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Home> Encyclopedia >   /  Pharmaceutical Intermediates  /  Organic Intermediate  /  Alcohol & Hydroxybenzene & Ether
Phenol structure
Phenol structure

Phenol

Iupac Name:phenol
CAS No.: 108-95-2
Molecular Weight:94.11124
Modify Date.: 2022-11-08 17:07
Introduction: Phenol is a stable chemical substance and appear as colourless/white crystals with acharacteristic, distinct aromatic/acrid odour. It is reactive and incompatible with strongoxidising agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. Phenol isflammable and may discolour in light.Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertiliser, coke, illuminatinggas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, woodpreservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is alsoextensively used as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye,and agricultural industries. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Phenol
1.2 Synonyms

hydroxybenzol LIQUEFIEDPHENOL,LIQUEFIED,USP PHENOL - CRYSTALLINE PURE DAB, PH. EUR., USP PHENOL USP PHENOL, LOOSE CRYSTALS A.C.S. REAGENT Phenol, water saturated, stabilized PHENOL,FUSEDCRYSTAL,BIOTECHGRADE PHENOL,FUSEDCRYSTAL,TECHNICAL

1.3 CAS No.
108-95-2
1.4 CID
996
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
203-632-7
1.6 Molecular Formula
C6H6O (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/C6H6O/c7-6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5,7H
1.8 InChkey
ISWSIDIOOBJBQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.9 Canonical Smiles
C1=CC=C(C=C1)O
1.10 Isomers Smiles
C1=CC=C(C=C1)O
2. Properties
2.1 Density
1.07
2.1 Melting point
40-42℃
2.1 Boiling point
182℃
2.1 Refractive index
1.5418
2.1 Flash Point
79℃
2.2 Precise Quality
94.04190
2.2 PSA
20.23000
2.2 logP
1.39220
2.2 Solubility
8 g/100 mL
2.3 Viscosity
3.437 mPa s @ 50 deg C; 1.784 mPa s @ 75 deg C; 1.099 mPa s @ 100 deg C
2.4 VaporDensity
3.24 (NTP, 1992) (Relative to Air)
2.5 Appearance
transparent crystalline solid
2.6 Atmospheric OH Rate Constant
2.63e-11 cm3/molecule*sec
2.7 Storage
Hygroscopic. Ambient temperatures.
2.8 Autoignition Temperature
1319 °F (USCG, 1999)
2.9 Carcinogenicity
Phenol had been investigated for carcinogenicity in animals by the oral and dermal routes. IARC and IRIS determined that animal human evidence for carcinogenicity was inadequate.
2.10 Chemical Properties
Phenol is commonly known as carbolic acid. The chemical properties of phenol are very active, and it turns to reddish crystals in the air or in contact with any impurities. It absorbs the moisture in the air and gradually liquefies in the air. Phenol is slightly soluble in water, soluble in benzene, alkaline solution and organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, chloroform, glycerol, etc. Phenol is weakly acidic and reacts with base to form salt. It appears blue when being dissolved in ferric chloride solution.
2.11 Physical Properties
Phenol is a colorless or white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water. Phenol is thesimplest of the large group of organic chemicals known as phenols, which consist of compoundswhere a carbon in the phenyl aromatic group (C6H5) is directly bonded to hydroxyl,OH.
2.12 Color/Form
Oil
2.13 Corrosivity
Caustic
2.14 Decomposition
When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
2.15 Flammability and Explosibility
Phenol is a combustible solid (NFPA rating = 2). When heated, phenol producesflammable vapors that are explosive at concentrations of 3 to 10% in air. Carbondioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires.
2.16 Heat of Combustion
3053.5 kJ/mol (solid)
2.17 Heat of Vaporization
57.82 kJ/mol @ 25 deg C
2.18 HenrysLawConstant
3.33e-07 atm-m3/mole
2.19 Ionization Potential
8.50 eV
2.20 Odor
Distinct aromatic, somewhat sickening sweet and acrid odor, discernable at 0.5 to 5 ppm
2.21 Odor Threshold
The phenol odor threshold of 19 people was measured and the lowest range of concentrations detected was 0.022-0.094 mg/cu m (0.006-0.024 ppm).
2.22 PH
about 6.0 (aq soln)
2.23 pKa
9.89(at 20℃)
2.24 Water Solubility
8 g/100 mL
2.25 Spectral Properties
Index of refraction: 1.5408 @ 41 deg C
MAX ABSORPTION (ALC): 276 NM SHOULDER (LOG E= 3.16), 218.5 NM (LOG E= 3.78), 266 NM SHOULDER (LOG E= 3.18), 271 NM (LOG E= 3.28)
