignited to form palladium metal. Wollaston named the element palladium after the newly discovered asteroid Pallas.Palladium in nature is always associated with other platinum group metals. Its abundance in earth's crust is estimated at 0.015 mg/kg, about three times more abundant than platinum. Palladium is used mostly in alloys and the majority of its alloys are used for electronics and telecommunications. They are contacts in electrical relays and automatic switching gear. Palladium-gold alloys are applied widely in dentistry and medicine. They are in devices for replacement of damaged bones and joints and as support in porcelain-overlay bridgework. Palladium alloys are used in decoration and jewelry as a substitute for gold. They are used in gems, watch cases and brooches.One of the most important applications of palladium is to catalyze hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, and petroleum cracking. Such reactions are widely employed in organic syntheses and petroleum refining. Palladium and platinum are installed in catalytic converters in automobiles to cut down the emission of unsaturated hydrocarbon gasses. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Palladium
1.2 Synonyms

EINECS 231-115-6 ESCAT 1351 ESCAT 1371 ESCAT 1391 MFCD03427452 Paladium PALLADIUM SILVER ALLOY POWDER -2.5 MICRON SPHERICAL Palladium2 PALLIDIUM Pd

1.3 CAS No.
7440-05-3
1.4 CID
23938
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
231-115-6
1.6 Inchi
InChI=1S/Pd
1.7 InChkey
KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.8 Canonical Smiles
[Pd]
1.9 Isomers Smiles
[Pd]
2. Properties
3.1 Density
1.025 g/mL at 25 °C
3.1 Melting point
1555℃
3.1 Boiling point
3167℃
3.1 Vapour pressure
3.47 Pa (0.0260 mm Hg) at 1552 °C
3.1 Precise Quality
105.903481
3.1 PSA
0.00000
3.1 logP
0.00000
3.1 Appearance
wire
3.2 Chemical Properties
Palladium, a transition element belonging to group III in the periodic table (nickel group) and light platinum metals, is a medium-hard, moderately forgeable, and ductile silverwhite metal. Soluble in aqua regia, hot nitric acid, sulfuric acid, slightly soluble in hydrochloric acid, insoluble in cold water and hot water. In its compounds, palladium usually assumes oxidation state +2 and +4, forming bivalent and tetravalent salts.
3.3 Color/Form
Silver-gray
3.4 Decomposition
No decomposition. /from table/
3.5 Flammability and Explosibility
Palladium on carbon catalysts containing adsorbed hydrogen are pyrophoric,particularly when dry and at elevated temperatures. Palladium on carbon catalystsprepared by formaldehyde reduction are less pyrophoric than those reduced withhydrogen. Finely divided carbon, like most materials in powder form, is capable ofcreating a dust explosion.
3.6 Odor
Odorless
3.7 Water Solubility
INSOLUBLE
3.8 Stability
Stable. Flammable - fine powder may cause fire or explosion in air. Incompatible with ozone, sodium tetrahydroborate, sulphur, arsenic.
3.9 StorageTemp
no restrictions.
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 History
Discovered in 1803 by Wollaston.Palladium is found along with platinum and other metalsof the platinum group in deposits of Russia, South Africa,Canada (Ontario), and elsewhere. Natural palladium containssix stable isotopes. Twenty-nine other isotopes are recognized,all of which are radioactive. It is frequently found associatedwith the nickel-copper deposits such as those foundin Ontario. Its separation from the platinum metals dependsupon the type of ore in which it is found. It is a steel-whitemetal, does not tarnish in air, and is the least dense and lowestmelting of the platinum group of metals. When annealed, itis soft and ductile; cold working greatly increases its strengthand hardness. Palladium is attacked by nitric and sulfuric acid.At room temperatures the metal has the unusual property ofabsorbing up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen, possiblyforming Pd2H. It is not yet clear if this a true compound.Hydrogen readily diffuses through heated palladium and thisprovides a means of purifying the gas. Finely divided palladiumis a good catalyst and is used for hydrogenation anddehydrogenation reactions. It is alloyed and used in jewelrytrades. White gold is an alloy of gold decolorized by the additionof palladium. Like gold, palladium can be beaten into leafas thin as 1/250,000 in. The metal is used in dentistry, watchmaking,and in making surgical instruments and electricalcontacts. Palladium recently has been substituted for higherpriced platinum in catalytic converters by some automobilecompanies. This has caused a large increase in the cost of palladium.The prices of the two metals are now, in 2002, aboutthe same. Palladium, however, is less resistant to poisoning by sulfur and lead than platinum, but it may prove useful incontrolling emissions from diesel vehicles. The metal sells forabout $350/tr. oz. ($11/g).
