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Home> Encyclopedia >   /  Organic Acid  /  Pharmaceutical Intermediates  /  Organic Intermediate  /  Inorganic Acids  /  Other Chemicals
Succinic acid structure
Succinic acid structure

Succinic acid

Iupac Name:butanedioic acid
CAS No.:110-15-6
Molecular Weight:118.08804
Introduction: Succinic acid (butanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid. It is a common intermediate in the metabolic pathway of several anaerobic and facultative micro-organisms.Succinic acid is used as a dietary supplement for symptoms related to menopause such as hot flashes and irritability. It is used as a flavoring agent for food and beverages. It is used to manufacture polyurethanes, paints and coatings, adhesives, sealants, artificial leathers, cosmetics and personal care products, biodegradable plastics, nylons, industrial lubricants, phthalate-free plasticizers, and dyes & pigments. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is used in the preparation of active calcium succinate, as a starting material for active pharmaceutical ingredients (adipic acid, N-methyl pyrrolidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone, succinate salts, etc.), as an additive in drug formation, for medicines of sedative, antispasmer, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoter, contraception and cancer curing, in the preparation of vitamin A and anti-Inflammatory, and as antidote for toxic substance.
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Succinic acid
1.2 Synonyms

Butanedioic Acid SUCCINIC ACID 99+% FCC Succinic acid ACS SUCCINIC ACID EXTRA PURE SUCCINIC ACID FCC Succinic acid, 99% 1KG Succinic acid, 99% 250GR Succinic acid, 99% 500GR SUCCINIC ACID, 99+%

1.3 CAS No.
1.4 CID
1.6 Molecular Formula
C4H6O4 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
1.8 InChkey
1.9 Canonical Smiles
1.10 Isomers Smiles
2. Properties
3.1 Density
3.2 Melting Point
3.3 Boiling Point
3.4 Vapour
0.0165mmHg at 25°C
3.5 Refractive Index
n20/D 1.4002(lit.)
3.6 Flash Point
3.7 Appearance
White crystalline powder
3.8 Carcinogenicity
Monosodium succinate wasgiven to groups of 50 male and 50 female Fischer 344 ratsin drinking water at levels of 0%, 1%, or 2% for 2 years. Notoxic lesion specifically caused by long-term administrationof monosodium succinate was detected, and no dose-relatedincrease was found in the incidence of tumors in any organ ortissue. The incidence of C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland offemales that received 2% solution was apparently, but notsignificantly, higher than that in controls. Because C-celltumors are commonly occurring spontaneous tumors in agingfemale rats of this strain and the incidence of C-cell tumors inthe female control group was lower than that of historicalcontrols for the testing laboratory, the authors concluded thatthis lesion was not treatment related.
3.9 Chemical Properties
Succinic acid is a normal constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues. Succinic anhydride is the dehydration product of the acid. Succinic acid was first obtained as the distillate from amber (Latin, Succinum) for which it is named. It occurs in beet, brocoli, rhubarb, sauerkraut, cheese, meat, molasses, eggs, peat, coal, fruits, honey, and urine (Gardner, 1972; Winstrom, 1978; Doores, 1989). It is formed by the chemical and biochemical oxidation of fats, by alcoholic fermentation of sugar, and in numerous catalyzed oxidation processes. Succinic acid is also a major byproduct in the manufacture of adipic acid.
3.10 Color/Form
Triclinic or monoclinic prisms
3.11 Decomposition
When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.
3.12 Heat of Combustion
-356.32 KCAL/MOLE
3.13 Odor
3.14 PH
pH = 2.7 (0.1 molar aq soln)
3.15 pKa
4.16(at 25℃)
3.16 Solubility
Soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, acetone and methanol. Insoluble in toluene, benzene, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride and petroleum ether.
3.17 Spectral Properties
IR: 910 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 5-20 (Organic Electronic Spectral Data, Phillips et al, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
NMR: 4531 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 20451 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral Database, 1990 version)
Index of refraction = 1.450
3.18 Stability
Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents. Combustible.
3.19 StorageTemp
Store at RT.
3.20 Water Solubility
Water Solubility: 80 g/L (20 °C)
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Definition
ChEBI: An alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid resulting from the formal oxidation of each of the terminal methyl groups of butane to the corresponding carboxy group. It is an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle.
4.2 Fire Hazard
Flash point data for Succinic acid are not available. Succinic acid is probably combustible.
4.3 General Description
White crystals or shiny white odorless crystalline powder. pH of 0.1 molar solution: 2.7. Very acid taste.
4.4 Purification Methods
Wash it with diethyl ether. Crystallise it from acetone, distilled water, or tert-butanol. Dry it under vacuum over P2O5 or conc H2SO4. Also purify it by conversion to the disodium salt which, after crystallisation from boiling water (charcoal), is treated with mineral acid to regenerate the succinic acid. The acid is then recrystallised and dried in a vacuum. [Beilstein 2 H 606, 2 IV 1908.] Succinic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials Raw materials
4.5 Safety Profile
Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. A severe eye irritant. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
4.6 Storage
Ambient temperatures.
4.7 Usage
Succinic acid (COOH(CH2)2COOH) is a carboxylic acid used in food (as an acidulant), pharmaceutical (as an excipient), personal care (soaps) and chemical (pesticides, dyes and lacquers) industries. Bio-based succinic acid is seen as an important platform chemical for the production of biodegradable plastics and as a substitute of several chemicals (such as adipic acid).Succinic Acid is widely used in the food industry as a chelating agent and as a pH adjuster. The FDA has granted Succinic Acid with the GRAS status (Generally Recognised as Safe Substance). Studies conducted within the food industry show Succinic Acid has anti-oxidant properties: even though this does not imply the same will be exerted when the substance is applied topically, it gives an indication that suitable tests could be carried out to understand whether Succinic Acid maintain such effect once formulated in a cosmetic product. Succinic Acid is also used as an intermediate to manufacture several chemicals, amongst which raw materials for the cosmetic and personal-care industry, e.g. emollients, surfactants and emulsifiers.
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Hazard Codes
5.2 Risk Statements
5.3 Safety Statements
5.4 Hazard Note
5.5 PackingGroup
5.6 Transport
UN 3265 8/PG 3
5.7 DisposalMethods
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
Incineration: Succinic acid should be combined with paper or other flammable material. An alternate procedure is to dissolve it in a flammable solvent and spray the solutions into the fire chamber.
5.8 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Succinic acid used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
Succinic acid is a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption, as long as 1) the quantity of the substance added to food does not exceed the amount reasonably required to accomplish its intended physical, nutritive, or other technical effect in food, and 2) any substance intended for use in or on food is of appropriate food grade and is prepared and handled as a food ingredient.
5.9 FirePotential
As with most organic solids, fire is possible at elevated temperatures or by contact with an ignition source.
5.10 Formulations/Preparations
Grades: Technical, CP, FCC
5.11 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow = -0.59
5.12 Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
5.13 Protective Equipment and Clothing
Primary irritant effects are present with a number of ... /aliphatic dicarboxylic/ acids, particularly in concentrated solution or as dusts- sensitization is rare. /Aliphatic dicarboxylic acids/
5.14 Report

