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Trichloroethylene structure
Trichloroethylene structure

Trichloroethylene

Iupac Name:1,1,2-trichloroethene
CAS No.:79-01-6
Molecular Weight:131.38
Introduction: A clear colorless volatile liquid having a chloroform-like odor. Denser than water and is slightly soluble in water. Noncombustible. Used as a solvent, fumigant, in the manufacture of other chemicals, and for many other uses. View more+
1. Names and Identifiers
1.1 Name
Trichloroethylene
1.2 Synonyms

EINECS 201-167-4 MFCD00000838 TRICHLOROETHYLENE EMPLURA 1 L TRICHLOROETHYLENE EMPLURA 190 L TRICHLOROETHYLENE EMPLURA 25 L Trichloroethylene, Stabilized Trichloroethylene, stabilized with 400 ppM triethylaMine Trichloroethylene, Stabilized, SpectroSolv (TM) Trichloroethylene, SuperDry, stabilized, J&KSealTRICHLOROETHYLENE FOR ANALYSIS EMSURE

1.3 CAS No.
79-01-6
1.4 CID
6575
1.5 EINECS(EC#)
201-167-4
1.6 Molecular Formula
C2HCl3 (isomer)
1.7 Inchi
InChI=1S/C2HCl3/c3-1-2(4)5/h1H
1.8 InChkey
XSTXAVWGXDQKEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
1.9 Canonical Smiles
C(=C(Cl)Cl)Cl
1.10 Isomers Smiles
C(=C(Cl)Cl)Cl
2. Properties
3.1 Density
1.462
3.1 Melting point
-86℃
3.1 Boiling point
-99° F (NTP, 1992)
3.1 Refractive index
1.476-1.478
3.1 Flash Point
greater than 200° F (NTP, 1992)
3.1 Vapour pressure
61 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
3.1 Precise Quality
129.91400
3.1 PSA
0.00000
3.1 logP
2.50170
3.1 Solubility
0.11 g/100 mL
3.2 Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. It describes the internal friction of a moving fluid.
3.3 VaporDensity
4.53 (Air = 1)
3.4 AnalyticLaboratory Methods
Method: NIOSH 1022, Issue 2; Procedure: gas chromatography with flame ionization detector; Analyte: trichloroethylene;; Matrix: air; Detection Limit: 0.01 mg/sample.
3.5 Appearance
colorless transparent flow liquid, with chloroform-like odor.
3.6 Atmospheric OH Rate Constant
2.36e-12 cm3/molecule*sec
3.7 AutoIgnition
770° F (USCG, 1999)
3.8 Autoignition Temperature
770 °F (USCG, 1999)
3.9 Carcinogenicity
Trichloroethylene is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans, sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals, and information from studies on mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
3.10 Chemical Properties
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a clear, colorless, nonflammable (at room temperature) stable toxic liquid with chloroform-like odor (ATSDR, 2011). It is slightly soluble in water, is soluble in greases and common organic solvents, and boils at 87°C (190 F).On contact with air, it slowly decomposes and forms phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and dichloroacetyl chloride. Trichloroethylene in contact with water becomes corrosive and forms dichloroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid. It is soluble in methanol, diethyl ether, and acetone.
3.11 Color/Form
CLEAR, COLORLESS, OR BLUE MOBILE LIQUID
Colorless liquid (unless dyed blue).
3.12 Contact Allergens
Trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used asa detergent or solvent for metals, oils, resins, sulfur, andas general degreasing agent. It can cause irritant contactdermatitis, generalized exanthema, Stevens-Johnson-like syndrome, pustular or bullous eruption, scleroderma,as well as neurological and hepatic disorders.
3.13 Corrosivity
Non-corrosive
3.14 Decomposition
Hazardous decomposition products formed under fire conditions - Carbon oxides, hydrogen chloride; gas.