4.2 Produe Method
Palladium and platinum have been used since 1974 ascatalyst to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inautomobile engines and in hydrocarbon conversion. This useof palladium results in palladium being emitted as solidparticles with automotive exhaust gases.
4.3 Storage
Inparticular, palladium on carbon should always be handled under an inert atmosphere(preferably argon), and reaction vessels should be flushed with inert gas before thecatalyst is added. Dry catalyst should never be added to an organic solvent in thepresence of air. Palladium on carbon recovered from catalytic hydrogenationreactions by filtration requires careful handling because it is usually saturated withhydrogen and will ignite spontaneously on exposure to air. The filter cake shouldnever be allowed to dry, and the moist material should be added to a large quantityof water and disposed of properly.
4.4 Usage
Palladium is a soft white metal found in copper and nickel ores. The chloride compound of this element was used after the turn of the century for printing and also in combination with platinum for printing.Palladium is a transition metal element used in catalytic reactions involving processes such as hydrogenation. Lindlar Catalyst.In form of gold, silver, and copper alloys in dentistry; for alloy bearings, springs, balance wheels of watches; for mirrors in astronomical instruments; as catalyzer in manufacture of sulfuric acid and in other oxidizing processes; in powder form as catalyst in hydrogenation and in ignition of hydrogen or hydrocarbons with oxygen; the spongy form is used in gas analysis for separating hydrogen from mixtures of gases.
4.5 Waste Disposal
Excess palladium on carbon and waste material containing this substance should be covered in water,placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's wastedisposal guidelines. Palladium Preparation Products And Raw materials Preparation Products
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Symbol
GHS02;GHS07;
5.1 Hazard Codes
Xn
5.1 Signal Word
DANGER
5.1 Risk Statements
R61
5.1 Safety Statements
S24/25
5.1 Packing Group
III
5.1 Hazard Class
4.1
5.1 Hazard Declaration
H228; H315; H319; H335
5.1 RIDADR
UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
5.1 Caution Statement
P210; P261; P305 + P351 + P338
5.1 Incompatibilities
Catalysts prepared on high surface area supports are highly active and readily causeignition of hydrogen/air and solvent/air mixtures. Methanol is notable for easyignition because of its high volatility. Addition of catalyst to a tetrahydroboratesolution may cause ignition of liberated hydrogen.
5.2 WGK Germany
-
5.2 RTECS
RT3480500
5.2 Safety
May be a skin sensitizer. This metal in the form of palladium chloride has been administered orally in dosage of about 1 grain daily without apparent ill effects in the treatment of tuberculosis. In the laboratory, palladium appears to bind to many cell components; blocks the action of a number of enzymes and interferes with the use of energy by nerves and muscles; induces lung malfunction and produces abnormal fetuses. Lethal intravenous doses cause appetite loss, hemolysis, renal deposition, and bone marrow damage. Poorly absorbed by the body when ingested. Palladium dust can be a fire and explosion hazard. Combustible in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive reaction with hydrogen + hydrogen peroxide. Reaction with formic acid or sodium tetrahydroborate releases explosive hydrogen gas. Violent reaction with isopropyl alcohol, OF2S. Under the proper conditions it undergoes hazardous reactions with aluminum, arsenic, carbon, methanol, ozonides, sulfur.
5.3 Specification

The Palladium, with the cas registry number 7440-05-3, is a kind of silvery white metal. This chemical is soluble in aqua regia, nitric acid, sulfuric acid while slight soluble in muriatic acid and insoluble in cold and hot water. Besides, it is stable chemically while incompatible with ozone, sodium tetrahydroborate, sulphur, arsenic.

The product categories are various, including Inorganics; Heterogeneous Catalysts; Catalysts for Organic Synthesis; Classes of Metal Compounds; Pd (Palladium) Compounds; Synthetic Organic Chemistry; Transition Metal Compounds; Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry; Heterogeneous Pd Catalysts; PalladiumCatalysis and Inorganic Chemistry; Pd Metal; Electrode MaterialsMetal and Ceramic Science; Organic Electronics and Photonics; Substrates and Electrode Materials; Metal and Ceramic Science; Metals; Palladium; 46: Pd; Nanoparticles: Metals and Metal AlloysCatalysis and Inorganic Chemistry; Pd MetalNanomaterials.

