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Home> Encyclopedia >   /  Carbonate  /  Food Additives  /  Other Inorganic Chemicals  /  Pharmaceutical Intermediates  /  Alkali
Sodium bicarbonate structure
Sodium bicarbonate structure

Sodium bicarbonate

Iupac Name:sodium carbonate
CAS No.:144-55-8
Molecular Weight:84.00661
Introduction:

In manufacture of many sodium salts, source of carbon dioxide, in effervescent salts, beverages, cleaning compound.

1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Sodium bicarbonate
1.2 Synonyms

Natrium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate Manufacturer SODIUM BICARBONATE PWD Sodium bicarbonate standard solution Sodium bicarbonate test solution(ChP) TSQN

1.3 CAS No.
144-55-8
1.4 CID
516892
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
205-633-8
1.6 Molecular Formula
CHNaO3 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1/CH2O3.Na/c2-1(3)4;/h(H2,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
1.8 InChkey
UIIMBOGNXHQVGW-UHFFFAOYSA-M
1.9 Canonical Smiles
C(=O)(O)[O-].[Na+]
1.10 Isomers Smiles
C(=O)(O)[O-].[Na+]
2. 3D Conformer
3. Properties
3.1 Density
2.159
3.2 Melting Point
270℃
3.3 Boiling Point
851℃
3.4 Vapour
2.58E-05mmHg at 25°C
3.5 Refractive Index
1.500
3.6 Flash Point
169.8 °C
3.7 Appearance
White powder or superfime crystal
3.8 Chemical Properties
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC03, also known as sodium acid carbonate and baking soda, is a white water-soluble crystalline solid.It has an alkaline taste, loses carbon dioxide at 270°C (518 °F).and is used in food preparation. Sodium bicarbonate also finds use as a medicine,a butter preservative, in ceramics,and to prevent timber mold.
3.9 Color/Form
White, monoclinic prisms
White crystalline powder or granules
3.10 Decomposition
Hazardous decomposition products formed under fire conditions: Carbon oxides, sodium oxides.
3.11 Odor
Odorless
3.12 PH
Between 8,0 and 8,6 (1?% solution)
3.13 pKa
6.3
3.14 Solubility
Soluble in water:9 g/100 mL (20 oC)
3.15 Spectral Properties
INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.500
3.16 Stability
Stable.
3.17 StorageTemp
2-8°C
3.18 Water solubility
9 g/100 mL (20 oC)
4. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Definition
Baking soda: A white solid formed either by passing an excessof carbon dioxide through sodium carbonateor hydroxide solution, or byprecipitation when cold concentrated solutionsof sodium chloride and ammoniumhydrogencarbonate are mixed. Sodium hydrogencarbonatedecomposes on heatingto give sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide,and water. With dilute acids, it yields carbondioxide. It is used as a constituent ofbaking powder, in effervescent beverages,and in fire extinguishers. Its aqueous solutionsare alkaline as a result of salt hydrolysis.Sodium hydrogencarbonate formsmonoclinic crystals.
4.2 Fire Hazard
Literature sources indicate that Sodium bicarbonate is noncombustible.
4.3 Purification Methods
Crystallise it from hot water (6mL/g). The solid should not be heated above 40o due to the formation of carbonate.
4.4 Safety Profile
Low toxicity by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. A nuisance dust. Human systemic effects: changes in potassium levels, increased urine volume, metabolic acidosis, nausea or vomiting, respiratory changes, sodium level changes. Mutation data reported.
4.5 Usage

In manufacture of many sodium salts, source of carbon dioxide, in effervescent salts, beverages, cleaning compound.