3.15 Heat of Combustion
-6.56 kJ/g
3.16 Heat of Vaporization
34.54 kJ/mol at 25 deg C; 31.40 kJ/mol at 87.21 deg C
3.17 HenrysLawConstant
0.01 atm-m3/mole
3.18 Ionization Potential
9.45 eV
3.19 Odor
Ethereal odor
3.20 Odor Threshold
5.00X10-1 mg/l (liquid) (detection in water;)
3.21 Physical
TRICHLOROETHYLENE; is a clear colorless volatile liquid having a chloroform;-like odor. Denser than water; and is slightly soluble in water;. Noncombustible. Used as a solvent, fumigant, in the manufacture of other chemicals, and for many other uses.
3.22 Water Solubility
Slightly soluble in water. 0.11 g/100 mL
3.23 Spectral Properties
SADTLER REF NUMBER: 185 (IR, PRISM); MAX ABSORPTION: LESS THAN 200 NM (VAPOR)
Index of refraction: 1.4773 @ 20 deg C/D
IR: 62 (Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Grating Collection)
NMR: 9266 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 583 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
Intense mass spectral peaks: 60 m/z, 95 m/z, 130 m/z
3.24 Stability
Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, aluminium, magnesium, strong bases, reducing agents. Light-sensitive. Reacts violently with many metals, ozone, potassium nitrate, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide.
3.25 StorageTemp
0-6°C
3.26 Surface Tension
0.0264 N/m at 20 deg C
3.27 Toxicity Summary
IDENTIFICATION AND USE: Trichloroethylene; (TCE) is a colorless liquid (unless dyed blue). The major use of TCE is in metal cleaning or degreasing. TCE was used earlier as an extraction solvent for natural fats and oils, such as palm, coconut and soya bean oils. It was also an extraction solvent for spices, hops and the decaffeination of coffee. The United States Food and Drug Administration banned these uses of trichloroethylene;. Its use in cosmetic and drug products was also discontinued. It was also used as both an anesthetic and an analgesic in obstetrics. HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: Potential symptoms of overexposure are headache, vertigo, visual disturbance, fatigue, giddiness, tremors, somnolence, nausea and vomiting, irritation of eyes and skin, dermatitis, cardiac arrhythmias, paresthesia, liver injury. Death has occurred at very high concentrations (10,000 ppm) and was associated with cardiac arrhythmia and massive liver damage. Workers chronically exposed to levels between 38 and 172 ppm reported symptoms of sleepiness, dizziness, headache, and nausea, but no apparent trigeminal nerve disorders. In a study of Dutch workers regularly exposed to no more than 35 ppm, investigators found no trigeminal nerve impairment as measured by blink reflex, but did observe a significant association between years of exposure and masseter reflex, which is another measure of trigeminal nerve function. Increased micronucleus frequency is associated with occupational TCE exposure. TCE exerts genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells. In Tier I cancer incidence cohort studies, TCE exposure was associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer. Liver cancer incidence was elevated in most of the Tier I cancer incidence studies. Maternal residential proximity to industrial emissions of chlorinated solvents might be associated with selected birth defects in offspring, especially among older mothers. ANIMAL STUDIES: Studies on the longer-term toxicity of TCE in rats and mice exposed orally and by inhalation showed consistent increases in relative liver weight and associated histopathological and biochemical changes. The effects described in kidney included increased relative weights in mice exposed continuously to > 75 ppm (> 390 mg/cu m) TCE for 30 days and renal dysfunction in the absence of marked histopathological changes in rats exposed to > 50 ppm (> 260 mg/cu m) for 12 weeks. In rats exposed to TCE by gavage (50 or 250 mg/kg, once daily, 4 to 5 days/week for 52 weeks) there was a dose-related increase in the incidence of leukemia (immunoblastic lymphosarcomas) in males. No increase was noted in the tumor incidence of females. In TCE exposed rat and mice (7 hours/day, 5 days/week for 104 weeks at 50, 150, or 450 ppm), tumors were found mainly in the hematopoietic system, lungs, and mammary glands of mice and in the pituitary and mammary glands of rats. Administration of TCE in the diet of mice and rats at concentrations equivalent to doses of up to 300 mg/kg bw per day for two generations resulted