MASS: 61583 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral Database, 1990 Version)
IR: 4815 (Coblentz Society spectral collection)
UV: 258 (Sadtler Research Laboratories spectral collection)
Raman: 650 (Sadtler Research Laboratories spectral collection)
H-1 NMR: 3152 (Sadtler Research Laboratories spectral collection)
C-13 NMR: 160 (Johnson and Jankowski, Carbon-13 NMR Spectra, John Wiley and Sons, New York)
2.26 Stability
Prone to redden on exposure to air and light, hastened by presence of alkalinity.
2.27 StorageTemp
2-8°C
2.28 Surface Tension
38.20 mN/m @ 50 deg C; 35.53 mN/m @ 75 deg C; 32.86 mN/m @ 100 deg C
3. Use and Manufacturing
3.1 Definition
ChEBI: An organic hydroxy compound that consists of benzene bearing a single hydroxy substituent. The parent of the class of phenols.
3.2 Potential Exposure
Phenol is used as a pharmaceutical, in the production of fertilizer; coke, illuminating gas; lampblack, paints, paint removers; rubber, asbestos goods; wood preservatives; synthetic resins; textiles, drugs, pharmaceutical preparations; perfumes, bakelite, and other plastics (phenolformaldehyde resins); polymer intermediates (caprolactam, bisphenol-A and adipic acid). Phenol also finds wide use as a disinfectant and veterinary drug.
3.3 Purification Methods
Steam is passed through a boiling solution containing 1mole of phenol and 1.5-2.0moles of NaOH in 5L of H2O until all non-acidic material has distilled. The residue is cooled, acidified with 20% (v/v) H2SO4, and the phenol is separated, dried with CaSO4 and fractionally distilled under reduced pressure. It is then fractionally crystallised several times from its melt [Andon et al. J Chem Soc 5246 1960]. Purification via the benzoate has been used by Berliner, Berliner and Nelidow [J Am Chem Soc 76 507 1954]. The benzoate,(m 70o, b 314o/760mm), is crystallised from 95% EtOH, then hydrolysed to the free phenol by refluxing with two equivalents of KOH in aqueous EtOH until the solution becomes homogeneous. It is acidified with HCl and extracted with diethyl ether. The ether layer is freed from benzoic acid by thorough extraction with aqueous NaHCO3, and, after drying and removing the ether, the phenol is distilled. Phenol has also been crystallised from a 75% w/w solution in water by cooling to 11o and seeding with a crystal of the hydrate. The crystals are centrifuged off, rinsed with cold water (0-2o), saturated with phenol, and dried. It can be crystallised from pet ether [Berasconi & Paschalis J Am Chem Soc 108 2969 1986]. Draper and Pollard [Science 109 448 1949] added 12% water, 0.1% aluminium (can also use zinc) and 0.05% NaHCO3 to phenol, and distilled it at atmospheric pressure until the azeotrope was removed, The phenol was then distilled at 25mm. Phenol has also been dried by distillation from the *benzene solution to remove the water/*benzene azeotrope and the excess *benzene, followed by distillation of the phenol at reduced pressure under nitrogen. Processes such as this are probably adequate for analytical grade phenol which has as its main impurity water. Phenol has also been crystallised from pet ether/*benzene or pet ether (b 40-60o). The purified material is stored in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5 or CaSO4. [Beilstein 6 IV 531.]
3.4 Shipping
UN1671 Phenol, solid, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2312 Molten phenol, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2821 Phenol solutions, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
3.5 Usage
Phenol is an important organic chemical raw material, widely used in the production of phenolic resin and bisphenol A, in which bisphenol A is important raw material for polycarbonate, epoxy resin, polysulfone resin and other plastics. In some cases the phenol is used to produce iso-octylphenol, isononylphenol, or isododecylphenol through addition reaction with long-chain olefins such as diisobutylene, tripropylene, tetra-polypropylene and the like, which are used in production of nonionic surfactants. In addition, it can also be used as an important raw material for caprolactam, adipic acid, dyes, medicines, pesticides and plastic additives and rubber auxiliaries.
4. Safety and Handling
4.1 Symbol
GHS05;GHS06;GHS08;GHS09;
4.1 Hazard Codes
T; C