5. Safety and Handling
5.1 Safety Statements
S24/25
5.2 PackingGroup
Z01
5.3 Transport
无资料?
5.4 Cleanup Methods
Sweep spilled substance into containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Wash away remainder with plenty of water.
5.5 DisposalMethods
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
5.6 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: sodium bicarbonate is included in digestive aid drug products.
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: sodium bicarbonate is included in weight control drug products.
Sodium bicarbonate used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations List identifies currently marketed prescription drug products, incl sodium bicarbonate, approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by FDA under sections 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
5.7 Fire Fighting Procedures
In case of fire in the surroundings: use appropriate extinguishing media.
5.8 FirePotential
Not combustible.
5.9 Formulations/Preparations
Baking powders in commercial use normally contain sufficient soda and the /leavening/ acid to neutralize it in order to yield not less than 12% of their weight as carbon dioxide when used.
The bicarbonate of commerce is about 99.8% pure.
High purity commercial grades /for veterinary use/ comtain about 27.3% sodium.
Commercial grades include U.S.P. and food grade; animal feed and industrial grade
Sodium bicarbonate /present in/: Arm & Hammer Carpet Deodorizer and Arm & Hammer Cat Litter Deodorizer.
ACS reagent, hemodialysis food grades 1, 2, 4, 3, 3DF, S, and, ITFF; USP and FCC grades
Parenteral: Solution, sterile, to adjust pH of injections: 4% (0.48 mEq/mL) (2.4 mEq) Neut ( with edetate disodium), (Hospira); 4.2% (0.5 mEq/mL) (2.5 mEq) Sodium Bicarbonate Additive Solution, (American Pharmaceutical Partners).
Parenteral: Injection, for preparation of IV admixtures: 7.5% (0.892 mEq/mL) (178.4 mEq) pharmacy bulk package Sodium Bicarbonate Injection MaxiVial, (American Pharmaceutical Partners).
Parenteral: Injection: 4.2% (0.5 mEq/mL) (2.5 or 5 mEq) Sodium Bicarbonate Injection,( American Pharmaceutical, Hospira); 5% (0.595 mEq/mL) (297.5 mEq) Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, (Baxter, Hospira); 7.5% (0.892 mEq/mL) (8.92 or 44.6 mEq) Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, (American Pharmaceutical Partners, American Regent, Hospira); 8.4% (1 mEq/mL) (10 or 50 mEq) Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, (American Pharmaceutical Partners, American Regent, Hospira).
Oral: Powder: Arm & Hammer Baking Soda, (Church & Dwight); Tablets: 325 mg Soda Mint ( with peppermint oil), (CMC), Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets,( CMC), Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets, (Rugby); 650 mg (available by nonproprietary name).
5.10 Incompatibilities
Sodium bicarbonate reacts with acids, acidic salts, and manyalkaloidal salts, with the evolution of carbon dioxide. Sodiumbicarbonate can also intensify the darkening of salicylates.In powder mixtures, atmospheric moisture or water of crystallizationfrom another ingredient is sufficient for sodium bicarbonateto react with compounds such as boric acid or alum. In liquidmixtures containing bismuth subnitrate, sodium bicarbonate reactswith the acid formed by hydrolysis of the bismuth salt.In solution, sodium bicarbonate has been reported to beincompatible with many drug substances such as ciprofloxacin, amiodarone, nicardipine, and levofloxacin.
5.11 Protective Equipment and Clothing
The substance is mildly irritating to the eyes.
5.12 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
A mixture /of sodium hydrogen carbonate, carbon and water/ was being stirred and steam heated when power failure interrupted stirring, and heating was turned off for a hour before power was restored. When stirring was restarted, the hot contents of the pan erupted immediately. Carbon dioxide is evolved from warm aqueous solutions of the base, and absence of stirring and presence of the carbon adsorbent would lead to non-equilibrium retention of the gas, which would be released instantaneously on stirring.
Several cases of spontaneous ignition after exposure to air of fine coke particles removed from filter strainers on a petroleum refinery furfural extraction unit have been noted. This has been associated with the use of sodium hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) injected into the plant for pH control, which produced a pH of 10.5 locally. This would tend to resinify the aldehyde, but there is also the possibility of a Cannizzaro reaction causing conversion of the aldehyde to furfuryl alcohol and furoic acid. The latter, together with other acidic products of autoxidation of the aldehyde, would tend to resinify the furfuryl alcohol. Pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) showed the presence of a significant proportion of furfuryl alcohol-derived resins in the coke. The latter is now discarded into drums of water, immediately after discharge from the strainers, to prevent further incidents. /2-Furaldehyde (Furfural): sodium hydrogen carbonate/
A self-propagating reaction can occur when ... sodium bicarbonate- ... based dry chemical extinguishing agent is mixed with monoammonium phosphate dry chemical extinguishing agent. Moisture will accelerate reaction. Products are water, ammonia, carbon dioxide and various solid substances. In a fire extinguisher the pressure developed will blow out the valve.
Sodium-potassium alloy undergoes a violent reaction with certain extinguishing agents: water, sodium bicarbonate, carbon tetrachloride. /Sodium-potassium alloy: water/
5.13 Report

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

5.14 Safety

Safety Statements of Sodium bicarbonate (CAS NO.144-55-8): 24/25?
S24/25: Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: VZ0950000
HS Code: 28363000
Low toxicity by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. A nuisance dust. Human systemic effects: changes in potassium levels, increased urine volume, metabolic acidosis, nausea or vomiting, respiratory changes, sodium level changes. Mutation data reported.

5.15 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
The substance is mildly irritating to the eyes.
5.16 Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
infant TDLo oral 1260mg/kg (1260mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: URINE VOLUME INCREASED
American Journal of Diseases of Children. Vol. 135, Pg. 965, 1981.
man TDLo oral 20mg/kg/5D-I (20mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 12, Pg. 57, 1994.
mouse LD50 oral 3360mg/kg (3360mg/kg) ? Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 33(5), Pg. 30, 1989.
rat LC inhalation > 900mg/m3 (900mg/m3) ? Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 33(5), Pg. 30, 1989.
rat LD50 oral 4220mg/kg (4220mg/kg) ? Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 6, Pg. 726, 1964.

6. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Not classified.

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s) No symbol.
Signal word

No signal word.

Hazard statement(s)

none

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

none

Response

none

Storage

none

Disposal

none

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

8. Synthesis Route
144-55-8Total: 6 Synthesis Route
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:84.00661g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:CHNaO3
  • Exact Mass:83.982339
  • Monoisotopic Mass:83.982339
  • Complexity:33.9
  • Rotatable Bond Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:1
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:3
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:60.4
  • Heavy Atom Count:5
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2
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