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Sodium hypochlorite structure
Sodium hypochlorite structure

Sodium hypochlorite

Iupac Name:sodium;hypochlorite
CAS No.: 7681-52-9
Molecular Weight:74.439
Modify Date.: 2022-10-28 09:16
Introduction: Green to yellow watery liquid with an odor of bleaching liquid odor. Sinks and mixes with water. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Sodium hypochlorite
1.2 Synonyms

chlorine bleach chloros chlorox clorox commercial bleach deosan EINECS 231-668-3 javex klorocin MFCD00011120 milton naocl parozone purinb sodium chlorine monoxide Sodium hypochloride

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1.3 CAS No.
1.4 CID
1.6 Molecular Formula
ClNaO (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
1.8 InChIkey
1.9 Canonical Smiles
1.10 Isomers Smiles
2. Properties
2.1 Density
1.25 g/mL at 20 °C
2.1 Melting point
-16 °C
2.1 Boiling point
111 °C
2.1 Refractive index
2.1 Precise Quality
2.1 PSA
2.1 logP
2.1 AnalyticLaboratory Methods
Sodium hypochlorite; solution pesticide formulations by sodium hypochlorite; arsenious oxide titration method (method 935.07).
2.2 Appearance
colourless liquid with strong odour
2.3 Storage
Keep Cold.
2.4 Chemical Properties
Sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, is an air-unstable,pale green crystalline solid that is soluble in cold water, decomposes in hot water, and has a sweet aroma. It generally is available in one of two strengths. The household liquid bleach contains about 5.25 wt% NaCIO. The commercial product(sometimes called 15% bleach) contains 150g/L available chlorine. This is equivalent to about 13 wt% sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching agent for paper pulp and textiles, as an oxidizing reagent, as a disinfectant, as a chemical intermediate,and in medicines.The hypochlorite ion (OCI-) is similar to wet chlorine gas in its effects on materials. Not many metals exhibit good resistance even at low temperatures and concentrations. Because hypochlorite solutions are unstable at neutral and lower pHs,they normally contain excess alkali,which modifies the aggressiveness somewhat.
2.5 Color/Form
Greenish yellow liquid
2.6 Decomposition
The anhydrous solid obtained by dessication of the /sodium hypochlorite;/ pentahydrate will decomp violently on heating or friction.
2.7 Odor
Disagreeable, sweetish odor
2.8 Physical
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE; is a colorless or slightly yellow watery liquid with an odor of household bleach. Mixes with water;. (USCG, 1999)
2.9 Water Solubility
2.10 Stability
Stable. Contact with acids releases poisonous gas ( chlorine ). Light sensitive. Incompatible with strong acids, amines, ammonia, ammonium salts, reducing agents, metals, aziridine, methanol, formic acid, phenylacetonitrile.
2.11 StorageTemp
3. Use and Manufacturing
3.1 Definition
ChEBI: An inorganic sodium salt in which hypochlorite is the counterion.
3.2 General Description
Green to yellow watery liquid with an odor of bleaching liquid odor. Sinks and mixes with water.
3.3 GHS Classification
Signal: Danger
GHS Hazard Statements
H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage [Danger Skin corrosion/irritation]
H400: Very toxic to aquatic life [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard]

