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Home> Encyclopedia >   /  Oxide  /  Others  /  Pigment  /  Paint & Coating  /  Other Inorganic Chemicals
Rutile structure
Rutile structure

Rutile

Iupac Name:dioxotitanium
CAS No.:1317-80-2
Molecular Weight:79.8658
Introduction: Titanium dioxide is naturally presented in titanium ore and rutile titanium. Its molecular structure makes it contain high luminance and covering property. But it must be subject to first extraction and purification. 60 years ago, the DuPont Company had developed the chlorination process as the production technology of titanium dioxide. Because of its relative old sulfuric acid process, it is capable of manufacturing high-quality paint products while reducing environmental emissions and energy consumption and therefore has become the preferred technique in the world. Titanium dioxide (or TiO2) is the most widely used white pigment in the field of industry, being used in architecture, industry and automotive coatings; furniture, electrical appliances, plastic tape and plastic box-purpose plastic; high-grade magazines, publicity pictures and paper for attached film as well as specialty product such as ink, rubber, leather and elastomers.
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Rutile
1.2 Synonyms

ANATASE FERRISPEC(R) PL TITANIUM DIOXIDE WHITE HOMBIKAT TITANIUM WHITE TITANIUM(IV) OXIDE, 99.99% TITANIUM(IV) OXIDE, SINGLE CRYSTAL SUBS& UNITANE unitaneor

1.3 CAS No.
1317-80-2
1.4 CID
26042
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
257-372-4
1.6 Molecular Formula
O2Ti (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/2O.Ti
1.8 InChkey
GWEVSGVZZGPLCZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.9 Canonical Smiles
O=[Ti]=O
1.10 Isomers Smiles
O=[Ti]=O
2. Properties
3.1 Density
4.17
3.2 Melting Point
1830-3000℃
3.3 Boiling Point
2500℃
3.4 Vapour
0 mm Hg at 68 °F Essentially (NTP, 1992)
3.5 Refractive Index
2.5837
3.6 Flash Point
2500-3000°C
3.7 Appearance
Light blue crystalline powder.
3.8 Chemical Properties
Rutile is one of the major minerals containing titanium. It is tetragonal and often has intact tetra-columnar or needle crystalline-like structure. Its aggregate exhibits granular or compacting blocky shape. It appears as dark, red, maroon, yellow or orange color with iron-rich product appearing as black color; it streaks appears as yellow to light brown color. It has adamantine gloss. Iron rutile exhibits semi-metallic gloss. It is brittle with the hardness being 6 to 6.5 and the density being 4.2~4.3 g/cm3. Products being rich in iron, niobium and tantalum have the density being increased with the high value being up to 5.5 g/cm3 or more. It can be dissolved in hot phosphoric acid. After cooling and dilution, adding sodium peroxide can turn the solution to brown color (titanium reaction). Rutile can be produced in gneiss, pegmatite, eclogite (flash) rock and placer.
3.9 Color/Form
White, tetragonal crystals
AMORPHOUS, INFUSIBLE POWDER
White powder
3.10 Odor
Odorless
3.11 Spectral Properties
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 2.616; 2.903
3.12 Stability
Stable.
3.13 StorageTemp
Keep tightly closed in a cool place in a tightly closed container.
3.14 Water Solubility
Insoluble
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Definition
Rutile: A naturally occurringreddish-brown form of titanium(IV) oxide,TiO4. It is an ore of titanium and is alsoused in making ceramics. Some clear varieties of rutile are used as a semipreciousgemstone.
4.2 General Description
Titanium dioxide is naturally presented in titanium ore and rutile titanium. Its molecular structure makes it contain high luminance and covering property. But it must be subject to first extraction and purification. 60 years ago, the DuPont Company had developed the chlorination process as the production technology of titanium dioxide. Because of its relative old sulfuric acid process, it is capable of manufacturing high-quality paint products while reducing environmental emissions and energy consumption and therefore has become the preferred technique in the world. Titanium dioxide (or TiO2) is the most widely used white pigment in the field of industry, being used in architecture, industry and automotive coatings; furniture, electrical appliances, plastic tape and plastic box-purpose plastic; high-grade magazines, publicity pictures and paper for attached film as well as specialty product such as ink, rubber, leather and elastomers.
4.3 Storage
Ambient temperatures.
4.4 Usage
It can be used for the production of titanium dioxide, titanium sponge, titanium alloys, synthetic rutile, titanium tetrachloride, titanyl sulfate, potassium hexafluorotitanate and aluminum chloride or titanium chloride. Titanium dioxide can be used for making high-grade white paint, white rubber, synthetic fibers, paint, welding electrodes and the light reducing agent of rayon as well as the filler of plastics and advanced paper. It can also be applied to telecommunications equipment, metallurgy, printing, dyeing, enamel and other departments. Rutile is also the main mineral raw materials for extraction of titanium. Titanium and its alloys have many excellent properties including high strength, low density, excellent anti-corrosion properties, high temperature resistance, low temperature resistance and non-toxicity; it also has special features such as absorbing gases and superconductivity, and therefore is widely used in various kinds of fields including aviation, chemicals, light industry, navigation, medical, defense and marine resources development and so on. According to reports, more than 90% of the titanium mineral in the world has been used the production of titanium dioxide white pigment, and this product has more and more wide application in the paint, rubber, plastics, paper and some other industries. It can be used for welding, refining of titanium and manufacturing of titanium dioxide.It can be used as reagents analysis as well as being used for the preparation of highly pure titanium salts and being applied to pharmaceutical industry.It can be used as the carrier of catalyst, photo-catalytic media and the protection media against UV radiation. It also has wide application in various kinds of filed such as the coatings, plastics, self-cleaning automotive glass, automotive mirrors, act wall glass, screen glass bulb, air purification materials, medicine, cosmetics, water treatment, tanning and ink and so on.
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Hazard Codes
Xn
5.2 Risk Statements
R20
5.3 Safety Statements
26-36
5.4 Cleanup Methods
1. VENTILATE AREA OF SPILL. 2. COLLECT SPILLED MATERIAL IN THE MOST CONVENIENT AND SAFE MANNER FOR RECLAMATION OR FOR DISPOSAL IN A SECURED SANITARY LANDFILL. LIQ CONTAINING TITANIUM DIOXIDE SHOULD BE ABSORBED IN VERMICULITE, DRY SAND, EARTH, OR A SIMILAR MATERIAL.
5.5 DisposalMethods
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
5.6 Exposure Standards and Regulations
The color additive titanium dioxide may be safely used for coloring foods generally, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The quantity of titaanium dioxide does not exceed 1 percent by weight of the food. (2) It may not be used to color foods for whichstandards of identity have been promulgated under section 401 of the act unless added color is authorized by such standards. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of the public health and therefore batches thereof are exempt from the certification requirements of section 721(c) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
The color additive titanium dioxide may be used for coloring ingested and externally aplied drugs generally, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. External application uncludes use in the area of the eye. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of the public health and therefore batches thereof are exempt from the certification requirements of section 721(c) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
The color additive titanium dioxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of the public health and therefore batches thereof are exempt from the certification requirements of section 721(c) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
The substance listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be used as a color additive in contact lenses in amounts not to exceed the minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as waiving any of the requirements of sections 510(k), 515, and 520(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to the contact lenses in which the additive is used. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of the public health and therefore batches thereof are exempt from the certification requirements of section 721(c) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Titanium dioxide is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
Substances used in the manufacture of paper & paperboard products used in food packaging shall incl titanium dioxide. Under the conditions of normal use, /titanium dioxide/ ... would not reasonably be expected to migrate to food, based on available scientific information and data.
5.7 Fire Fighting Procedures
Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Only NIOSH-approved or MSHA-approved equipment should be used.
5.8 FirePotential
Not combustible
5.9 Formulations/Preparations
LOTION, IN HYDROPHILIC LOTION. OINTMENT, IN HYDROPHILIC OINTMENT. OINTMENT, WITH PARA-AMINOBENZOIC ACID 10%, IN HYDROPHILIC OINTMENT.
Technical, of many variations, pure, USP, single crystals, whiskers
Available in several grades depending on the crystal structure, surface treatment, and particle size distribution. Both rutile and anatase forms are available.
5.10 Other Preventative Measures
IF ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO TOPICAL TITANIUM DIOXIDE OCCUR, ITS USE SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED.
Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
5.11 Protective Equipment and Clothing
Dust or Mist Concentration: 75 mg/cu m or less: Any dust and mist respirator. 150 mg/cu m or less: any dust and mist respirator, except single-use or quarter-mask respirator. 750 mg/cu m or less: any fume respirator or high efficiency particulate filter respirator; or any supplied-air respirator; or any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. 7,500 mg/cu m or less: A powered air-purifying respirator with a high efficiency particulate filter; or a Type C supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode. Greater than 7,500 mg/cu m or entry and escape from unknown concentrations: Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode; or a combination respirator which includes a Type C supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
5.12 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
The reaction of lithium & titanium dioxide occurs around 200 deg C with a flash of light; the temperature can reach 900 deg C.
Violent or incandescent reaction with metals at high temperatures (e.g., aluminum; calcium; magnesium; potassium; sodium; zinc; lithium).
5.13 Report