The physical properties of this chemical are below: (1)#H bond acceptors: 0; (2)#H bond donors: 0; (3)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 0; (4)Polar Surface Area: 0; (5)Exact Mass: 105.903483; (6)MonoIsotopic Mass: 105.903483; (7)Heavy Atom Count: 1; (8)Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1.

The production method of this chemical is below: Prepare the residue of drawing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) and then add aqua regia to extract, filter; Next add ammonia and muriatic acid into the filter liquor to have the reaction and then have the ammonium chloropalladate sediment; Then have the refining and filtering and then restore the ammonium chloropalladate with hydrogen, and finally you could get the 99.95% palladium products.

As to its usage, it is widely applied in many ways. It could be used in the industry of electric instrument, chemical industry and precision alloy; It could also be used in producing catalytic agent like asbestos, undercurrent adherent point, printed circuit, dental materials and surgical instrument.

When you are using this chemical, you should be very cautious. For one thing, it is irritant to eyes, respiratory system and skin and may cause inflammation to the skin or other mucous membranes. And it may even have risk of serious damage to the eyes. For another thing, it is toxic which may at low levels cause damage to health. This chemical may cause harm to the unborn child, and with the danger of cumulative effects, it will have limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. In addition, it is highly flammable which may catch fire in contact with air, only needing brief contact with an ignition source. And it has a very low flash point or evolve highly flammable gases in contact with water.?

Due to so many dangers, you could take the different measures to deal with different cases. Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection and avoid contacting with skin and eyes . If in case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Then avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use and remember not to breathe dust.

Additionally, you could convert the following datas into the molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: [Pd]
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/Pd
(3)InChIKey: KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N?

5.4 Toxicity
LD50 oral (rat) 200 mg/kg (palladium chloride)LC50 intratracheal (rat) 6 mg/kg (palladium chloride)
5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Not classified.

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s) No symbol.
Signal word

No signal word.

Hazard statement(s)