Precautionary Statement Codes
P260, P264, P273, P280, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P321, P363, P391, P405, and P501
3.4 History
Sodium hypochlorite exists as an aqueous solution from 5 15% NaOCl and is commonly called bleach. Household bleach is typically a 5.25% solution, and industrial bleach is sold as a 12% solution. When sodium hypochlorite is used in this entry, it is assumed to be the aqueous solution, which is clear, slightly yellow, corrosive, and has a distinctive chlorine smell. Chorine gas was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 1786) in 1774 and known initially as depholgisticated salt spirit. In 1787, the French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet (1749 1822) experimented with aqueous solution of chlorine gas as bleaching agents. Based on Berthollet's work, the Javel Company located on the outskirts of Paris began to produce bleaches in 1788. Chlorine gas was dissolved in a solution of soda potash (potassium carbonate) to obtain a product called liqueur de Javel, which was potassium hypochlorite. Potash treated with chlorine gas was also used to produce bleaching powders. In 1820, Antoine Germaine Labarraque (1777 1850), an apothecary, substituted cheaper soda ash (sodium carbonate) for potash to produce Eau de Labarraque or Labarraque solution, which was sodium hypochlorite. Eau de Labarraque was used as a disinfectant and to bleach paper. Bleaching powders, borax, lye, and blueing were used as bleaches throughout the 19th century.Sodium hypochlorite is the primary hypochlorite used as a bleach and disinfectant,accounting for 83% of world hypochlorite use, with calcium hypochlorite accounting forthe remaining 17%. Approximately 1 million tons of sodium hypochlorite was used globallyin 2005, with about half this amount used in households for laundry bleaching anddisinfection. The other half was used primarily for wastewater and drinking water treatment;other uses include pool sanitation, bleaching of pulp, paper, and textiles, and as an industrialchemical.
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3.5 Methods of Manufacturing
... Sanfourche, Gardent, Bull Soc Chim (4) 35, 1089 (1924); Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry Vol 1, G Brauer, ed (Academic Press, NY, 2nd ed, 1963) pp 309-310. Anhydrous sodium hypochlorite; may be obtained by freeze-drying in vacuum (over concn sulfuric acid;). Addition of chlorine; to cold dilute solution of sodium hydroxide;.
3.6 Usage
Aq solution as bleach, disinfectant; chlorination of swimming pools; sanitation of drinking water.
4. Safety and Handling
4.1 Symbol
4.1 Hazard Codes
4.1 Signal Word
4.1 Risk Statements
4.1 Safety Statements
4.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Sodium hypochlorite is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
4.2 Packing Group
4.2 Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: May decompose, generating irritating chlorine gas.
4.3 Other Preventative Measures
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers; build dike to contain flow as necessary. /Hypochlorite soln (containing more than 7% available chlorine, by wt)/
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amt of water or soap and water. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. /Hypochlorite soln (containing more than 7% available chlorine, by wt)/
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
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4.4 Hazard Class
4.4 Hazard Declaration
H315; H318; H400
4.4 Cleanup Methods
Environmental considerations-land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete; absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder; neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3), or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) /Sodium hypochlorite soln (Hypochlorite soln containing not more than 7% available chlorine, by wt)/
Environmental considerations- water spill: Neutralize with agricultural lime (CaO), crushed limestone (CaCO3), or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3); if dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concn, apply activated carbon at 10 times the spilled amt; use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Sodium hypochlorite soln (Hypochlorite soln containing not more than 7% available chlorine, by wt)/
Environmental considerations- air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. /Sodium hypochlorite soln (Hypochlorite soln containing not more than 7% available chlorine, by wt)/
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4.5 DisposalMethods

SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.