4.1 Signal Word
DANGER
4.1 Risk Statements
R23/24/25;R34;R40;R48/20/21/22;R68
4.1 Safety Statements
S28;S36/37;S45
4.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Phenol is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
4.2 Packing Group
II
4.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
Log Kow = 1.46
4.3 Fire Hazard
Phenol is a combustible solid (NFPA rating = 2). When heated, phenol produces flammable vapors that are explosive at concentrations of 3 to 10% in air. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires.
4.4 Other Preventative Measures
Workmen should not be permitted to enter empty tank which has been filled with phenol until it has been thoroughly cleaned and ... air concn ... is below 5 ppm.
Areas in which people handle phenol should be equipped with /SRP: isopropyl/ alcohol solution cans and safety showers.
Contact lenses should not be worn while working with this chemical.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime. /Phenol, solid/
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Do not use water. /Phenol, molten/
Personal Protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material. /Phenol, solid/
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be contained with a flexible impermeable membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCo)3. /Phenol, solid/
Environmental considerations: Water spill: If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Phenol, solid/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. /Phenol, molten/
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment. /Phenol, solid/
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
Taste threshold: lower-0.0001 ppm, median-0.15 ppm.
4.5 Hazard Class
6.1
4.5 Hazard Declaration
H301 + H311 + H331; H314; H341; H373; H411
4.5 Cleanup Methods
Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal. Approach release from upwind.
Phenolic cmpd in wastewater are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by Fe+3-Fe+2. When the wt ratio of PhOH:H2O2 is 1:3 and iron 5-100 ppm, more than 95% of the phenols are removed in 30 min from a 500 ppm phenol soln at pH 5-6 and 25-50 deg C.
Spills must be disposed of immediately by properly protected personnel; no other person should remain in the area. Flush with flooding quantities of water, then use caustic soda soln for neutralization.
Remove all ignition sources and evacuate the area. Ventliate the area. Cover spilled solid phenol with dry lime or soda ash. Contain molten phenol with sand or earth and allow solidification. Absorb a phenol solution in earth or sand. Remove to a safe place to hold it for disposal. Prevent molten phenol or a solution of phenol from entering sewers, water courses, or soil. Ensure personal protection.
4.6 DisposalMethods
Incineration is the recommended method of disposal. Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner or scrubber.
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U188, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Waste liquor containing 50,000 ppm was adjusted to give effluent containing 1 ppm then treated with activated sludge to give final effluent containing 0.07 ppm, 10% of which was recycled to conditioning tank.
Chemical Treatability of Phenol; Concentration Process: Reverse Osmosis; Chemical Classification: Phenol; Scale of Study: Batch Flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Pure; Results of Study: -5.7% reduction w/CA membrane; 76.5% reduction w/C-PE1 membrane.
Chemical Treatability of Phenol; Concentration Process: Reverse Osmosis; Chemical Classification: Phenol; Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic; Results of Study: In excess of 90% separation at pH 8-10 with optimum at pH 9 at flux rate of about 70 gpd/sq ft. Results indicate that hyperfiltration (reverse osmosis) produced higher reduction and flux rates than ultrafiltration. Increasing pressure improves rejection with little effect on flux rate. Concentration had little effect on either rejection or flux rate.
Chemical Treatability of Phenol; Concentration Process: Biological Treatment; Chemical Classification: Phenol; Scale of Study: Pilot scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Ultrafiltration; Results of Study: Its maximum rejection was 75% at pH 10; rejection increased as pH increased. Ionic state of solute rather than membrane material controlled rejection rate. Increased temp resulted in increased flux rate but rejection rate was only slightly affected. Solute rejection was not affected by length of operation.