SUCCINIC ACID's reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

5.15 Safety

Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. A severe eye irritant. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Hazard Codes:?IrritantXi
Risk Statements: 37/38-41-36/37/38?
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.?
R37/38:Irritating to respiratory system and skin.?
R41:Risk of serious damage to the eyes.
Safety Statements: 26-36/37/39-37/39?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.?
S37/39:Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

5.16 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Primary irritant effects are present with a number of ... /aliphatic dicarboxylic/ acids, particularly in concentrated solution or as dusts- sensitization is rare. /Aliphatic dicarboxylic acids/
5.17 Specification

?Succinic acid , its cas register number is 110-15-6. It also can be called Butanedioic acid ; Amber acid ; and 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid . It is hazardous, so the first aid measures and others should be known. Such as: When on the skin: first, should flush skin with plenty of water immediately for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing. Secondly, get medical aid. Or in the eyes: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Then get medical aid soon. While, it's inhaled: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. Give artificial respiration while not breathing. When breathing is difficult, give oxygen. And as soon as to get medical aid. Then you have the ingesting of the product: Wash mouth out with water, and get medical aid immediately.
In addition, Succinic acid (CAS NO.110-15-6) could be stable under normal temperatures and pressures. It is not compatible with?incompatible materials, reducing agents, bases, and you must not take it with incompatible materials. And also prevent it to broken down into hazardous decomposition products: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

5.18 Toxicity
1. ???

eye-rbt 1179?μg SEV

??? AJOPAA ?? American Journal of Ophthalmology. 29 (1946),1363.
2. ???

dni-hmn:fbr 20?mmol/L

??? MUREAV ?? Mutation Research. 183 (1987),89.
3. ???

orl-rat LD50:2260?mg/kg

??? KODAK* ?? Kodak Company Reports. (343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650) #82-0158 .

?Succinic acid (CAS NO.110-15-6) hasn't been listed as a carcinogen by NTP, IARC, ACGIH, or CA Prop 65. And the toxicological properties have not been fully investigated. You can see actual entry in RTECS for complete information.


2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Serious eye damage, Category 1

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Signal word


Hazard statement(s)

H318 Causes serious eye damage

Precautionary statement(s)

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.


P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026





2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification


9. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:118.08804g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:C4H6O4
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:
  • Exact Mass:118.02660867
  • Monoisotopic Mass:118.02660867
  • Complexity:92.6
  • Rotatable Bond Count:3
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:2
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:4
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:74.6
  • Heavy Atom Count:8
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
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