4.6 DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number. As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Hypochlorite solution; Hypochlorite solution, with more than 5% available Chlorine/
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UN 1791
4.7 Fire Fighting Procedures
If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Hypochlorite soln (containing more than 7% available chlorine, by wt)/
Cool exposed containers with water. /Monohydrate/
4.8 FirePotential
Fire risk in contact with org materials.
Not flammable /SRP: Acts as oxidizer with combustible material./
4.9 Safety Profile
Mddly toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects by ingestion: somnolence, blood pressure lowering, corrosive to skin, nausea or vomiting. Human mutation data reported. An eye irritant. Corrosive and irritating by ingestion and inhalation. The anhydrous salt is highly explosive and sensitive to heat or friction. Explosive reaction with formic acid (at So), phenylacetonitrile. Reacts to form explosive products with amines, ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, (NH4)2CO3, ammonium nitrate, ammonium oxalate, (NH4)3P04), aziridme, methanol. Violent reaction with phenyl acetonitrile, cellulose, ethyleneimine. Solutions in water are storage hazards due to oxygen evolution. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NaaO and Cl-. Used as a bleach. Sodium hypochlorite Preparation Products And Raw materials Preparation Products
4.10 Caution Statement
P273; P280; P303 + P361 + P353; P304 + P340 + P310; P305 + P351 + P338; P391
4.10 Formulations/Preparations
USEPA/OPP Pesticide Code 014703; Trade Names: Antiformin, B-K liquid, Chlorox, Dakin's solution, Hychlorite, Milton, Mera Industries 2MOM3B, Chloros, Javelle water, Piochlor, Purex.
Modified Dakin's soln; surgical chlorinated soda solution; Carrel-Dakin soln. /Sodium hypochlorite diluted/
Eau de Labarraque; Clorox; Dazzle /aq soln/
Strongly alkaline soln of sodium hypochlorite; 100 ml contains 5.68 g active chlorine, 7.8 g sodium hydroxide, 32 g sodium bicarbonate. /Sodium hypochlorite soln, alkaline/
Topical, as solution containing 0.15 to 0.5% of sodium hypochlorite. The full-strength soln contains 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; to prepare the 0.15% solution it should be diluted 1 to 3. /Sodium hypochlorite solution, diluted/
The official solution (NF) contains between 4 and 6% sodium hypochlorite dilute solutions of the Carrel-Dakin type are about 0.5% sodium hypochlorite.
/Available in/ 15% industrial grade 15% & 20% solution grades 17.5%, 13.2%, 7.0% and 5.0% industrial grades.
Clorox liquid bleach: 5-10% Sodium Hypochlorite; Cloropool: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; Clorozone: 5.0% sodium hypochlorite
Sold as aqueous solution at 5-40% concentration
Antiforminum Dentale: Dental sodium hypochlorite soln. Labarraque's soln.
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4.11 WGK Germany
4.11 RTECS
4.11 Protective Equipment and Clothing
It has a pronounced irritant effect on the skin.
Irritating to skin and eyes. /Monohydrate/
4.12 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Chlorination of ethyleneimine with sodium hypochlorite gives the explosive compound 1-chloroethyleneimine.
Primary amines and calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite react to form normal chloroamines, which are explosive.
Hypochlorites react with urea to form nitrogen trichloride which explodes spontaneously in air. /Hypochlorites/
Contact in the drains of an effluent containing the hypochlorite with one containing ammonium salts & acid led to formation of nitrogen trichloride which decomp explosively. Cleaning a brewery tank with an acidified ammonium sulfate cleaning preparation, then sodium hypochlorite soln without intermediate rinsing, led to nitrogen trichloride formation & a violent explosion.
Interaction of ethyleneimine with sodium (or other) hypochlorite gives the explosive N-chloro cmpd.
Removal of formic acid from industrial waste streams with sodium hypochlorite soln becomes explosive at 55 deg C.
Several explosions involving methanol and sodium hypochlorite were attributed to formation of methyl hypochlorite, especially in presence of acids or other esterification catalyst.
Use of sodium hypochlorite soln to destroy acidified benzyl cyanide residues caused a violent explosion, thought to have been due to formation of nitrogen trichloride.
Explosive reaction with formic acid (at 55 deg C); phenylacetonitrile. Reacts to form explosive products with amines; ammonium salts ... ; aziridine; methanol.
Decomposition of sodium hypochlorite takes place within a few seconds with the following salts: ammonium acetate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium oxalate, & ammonium phosphate.
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4.13 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
It has a pronounced irritant effect on the skin.
Irritating to skin and eyes. /Monohydrate/
4.14 Toxicity
Skin contact with the solid hypochlorite pentahydrate or its concentrated solution can cause irritation. Ingestion may cause corrosion of mucousmembranes and gastric perforation.

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin corrosion, Category 1B

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, short-term (Acute) - Category Acute 1

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Signal word


Hazard statement(s)

H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

H400 Very toxic to aquatic life

Precautionary statement(s)

P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P273 Avoid release to the environment.


P301+P330+P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.

P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P391 Collect spillage.


P405 Store locked up.


P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification


8. Other Information
8.0 Usage
Sodium hypochlorite is used as a disinfectant and a bleaching agent. It is used as a destainer involved in removing of mold stains, dental stains arises by fluorosis. It finds application in laundry detergents. Its aqueous solution is used as household bleach for sanitizing smooth surfaces. In a water treatment plant, it is utilized for treating dilute cyanide waste water like electroplating wastes. It is an oxidizing agent used with phase transfer catalyst to convert alcohols into corresponding carbonyl compounds. It is an important reactant in Hofmann rearrangement to prepare primary amine from primary amide.
9. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight: 74.439g/mol
  • Molecular Formula: ClNaO
  • Compound Is Canonicalized: True
  • XLogP3-AA: null
  • Exact Mass: 73.9535366
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 73.9535366
  • Complexity: 4.8
  • Rotatable Bond Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 1
  • Topological Polar Surface Area: 23.1
  • Heavy Atom Count: 3
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
  • Isotope Atom Count: 0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 2
10. Question & Answer
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12. Realated Product Infomation