Chemical Treatability of Phenol; Concentration Process: Activated carbon; Chemical Classification: Phenol; Scale of Study: Batch Flow, Laboratory Scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Pure; Results of Study: 100% reduction; 6% desorbed from carbon by elutriation with solvent.
Chemical Treatability of Phenol; Concentration Process: Activated Carbon; Chemical Classification: Phenol; Scale of Study: Isotherm test; Type of Wastewater Used: Pure; Results of Study: For pH= 3.0 Carbon capacity= 85 mg/g K= 12, 1/n= 0.38, r= 0.92; pt for pH= 7.0 Carbon capacity= 80 mg/g, K= 13, 1/n= 0.77, r= 0.91, For pH= 9.0 carbon capacity= 70 mg/g, K= 22, 1/n= 0.49, r= 0.94.
Chemical Treatability of Phenol; Concentration Process: Activated Carbon; Chemical Classification: Phenol; Scale of Study: Continuous flow, Pilot Scale; Type of Wastewater Used: Hazardous material; Results of Study: 100% reduction with 8.5 min contact time.
A good candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids. A good candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and longer for solids.
The use of a microdispersion of air in water for in situ treatment of hazardous organic wastes was described. An air microdispersion consisting of 60 to 65% air bubbles, 25 to 50 microns in diameter, in water, referred to as colloidal gas aphrons, was tested for stability and its ability to biodegrade phenol. Seventy to 82% of the air incorporated into a colloidal gas aphrons using a nonionic detergent immediately adhered to a saturated coarse sand after sparging with a fork like probe. Thirty days later, 70 to 80% of initially retained colloidal gas aphrons were still retained in the saturated sand matrix as an air dispersion or as coalesced aphrons. In a biodegradation test, a combination of colloidal gas aphrons and Pseudomonas putida plus microbial nutrients injected into a saturated anaerobic sand matrix containing 300 mg/l phenol solution caused degradation of 60% of the phenol within 24 hr. A 33% colloidal gas aphrons blended with 0.3 g sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate when pumped into 310 g of sand saturated with 300 mg/l phenol caused 100% degradation of phenol after about 24 hr. In a phenol degradation/trough test, a 61% colloidal gas aphrons was injected into a soil bed containing 300 mg/l phenol at a flow rate of 250 ml/min with a slow plow of 75 sec per plow pass. Twenty passes were made at a 10 cm depth. The colloidal gas aphrons effectively treated 6.7 l of water causing a reduction in phenol concentration of 292 to 230 mg/l. Colloidal gas aphrons offers a unique way to introduce oxygen or ozone for treating dissolved, and possibly suspended, organic wastes in saturated impoundment sediments.
The most important method, equally applied by refineries and petrochemical plants, is the biodegradation of phenol (activated sludge basins, aeration ponds, trickling filters). With this a 65-99% degradation of phenol is attained. A further decrease (80-90%) of the phenol content is obtained by treatment with ozone or activated charcoal.
4.7 DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
/GUIDE 153: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Phenol, molten; Phenol, solid; Phenol solution/
4.8 RIDADR
UN 1671/2312/2821
4.8 Fire Fighting Procedures
If material on fire or involved in fire: Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Keep run off-water out of sewers and water sources. /Phenol, solid/
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water as flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources. /Phenol, molten/
To fight fire, use alcohol foam, carbon dioxide or dry chemical.
4.9 FirePotential
May be ignited by electrostatic discharge.
Phenol and its solutions are flammable.
4.10 Caution Statement
P201-P261-P280-P301 + P310 + P330-P303 + P361 + P353-P305 + P351 + P338
4.10 Formulations/Preparations