IARC Cancer Review: Group 3 IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 47 ,1989,p. 307.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 47 ,1989,p. 307.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 47 ,1989,p. 307.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) . Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

5.14 Safety

Questionable carcinogen. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of Ti.
Hazard Codes:?HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 20-36/37/38?
R20: Harmful by inhalation
R36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
Safety Statements: 26-36?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
S36: Wear suitable protective clothing
RTECS: XR2275000

5.15 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Concentrated fumes irritate the respiratory tract.
A human skin irritant.
5.16 Specification

?Synthetic Rutile (CAS NO.1317-80-2)?was first produced in 1948 .Very pure synthetic rutile is transparent and almost colorless (slightly yellow) in large pieces.?It can be made in a variety of colors by doping, although the purest material is almost colorless. The high refractive index gives an adamantine lustre and strong refraction that leads to a diamond-like appearance. The near-colorless diamond substitute is sold under the name Titania .

5.17 Toxicity

RTECS? XR2275000

5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Not classified.

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s) No symbol.
Signal word

No signal word.

Hazard statement(s)

none

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

none

Response

none

Storage

none

Disposal

none

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

6. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:79.8658g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:O2Ti
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:
  • Exact Mass:79.9377699
  • Monoisotopic Mass:79.9377699
  • Complexity:18.3
  • Rotatable Bond Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:2
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:34.1
  • Heavy Atom Count:3
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
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