none

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

none

Response

none

Storage

none

Disposal

none

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

8. Other Information
8.0 Merck
14,6989
8.1 Description
Palladium was discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston during refining and purification of- platinum metal. This new metal was found in the aqua regia extract of native platinum and was detected in solution after platinum was precipitated. It was removed as ammonium chloroplatinate. Treating this solution with mercurous cyanide precipitated a yellow palladium complex salt. The precipitate was washed and ignited to form palladium metal. Wollaston named the element palladium after the newly discovered asteroid Pallas.
Palladium in nature is always associated with other platinum group metals. Its abundance in earth's crust is estimated at 0.015 mg/kg, about three times more abundant than platinum. Palladium is used mostly in alloys and the majority of its alloys are used for electronics and telecommunications. They are contacts in electrical relays and automatic switching gear. Palladium-gold alloys are applied widely in dentistry and medicine. They are in devices for replacement of damaged bones and joints and as support in porcelain-overlay bridgework. Palladium alloys are used in decoration and jewelry as a substitute for gold. They are used in gems, watch cases and brooches.
One of the most important applications of palladium is to catalyze hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, and petroleum cracking. Such reactions are widely employed in organic syntheses and petroleum refining. Palladium and platinum are installed in catalytic converters in automobiles to cut down the emission of unsaturated hydrocarbon gasses.
8.2 Chemical Properties
Palladium, a transition element belonging to group III in the periodic table (nickel group) and light platinum metals, is a medium-hard, moderately forgeable, and ductile silverwhite metal.  Soluble in aqua regia, hot nitric acid, sulfuric acid, slightly soluble in hydrochloric acid, insoluble in cold water and hot water. In its compounds, palladium usually assumes oxidation state +2 and +4, forming bivalent and tetravalent salts.
Palladium
Palladium occurs in the form of six isotopes: 102Pd (1.0%), 104Pd (11%), 105Pd (22.2%), 106Pd (27.3%), 108Pd (26.7%), and 110Pd (11.8%). Insignificant quantities of palladium can be found in the lithosphere in the form of native palladium and allopalladium, PdPt and PdAu alloys, and as a contaminant of silver and nickel ores. Red heating of palladium results in a volatile palladium oxide, PdO2. At elevated temperatures, palladium can react with fluorine or chlorine to form palladium dihalides. It also reacts with sulfuric and nitric acids and slightly with hydrochloric acid. When palladium is heated in the presence of sulfur or phosphorus, palladium sulfides or phosphides are formed, respectively.
A characteristic feature of palladium is its high hydrogen absorption, which allows for its use in the form of palladium sponge or palladium black as a catalyst in reduction processes. Contrary to other platinum metals, palladium is considerably less resistant to chemicals. At elevated temperatures, palladium reacts with oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, sulfur, and selenium. Palladium dust may constitute fire and explosion hazards. Palladium compounds show different water solubility. Palladium is soluble only in nitric and sulfuric acids, as well as in aqua regia; its compounds such as PdCl2, K2(PdCl4), and (NH3)2PdCl2 are soluble in water.
8.3 Physical properties
Palladium is the middle element in group 10 of the transition elements (periods 4, 5, and6). Many of its properties are similar to nickel located above it and platinum just below it inthis group.
Palladium is a soft, silvery-white metal whose chemical and physical properties closelyresemble platinum. It is mostly found with deposits of other metals. It is malleable and ductile,which means it can be worked into thin sheets and drawn through a die to form very thinwires. It does not corrode. Its melting point is 1,554°C, its boiling point is 3,140°C, and itsdensity is 12.02 g/cm3.
8.4 Isotopes
There are 42 isotopes of palladium, ranging from Pd-91 to Pd-124. All but sixare radioactive and artificially produced in nuclear reactors with half-lives ranging from159 nanoseconds to 6.5×10+6 years. The six stable isotopes of palladium and theirproportional contribution to their existence in the Earth’s crust are as follows: Pd-102 =1.02%, Pd-104 = 11.14%, Pd-105 = 22.23%, Pd-106 = 27.33%, Pd-108 = 26.46%,and Pd-110 = 11.72%.
8.5 Origin of Name
Palladium is named after the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered at about the same time as the element. Pallas is the name of two mythological Greek figures, one male and the other female.
8.6 Occurrence
Palladium is considered a rare metal, making up only about 1 part per 100 million partsof the Earth’s crust. It is considered the 77th most abundant element on Earth, although it is seldom found in pure states. Rather, it is mixed with other metals or in compounds of palladium.
It was originally found in gold ores from Brazil, where the miners thought the gold wascontaminated by what they referred to as “white gold.” Later, it was considered an alloy combinationof palladium and gold.
Deposits of ores containing palladium, as well as other metals, are found in Siberia and theUral Mountains of Russia, Canada, and South Africa, as well as in South America.
8.7 Characteristics