PHENOL, USP ... LIQUEFIED PHENOL, USP IS PHENOL MAINTAINED IN LIQ STATE BY PRESENCE OF 10% DISTILLED WATER. A NUMBER OF PREPN OF PHENOL IN WATER, OLIVE OIL, & GLYCERIN, AS WELL AS MIXT OF PHENOL & IODINE, & PHENOL & CAMPHOR, FORMERLY HAD OFFICIAL STATUS. PHENOLATED CALAMINE LOTION, USP CONTAINS 1% PHENOL.
MOST DERMATOLOGICAL & ANORECTAL PREPN INCORPORATE PHENOL IN A WAX OR PETROLATUM BASE, WHICH PREVENTS ACCESS TO BACTERIA; OTHERS HAVE TOO LOW A CONCN.
Grades: Fused, crystals or liquid, all as technical (82%, 90%, 95%, other components mostly cresols); CP & USP.
Phenol is supplied as pure phenol and as 90:10 phenol:water mixt.
ACS loose crystals, ACS double-distilled fused solid, 90% vacuum distilled grades. Ultrapure, crystalline, nucleic acid grades. USP crystal grade, 99.7%, liquified with 10% water.
The crystalline article of commerce contains at least 98% phenol.
4.11 Incompatibilities
Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. The aqueous solution is a weak acid. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, calcium hypochlorite; aluminum chloride. acids. Reacts with metals.
4.12 WGK Germany
2
4.12 RTECS
SJ3325000
4.12 Protective Equipment and Clothing
When working with phenol, workers should be provided with and required to use protective clothing, gloves, face shields, splash -proof safty goggles and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possibility of skin or eye contact with solid or liquid phenol or liquids containing phenol.
Cloropel, PVC (excellent resistance) or butyl rubber (good resistance) are recommended chemical suit materials for protection against phenol.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possbility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 50 ppm: (Assigned protection factor = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a dust and mist filter/(Assigned protection factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 125 ppm: (Assigned protection factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode/(Assigned protection factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a dust and mist filter.
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 250 ppm: (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a high-efficiency particulate filter/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister having a high-efficiency particulate filter/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s) in combination with a high-efficiency particulate filter/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece/(Assigned protection factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode/(Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister having a high-efficiency particulate filter/Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
4.13 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Addition of aluminum chloride to a large volume of recovered nitrobenzene containing 5% phenol caused a violent explosion. Experiment showed that mixtures containing all three components reacted violently at 120 deg C.
Uncontrolled contact of phenol with peroxodisulfuric acid may cause explosion.
/A combination of phenol with calcium hypochlorite/ ... is an exothermic reaction producing toxic fumes, which may ignite.
Mixtures of peroxymonosulfuric acid with phenol explode.
A mixture /of phenol with sodium nitrite/ exploded violently on heating in a test tube.
The combination of phenol with acetaldehyde results in violent condensation. /From table/
The combination of phenol with 1,3-butadiene and boron trifluoride diethyl ether complex results in an intense exothermic reaction. /From table/
The combination of phenol with mineral oxidizing acids results in fire. /From table/
The combination of phenol with isocyanates results in heat generation and violent polymerization. /From table/
The combination of phenol with nitrides results in heat and flammable gas generation. /From table/
Strong oxidizers, calcium hypochlorite, aluminum chloride, acids.
Combustible when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. Potentially explosive reaction with aluminum chloride and nitromethane (at 110 deg C/ 100 bar); formaldehyde; peroxydisulfuric acid; peroxymonosulfuric acid; sodium nitrite and heat. Violent reaction with aluminum chloride and nitrobenzene (at 120 deg C); sodium nitrate and trifluoroacetic acid; butadiene.
Hot phenol reacts with metals and oxidizers.
4.14 Report

NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (oral); No Evidence: mouse, rat NCITR*    National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NCI-CG-TR-203 ,1980. . EPA Extremely Hazardous Substances List. Community Right-To-Know List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

4.15 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Strong irritant to tissue.
Human poisen by ingestion... Moderately toxic by skin contact. A severe eye and skin irritant.
Vapor irritates respiratory system and eyes.
4.16 Safety

Hazard Codes: ToxicT, CorrosiveC, FlammableF, HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 23/24/25-34-48/20/21/22-68-40-39-11-36
R23/24/25: Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R34: Causes burns.
R48: Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
R20/21/22: Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R68: Possible risk of irreversible effects.
R40: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
R39: Danger of very serious irreversible effects.
R11:Highly flammable.
R36:Irritating to eyes.
Safety Statements: 26-36/37/39-45-28-24/25-1/2-16
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
S28:After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of soap-suds.
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S1/2:Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition.
RIDADR: UN 2821 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: SJ3325000
F: 8-23
HazardClass: 6.1
PackingGroup: II

4.17 Sensitive
Air & Light Sensitive
4.18 Specification

 Phenol (CAS NO.108-95-2) is also named as AI3-01814 ; Acide carbolique ; Acide carbolique [French] ; Baker's P & S liquid & Ointment ; Baker's P and S Liquid and Ointment ; Benzenol ; CCRIS 504 ; Carbolic acid ; Carbolsaure ; Carbolsaure [German] ; Caswell No. 649 ; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 064001 ; FEMA No. 3223 ; Fenol ; Fenol [Dutch, Polish] ; Fenolo ; Fenolo [Italian] ; HSDB 113 ; Hydroxybenzene ; Izal ; Monohydroxybenzene ; Monophenol ; NCI-C50124 ; NSC 36808 ; Oxybenzene ; Paoscle ; PhOH ; Phenic acid ; Phenyl alcohol ; Fenol [Dutch, Polish] ; Fenolo ; Fenolo [Italian] ; Phenic acid ;UN 1671 (solid) ; UN 2312 (molten) ; UNII-339NCG44TV ; Un 2812 (solution) . It is white solid. It is colorless if pure, otherwise pink or red. It decomposes slowly in air. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. It is a mildly acidic compound that requires careful handling. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents. Emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes when heated to decomposition. Reacts exothermically with bases. Undergoes, in the presence of aluminum chloride, potentially explosive reactions with nitromethane, butadiene, formaldehyde, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxosulfuric acid, and sodium nitrite . Reacts violently with sodium nitrate in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid. Ingestion of 1 gram has been lethal to humans. Lethal amounts may be absorbed through skin or inhaled. Industrial contact can cause chronic poisoning with kidney and liver damage. Persons affected with hepatic or kidney diseases are at a greater risk.

4.19 Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LDLo oral 80mg/kg (80mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1319, 1935.
cat LDLo subcutaneous 80mg/kg (80mg/kg)   Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.
cat LDLo unreported 250mg/kg (250mg/kg)   Revue Medicale de la Suisse Romande. Vol. 15, Pg. 561, 1895.
dog LDLo oral 500mg/kg (500mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1319, 1935.
dog LDLo unreported 200mg/kg (200mg/kg)   Revue Medicale de la Suisse Romande. Vol. 15, Pg. 561, 1895.
frog LDLo parenteral 290mg/kg (290mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 166, Pg. 437, 1932.
frog LDLo subcutaneous 75mg/kg (75mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1319, 1935.
frog LDLo subcutaneous 290mg/kg (290mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 228, 1955.
guinea pig LDLo intraperitoneal 300mg/kg (300mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 228, 1955.
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 450mg/kg (450mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 228, 1955.
human LDLo oral 140mg/kg (140mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): SWEATING: OTHER
"Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968Vol. -, Pg. 329, 1968.
human LDLo oral 14gm/kg (14000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 463, 1969.
infant LDLo oral 10mg/kg (10mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 463, 1969.
mammal (species unspecified) LD50 oral 500mg/kg (500mg/kg)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 32(10), Pg. 25, 1988.
man TDLo unreported 5714ug/kg (5.714mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER CHANGES: OLFACTION Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 41, Pg. 151, 1999.
mouse LC50 inhalation 177mg/m3 (177mg/m3)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(6), Pg. 103, 1976.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 180mg/kg (180mg/kg)   Pharmacologist. Vol. 10, Pg. 172, 1968.
mouse LD50 intravenous 112mg/kg (112mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. Vol. 12, Pg. 212, 1939.
mouse LD50 oral 270mg/kg (270mg/kg)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 38(8), Pg. 6, 1973.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 344mg/kg (344mg/kg)   Industrial Health. Vol. 5, Pg. 143, 1967.
rabbit LD50 skin 630mg/kg (630mg/kg)   Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 1/6/1966,
rabbit LDLo intraperitoneal 620mg/kg (620mg/kg)   Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.
rabbit LDLo intravenous 180mg/kg (180mg/kg)   Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.
rabbit LDLo oral 420mg/kg (420mg/kg)   Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 620mg/kg (620mg/kg)   Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.
rabbit LDLo unreported 150mg/kg (150mg/kg)   Revue Medicale de la Suisse Romande. Vol. 15, Pg. 561, 1895.
rat LC50 inhalation 316mg/m3 (316mg/m3)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(6), Pg. 103, 1976.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 127mg/kg (127mg/kg)   Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 22, Pg. 665, 1984.
rat LD50 oral 317mg/kg (317mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 32, Pg. 592, 1935.
rat LD50 skin 669mg/kg (669mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: HEMATURIA