in marginal effects on testicular weight and on survival of pups of both the F1 and F2 generations at the highest dose. In general, TCE and most of its major metabolites are not potent genotoxicants in a broad range of bacterial, lower eukaryotic, and in vitro and in vivo mammalian test systems. In mammalian cell-culture studies, TCE did not induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes, but it did induce sister chromatid exchange in CHO cells, gene mutations in mouse lymphoma cells, and morphological transformation of rat embryo cells. In rodent in vivo studies, TCE did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis, sister chromatid exchange, dominant lethal mutations, or chromosomal aberrations. TCE gave mixed results for DNA single-strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in mouse liver and positive results for micronucleus formation in mice. ECOTOXICITY STUDIES: TCE had effects on genes and proteins related to metabolism, reproduction, and growth in D. magna. Exposure of goldfish (Carassius auratus) to 0.1 mg/L TCE for >/= 60 days in a static-renewal test resulted in significantly reduced body weight and altered histopathology. Affected fathead minnows, 31 days old, in toxicant concentrations ranging from 8.43-77.3 mg/L, lost schooling behavior, swam in a corkscrew/spiral pattern near the surface, were hyperactive and hemorrhaging. TCE induced chlorosis (bleaching of needles), necrosis (death of needles), and premature needle loss over 2 decades in fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies), beech (Fagus silvatica), and other tree species.
3. Use and Manufacturing
4.1 Chemical Reactivity
Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
4.2 Definition
ChEBI: A member of the class of chloroethenes that is ethene substituted by chloro groups at positions 1, 1 and 2.
4.3 Fire Hazard
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating gases are produced in fire situations.
4.4 General Description
A clear colorless volatile liquid having a chloroform-like odor. Denser than water and is slightly soluble in water. Noncombustible. Used as a solvent, fumigant, in the manufacture of other chemicals, and for many other uses.
4.5 GHS Classification
Signal: Danger
GHS Hazard Statements
H315: Causes skin irritation [Warning Skin corrosion/irritation]
H319: Causes serious eye irritation [Warning Serious eye damage/eye irritation]
H336: May cause drowsiness or dizziness [Warning Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; Narcotic effects]
H341: Suspected of causing genetic defects [Warning Germ cell mutagenicity]
H350: May cause cancer [Danger Carcinogenicity]
H412: Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard]

Precautionary Statement Codes
P201, P202, P261, P264, P271, P273, P280, P281, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P308+P313, P312, P321, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P403+P233, P405, and P501
4.6 Methods of Manufacturing
The production of trichloroethylene; is mainly based on acetylene; or ethylene;. The acetylene; route comprises acetylene; chlorination to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; followed by dehydrochlorination to trichloroethylene;. In the ethylene;-based processes, ethylene; or ethylene;-based chlorohydrocarbons, preferably 1,2-dichloroethane;, are chlorinated or oxychlorinated and dehydrochlorinated in the same reactor. Tetrachloroethylene; is obtained as a byproduct in substantial amounts. Some production is based on the catalytic hydrogenation of tetrachloroethylene; coming from the chlorinolysis of C1 to C3 chlorohydrocarbons.
4.7 Potential Exposure
Trichloroethylene is used as a vapordegreaser of metal parts, as a solvent; and as a drug; It is alsoused for extracting caffeine from coffee, as a dry-cleaningagent; and as a chemical intermediate in the production ofpesticides; in making waxes, gums, resins, tars, paints,varnishes, and specific chemicals; such as chloroacetic acid.
4.8 Produe Method
TCE has been in commercial use for almost 60 years. TCEhas been used as a solvent because of its powerful ability to dissolve fats, greases, and waxes. It has been widely used inthe dry cleaning industry and as a metal degreaser and in theelectronic components industry where workers have beenobserved using it as a cleaning solvent without any protectiveequipment, thus allowing uncontrolled skin contact andinhalation exposures.