One of palladium’s unique characteristics is its ability to absorb 900 times its own volumeof hydrogen gas. When the surface of the pure metal is exposed to hydrogen gas (H2), the gasmolecules break into atomic hydrogen. These hydrogen atoms then seep into the holes in thecrystal structure of the metal. The result is a metallic hydride (PdH0.5) that changes palladiumfrom an electrical conductor to a semiconductor. The compound palladium dichloride (PdCl2)also has the ability to absorb large quantities of carbon monoxide (CO). These characteristicsare useful for many commercial applications. Palladium is the most reactive of all the platinumfamily of elements (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Is, and Pt.)
8.8 History
Discovered in 1803 by Wollaston. Palladium is found along with platinum and other metals of the platinum group in deposits of Russia, South Africa, Canada (Ontario), and elsewhere. Natural palladium contains six stable isotopes. Twenty-nine other isotopes are recognized, all of which are radioactive. It is frequently found associated with the nickel-copper deposits such as those found in Ontario. Its separation from the platinum metals depends upon the type of ore in which it is found. It is a steel-white metal, does not tarnish in air, and is the least dense and lowest melting of the platinum group of metals. When annealed, it is soft and ductile; cold working greatly increases its strength and hardness. Palladium is attacked by nitric and sulfuric acid. At room temperatures the metal has the unusual property of absorbing up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen, possibly forming Pd2H. It is not yet clear if this a true compound. Hydrogen readily diffuses through heated palladium and this provides a means of purifying the gas. Finely divided palladium is a good catalyst and is used for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. It is alloyed and used in jewelry trades. White gold is an alloy of gold decolorized by the addition of palladium. Like gold, palladium can be beaten into leaf as thin as 1/250,000 in. The metal is used in dentistry, watchmaking, and in making surgical instruments and electrical contacts. Palladium recently has been substituted for higher priced platinum in catalytic converters by some automobile companies. This has caused a large increase in the cost of palladium. The prices of the two metals are now, in 2002, about the same. Palladium, however, is less resistant to poisoning by sulfur and lead than platinum, but it may prove useful in controlling emissions from diesel vehicles. The metal sells for about $350/tr. oz. ($11/g).
8.9 Uses
Palladium is a soft white metal found in copper and nickel ores. The chloride compound of this element was used after the turn of the century for printing and also in combination with platinum for printing.
Palladium is a transition metal element used in catalytic reactions involving processes such as hydrogenation. Lindlar Catalyst.
In form of gold, silver, and copper alloys in dentistry; for alloy bearings, springs, balance wheels of watches; for mirrors in astronomical instruments; as catalyzer in manufacture of sulfuric acid and in other oxidizing processes; in powder form as catalyst in hydrogenation and in ignition of hydrogen or hydrocarbons with oxygen; the spongy form is used in gas analysis for separating hydrogen from mixtures of gases.
8.10 Uses
Palladium’s ability to absorb large amounts of hydrogen makes it an excellent catalyst forchemical reactions as well as catalytic converters for internal combustion engines. Palladiumis also an excellent catalyst for cracking petroleum fractions and for hydrogenation of liquidvegetable oils into solid forms, such as corn oil into margarine. It is also used to purifyhydrogen gas by passing raw H2 gas under pressure through thin sheets of palladium, wherethe pure hydrogen passes through the metal’s crystal structure, leaving behind impurities.Palladium is used to manufacture CO-monitoring devices because of its ability to absorbcarbon monoxide.
Palladium is used in the manufacture of surgical instruments, electrical contacts, springs forwatches and clocks, high-quality spark plugs, and special wires and as “white gold” in jewelry.Because it is noncorrosive, it is used as a coating for other metals and to make dental fillingsand crowns.
8.11 Uses
Demand for palladium is high for its use in electrical equipment in its metal and paste forms, dentalmaterials in its alloy form, as a composite in implantable medical devices and automobile catalysts owing to its strong catalytic activity for hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, oxidation, and hydrogenolysis reactions.
8.12 Production Methods
Palladium and platinum have been used since 1974 as catalyst to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide in automobile engines and in hydrocarbon conversion. This use of palladium results in palladium being emitted as solid particles with automotive exhaust gases.
8.13 Application
Palladium is used in the preparation of Palladium catalysts. Palladium based nanomaterials can also be applied in cancer diagnosis and therapy.
8.14 Definition
palladium: Symbol Pd. A soft whiteductile transition element (see alsoplatinum metals); a.n. 46; r.a.m.106.4; r.d. 12.02; m.p. 1552°C; b.p.3140±1°C. It occurs in some copperand nickel ores and is used in jewelleryand as a catalyst for hydrogenationreactions. Chemically, itdoes not react with oxygen at normaltemperatures. It dissolves slowly inhydrochloric acid. Palladium is capableof occluding 900 times its ownvolume of hydrogen. It forms fewsimple salts, most compounds beingcomplexes of palladium(II) with somepalladium(IV). It was discovered byWilliam Woolaston (1766–1828) in1803.
8.15 Preparation
It can be made from the ore with dry process in Industrial production; can also copper, nickel sulfide ore preparation of copper, nickel production process as a by-product as raw materials, made by wet smelting. It can also be obtained from the wet process with the byproduct of copper, nickel production from the copper sulfide ore or nickel sulfide ore.