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): CUTANEOUS SENSITIZATION (EXPERIMENTAL): AFTER TOPICAL EXPOSURE
British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 27, Pg. 155, 1970.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 460mg/kg (460mg/kg)   Toho Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of Medical Society of Toho University. Vol. 10, Pg. 1, 1963.

5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 3

Acute toxicity - Dermal, Category 3

Skin corrosion, Category 1B

Acute toxicity - Inhalation, Category 3

Germ cell mutagenicity, Category 2

Specific target organ toxicity \u2013 repeated exposure, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H301 Toxic if swallowed

H311 Toxic in contact with skin

H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

H331 Toxic if inhaled

H341 Suspected of causing genetic defects

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

Response

P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P330 Rinse mouth.

P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

P361+P364 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P301+P330+P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.

P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P311 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.

P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.

Storage

P405 Store locked up.

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

9. Other Information
9.0 形态
liquid
9.1 Usage
As a precursor to many materials and useful compounds. Its major uses involve its conversion to plastics or related materials. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are key for building polycarbonates, epoxies, Bakelite, nylon, detergents, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs.
9.2 Usage
Phenol is used as a precursor for cyclohexanone, plastics, nonionic detergents and pharmaceutical drugs like aspirin. It acts as an anesthetic in chloraseptic. It reacts with acetone to get bisphenol-A which is used in the synthesis of poly carbonates and epoxide resins. It is also used in the manufacture of synthetic resins, dyes, pharmaceuticals, synthetic tanning agents, perfumes, lubricating oils and solvents. In molecular biology, it is used in the extraction of nucleic acid from tissues by using the liquid/liquid phenol-chloroform extraction technique. It is an active component of paint strippers which are used for the removal of epoxy and polyurethane. It is also used in the preparation of cosmetics, hair colors and skin lightening preparations. In the field of medicine, its spray is useful in helping sore throat.
9.3 Usage
Phenol is used as a precursor for cyclohexanone, plastics, nonionic detergents and pharmaceutical drugs like aspirin. It acts as an anesthetic in chloraseptic. It reacts with acetone to get bisphenol-A, which is used in the synthesis of poly carbonates and epoxide resins. It is also used in the manufacture of synthetic resins, dyes, pharmaceuticals, synthetic tanning agents, perfumes, lubricating oils and solvents. In molecular biology, it is used in the extraction of nucleic acid from tissues by using liquid/liquid phenol-chloroform extraction technique. It is an active component of paint strippers, which is used for the removal of epoxy and polyurethane. It is also used in the preparation of cosmetics, hair colorings and skin lightening preparations. In the field of medicine, its spray is useful in helping sore throat.
9.4 Usage
Used in nucleic acid purification procedures and dissolution of protein.
9.5 Usage
Phenol can be used for a wide variety of molecular biology applications, including nucleic acid extractions using standard phenol-chloroform protocols. Epidermal strips from the abaxial side of leaves of Commelina communis were stirred in phenol in a procedure to separate the monosaccharides from the epidermis.
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 94.11124g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: C6H6O
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: null
  • Exact Mass: 94.041864811
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 94.041864811
  • Complexity: 46.1
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 1
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 1
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 20.2
  • Heavy Atom Count: 7
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
  • CACTVS Substructure Key Fingerprint: AAADcYBgIAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAwAAAAAAAAAAABAAAAGgAACAAACASAkAAwBoAAAgCAACBCAAACAAAgIAAIiAAGCIgIJiKCERKAcAAkwBEImAeAQAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA==
11. Question & Answer
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