4.9 Purification Methods
Tricloroethylene undergoes decomposition in a similar way as CHCl3, giving HCl, CO, COCl2 and organic products. It reacts with KOH, NaOH and 90% H2SO4, and forms azeotropes with water, MeOH, EtOH, and acetic acid. It is purified by washing successively with 2M HCl, water and 2M K2CO3, then dried with K2CO3 and CaCl2, then fractionally distilled before use. It has also been steam distilled from 10% Ca(OH)2 slurry, most of the water being removed from the distillate by cooling to -30o to -50o and filtering off the ice through chamois skin: the trichloroethylene is then fractionally distilled at 250mm pressure and collected in a blackened container. [Carlisle & Levine Ind Eng Chem (Anal Ed) 24 1164 1932, Beilstein 1 IV 712.]
4.10 Safety Profile
Confirmed carcinogenwith experimental carcinogenic, tumorigenic,and teratogenic data. Experimentalpoison by intravenous and subcutaneousroutes. Moderately toxic experimentally byingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Mildlytoxic to humans by ingestion and inhalation.Mildly toxic experimentally by inhalation.Human systemic effects by ingestion andinhalation: eye effects, somnolence,hallucinations or distorted perceptions,gastrointestinal changes, and jaundice.Experimental reproductive effects. Humanmutation data reported. An eye and severeskin irritant. Inhalation of highconcentrations causes narcosis andanesthesia. A form of addiction has beenobserved in exposed workers. Prolongedinhalation of moderate concentrationscauses headache and drowsiness. Fatalitiesfollowing severe, acute exposure have beenattributed to ventricular fibrdlation resultingin cardiac failure. There is damage to liverand other organs from chronic exposure. Acommon air contaminant.Nonflammable, but high concentrationsof trichloroethylene vapor in hightemperatureair can be made to burn mildlyif plied with a strong flame. Though such acondition is difficult to produce, flames orarcs should not be used in closed equipmentthat contains any solvent residue or vapor.Reacts with alkali, epoxides, e.g., l-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane, 1,4-butanediol mono-2,3-epoxypropylether, 1,4-butanediol di-2,3-epoxypropylether, 2,2-bis [(4(2',3'-epoxypropoxy)phenyl)propane] to form thespontaneously flammable gas dichloroacetylene. Can react violently withAl, Ba, N2O4, Li, Mg, liquid O2, O3, KOH,KNO3, Na, NaOH, Ti. Reacts with waterunder heat and pressure to form HCl gas.When heated to decomposition it emitstoxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLORINATEDHYDROCARBONS,ALIPHATIC.
4.11 Shipping
UN1710 Trichloroethylene, Hazard Class: 6.1;Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
4.12 Storage
Ambient temperatures.
4.13 Usage
Trichloroethylene is used as a solvent, in drycleaning, in degreasing, and in limited use asa surgical anesthetic.
4. Safety and Handling
5.1 Symbol
GHS07;GHS08;
5.1 Hazard Codes
T
5.1 Signal Word
DANGER
5.1 Risk Statements
R36/38;R45;R52/53;R67
5.1 Safety Statements
S45;S53;S61
5.1 Exposure Standards and Regulations
Trichloroethylene is an indirect food additive for use as a component of adhesives.
Tolerances are established for residues of trichloroethylene resulting from its use as a solvent in the manufacture of foods as follows: decaffeinated ground coffee 25 ppm; decaffeinated soluble (instant) coffee extract 10 ppm; and spice oleoresins 30 ppm (provided that if residues of other chlorinated solvents are also present, the total of all residues of such solvents in spice oleoresins shall not exceed 30 ppm).
5.2 Packing Group
III
5.2 Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow= 2.61
5.3 Other Preventative Measures
Recommended ventilation design concentrations: 100 ppm; dilution rate: 30,000 cu ft air/lb solvent flow.
PVC and natural rubber should not be used when cleaning up a TCE spill. Equipment should not be iron or metal, or be susceptible to hydrogen chloride.