The wet method is using the residue of extracted nickel and copper as raw materials, adding aqua for extraction, filtration, adding ammonia and hydrochloric acid to react, thus forming the precipitation of ammonium chloropalladate. After refining, filtration, reduction of ammonium chloropalladate with hydrogen 99.95% finished product of palladium can be obtained.
8.16 Definition
ChEBI: Chemical element (nickel group element atom) with atomic number 46.
8.17 Reactions
Among the platinum group metals, palladium is the least noble metal, exhibiting greater reactivity than other metals of the group. The metal forms mostly bivalent compounds, although a small number of tetravalent and a fewer trivalent compounds are known. Palladium exhibits a strong tendency to form complexes, most of which are four-coordinated square planar complexes of the metal in +2 oxidation state. When heated in air or oxygen above 350°C, palladium forms a black oxide, PdO coated over its surface. On further heating to over 790°C, the oxide decomposes back to the metal. Palladium dissolves more oxygen in molten state than in solid form.
Palladium reacts with fluorine and chlorine at 500°C forming its halides, the black PdF3 and the red deliquescent solid PdCl2.
Palladium is attacked by concentrated nitric acid, particularly in the presence of nitrogen oxides. The reaction is slow in dilute nitric acid. Finely divided palladium metal reacts with warm nitric acid forming palladium(II) nitrate, Pd(NO3)2. Hydrochloric acid has no affect on the metal. Reaction with boiling sulfuric acid yields palladium sulfate, PdSO4, and sulfur dioxide.
Palladium readily dissolves in aqua regia forming chloropalladic acid, H2PdCl6. Evaporation of this solution yields palladium(II) chloride, PdCl2.
Palladium absorbs hydrogen over 800 times its own volume over a range of temperature. By doing so, the metal swells, becoming brittle and cracked. Such absorption of hydrogen decreases the electrical conductivity of the metal. Also, such absorption activates molecular hydrogen, dissociating it to atomic hydrogen.
8.18 General Description
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8.19 Usage
Palladium is used as a catalyst in the Suzuki reaction, hydrogenation reactions, deoxygenation, oxidation reactions, coupling reactions and Stille reaction. It is also used in jewelry, dentistry, watch making, blood sugar test strips, aircraft spark plugs, in the production of surgical instruments and electrical contacts and to make professional transverse flutes.
8.20 Usage
It is a catalyst used in Stille reaction, hydrogenation reactions, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and Heck-Mizoroki reactions, deoxygenation, oxidation reactions and coupling reactions.
8.21 Usage
Palladium is used to debenzylation, C-N and C-O cleavage, alkene hydrogenation. And it is used as a catalyst for hydrogenation of alkenes, ketones, nitriles, azides, nitro groups. Used to hydrogenolysis of cyclopropanes, benzyl derivatives, halids.
8.22 Usage
It is used as pharmaceutical intermediate. Benzoylthiophenes are allosteric enhancers (AE) of agonist activity at the A1 adenosine receptor.
8.23 Usage
Palladium is used as catalysis. Palladium-on-carbon has also been used as the palladium(0) catalyst in the Suzuki reaction and Stille reaction. It is also used in jewelry, dentistry, watch making, blood sugar test strips, aircraft spark plugs and in the production of surgical instruments and electrical contacts. It is also used to make professional transverse flutes.
8.24 Usage
Palladium, 5% on activated carbon paste is involved in Debenzylation.
8.25 Usage
It is used as a catalyst in hydrogenation reactions. Further it finds use in the manufacture of paints, adhesives, fibers and coatings.
8.26 Usage
Evaporation source, hydrogen getter, jewelry production, electrical contacts for semiconductorsPalladium slug finds application in jewelry production and in electrical contacts for semiconductors. It is also used as a hydrogen getter.
8.27 Usage
Palladium sputtering target is used for standard scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coating. It is utilized to cover as specimen with a thin layer of conducting material viz. palladium. It is needed to prevent charging of specimen with an electron beam in conventional SEM mode as well as to increase signal to noise ratio.
8.28 Usage
Microelectronics, contacts
9. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:106.42g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:Pd
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:
  • Exact Mass:105.90348
  • Monoisotopic Mass:105.90348
  • Complexity:0
  • Rotatable Bond Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:0
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:0
  • Heavy Atom Count:1
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
10. Question & Answer
  • Palladium is easy to come by. You just have to be willing to pay the price. Available in 1 oz bars and other standard sizes.
  • It depends to some extent on the reaction, but in general the answer is yes. The Pd/C catalyst used to hydrogenate unsaturated oils in the manufacture of margarine are used for many batched. (When you filter off a heterogeneous hydrogen catalyst that had been exposed to H2, it is important to prote...
  • I think you might be a bit confused; Palladium (Symbol Pd, element # 46) and Platinum (Pt, element # 78) are elements on the Periodic Table, both silvery metals, but neither is organic in the chemical sense (that being molecules with carbon chains bonded to molecules like O and H). They do occur in...
  • Everything Dies™. (Please don’t sue me.) First off, all life on earth is carbon based. All life would become palladium based, at which point it would stop being life. However, that isn’t everything. Carbon is not exclusive to earth. In large stars across the universe, carbon fusion would stop, th...
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