Processes employing trichloroethylene should be designed so that the operator is not exposed to direct contact with the solvent or its vapor. Open electric heaters, high-temp processes, arc welding or open flames should not be used in environments with trichloroethylene vapor. ... Workers should be given instruction in the safe handling ... and be well acquainted with the hazards that may result from improper use. ... Adequate sanitary facilities should be provided and workers encouraged to wash before eating and at the end of the shift.
Trichloroethylene should not be stored near foodstuffs, strong acids, alkalis, or oxidizing agents.
Stop discharge if possible. Keep people away. Avoid contact with liquid and vapor. Call fire department. Isolate and remove discharged material. Notify local health and pollution control agencies.
Avoid long contact with skin.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary.
Personnel protection: Keep upwind. ... Avoid breathing vapors or dusts. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... Clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.4 Hazard Class
6.1
5.4 Hazard Declaration
H315; H319; H336; H341; H350; H412
5.4 Cleanup Methods
Contain and isolate spill by using clay/bentonite dams, interceptor trenches, or impoundments. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Construct swale to divert uncontaminated portion of watershed around contaminated portion. ... Density stratification and impoundment -- remove product from bottom layer by pumping through manifold or polyethylene rope mop collection or remove clarified upper portion by skimmers or siphon. Treatment is required for both clarified and concentrated fractions. Treatment alternatives include powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon, and biodegradation. /Other/ treatment alternatives for contaminated soils include well point collection and treatment of leachates as for contaminated waters, bentonite/cement injection to immobilize spill.
Waste water treatment: evaporation from water at 25 deg C of 1 ppm solution: 50% after 19-24 min, 90% after 63-80 min
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder.
Environmental consideration: Water spill: If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentations, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Remove trapped material with suction hoses. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Combustion products include corrosive or toxic vapors.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.5 DisposalMethods
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste numbers U228, D040, and F002 must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. An alternative to disposal for trichloroethylene is recovery and recycling.
Group I Containers: Combustible containers from organic or metallo-organic pesticides (except organic mercury, lead, cadmium, or arsenic compounds) should be disposed of in pesticide incinerators or in specified landfill sites. /Organic or metallo-organic pesticides/
This compound should be susceptible to removal from wastewater by air stripping.
Chemical Treatability of Trichloroethylene; Concentration Process: Activated Carbon; Chemical Classification: Halogens; Scale of Study: Pilot Scale/Continuous Flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Hazardous Material Spill; Influent Concentration: 21 ppb; Results of Study: 98.6% removal with 0.3 ppb detected in effluent after 8.5 min contact time (250,000 gal spilled materials treated with EPA mobile treatment trailer).
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for trichloroethylene: Concentration process: Biological treatment.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for trichloroethylene: Concentration process: Chemical precipitation.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for trichloroethylene: Concentration process: Stripping.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for trichloroethylene: Concentration process: Solvent extraction.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for trichloroethylene: Concentration process: Activated carbon.
Trichloroethylene is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.
A potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids. A potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and longer for solids. A potential candidate for liquid injection incineration at a temperature range of 650 to 1,600 deg C and a residence time of 0.1 to 2 seconds.
Recovering: Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. An alternative to disposal for TCE /trichloroethylene/ is recovery and recycling. Recommendable method: Incineration. Not recommendable method: Discharge to sewer.
Incineration & evaporation: Small quantities may be poured onto a 10% soda ash and sand mixture, then placed in a paper container and incinerated. Wastes from cleaning operations should be stored in a well ventilated area until they can be incinerated or chemically treated to reduce the toxicity. Residues may be poured on sand, soil or ashes, at a safe distance from occupied areas and allowed to evaporate in the atmosphere.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
5.6 DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Health: Toxic by ingestion. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Exposure in an enclosed area may be very harmful. Contact may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Fire or Explosion: Some of these materials may burn, but none ignite readily. Most vapors are heavier than air. Air/vapor mixtures may explode when ignited. Container may explode in heat of fire.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Small liquid spills: Take up with sand, earth or other non-combustible absorbent material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas.
/GUIDE 160: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Wash skin with soap and water. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
5.7 RIDADR
UN 1710
5.7 Fire Fighting Procedures
Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Use water spray, dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide. Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire.
If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.)
5.8 FirePotential
FIRE HAZARD: LOW, WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT. HIGH CONCN OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE VAPOR IN HIGH TEMP AIR CAN BE MADE TO BURN MILDLY IF APPLIED WITH STRONG FLAME. THOUGH SUCH CONDITION IS DIFFICULT TO PRODUCE, FLAMES OR ARCS SHOULD NOT BE USED IN CLOSED EQUIPMENT WHICH CONTAINS ANY SOLVENT RESIDUE OR VAPOR.
At normal handling temperatures, trichloroethylene behaves as a non-flammable, non-burnable substance.
5.9 Caution Statement
P201-P308 + P313
5.9 Formulations/Preparations
Trichloroethylene for medicinal purposes may contain thymol as a preservative. Industrial grades ... may contain stabilizers, such as triethanolamine.
Grades: USP; technical; high purity; electronic; metal degreasing; extraction.
Trichloroethylene is available in the USA in high-purity, electronic USP, technical, metal degreasing and extraction grades
Commercial grades of trichloroethylene, formulated to meet use requirements, differ in the amount and type of added inhibitor. Typical grades contain >99% trichloroethylene; they include a neutrally inhibited vapor-degreasing grade and a technical grade for use in formulations.
Stabilizers that have been used in formulations of trichloroethylene include neutral inhibitors and free-radical scavengers, amyl alcohol, n-propanol, isobutanol, 2-pentanol, diethylamine, triethylamine, dipropylamine, diisopropylamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, morpholine, N-methylmorpholine, aniline, acetone, ethyl acetate, borate esters, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, 1,2-epoxybutane, cyclohexene oxide, butadiene dioxide, styrene oxide, pentene oxide, 2,3-epoxy-1-propenol, 3-methoxy-1,2-epoxypropane, stearates, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, 2-methyl-1,2-epoxypropanol, epoxycyclopentanol, epichlorohydrin, tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, 1,4-dioxane, dioxalane, trioxane, alkoxyaldehyde hydrazones, methyl ethyl ketone, nitromethanes, nitropropanes, phenol, ortho-cresol, thymol, para-tert-butylphenol, para-tert-amylphenol, isoeugenol, pyrrole, N-methylpyrrole, N-ethylpyrrole, (2-pyrryl)trimethylsilane, glycidyl acetate, isocyanates and thiazoles.
5.10 Incompatibilities
Contact with strong caustics causesdecomposition and the production of highly toxic and flammabledichloroacetylene. Violent reaction with chemicallyactive metals; powders, or shavings, such as aluminum,barium, lithium, sodium, magnesium, and titanium. Violentreaction with aluminum in the presence of dilute hydrochloricacid. Thermal decomposition of trichloroethylene,due to contact with hot metal or UV radiation, forms hazardousproducts including chlorine gas, hydrogen chloride;and phosgene. Keep this chemical away from high temperatures,such as arc welding or cutting, unshielded resistanceheating; open flames; and high intensity UV light. Slowlydecomposed by light in presence of moisture, with formulationof hydrochloric acid.
5.11 WGK Germany
3
5.11 RTECS
KX4550000
5.11 Protective Equipment and Clothing
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possbility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
ORGANIC VAPOR-ACID CANISTER; SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS FOR EMERGENCIES; NEOPRENE OR VINYL GLOVES; CHEMICAL SAFETY GOGGLES; FACE-SHIELD; NEOPRENE SAFETY SHOES; NEOPRENE SUIT OR APRON FOR SPLASH PROTECTION.
/Wear/ positive-pressure hose masks, airline masks or an industrial canister-type gas mask fitted with an appropriate canister for absorbing trichloroethylene vapor are acceptable.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... Gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Cleaning of confined spaces presents serious hazards: the gas should be dispelled by mobile ventilators before workers are permitted to enter, safety belts & lifelines & respiratory protective equipment of the self-contained or supplied-air type should be avail, & another worker should be posted outside for supervision & rescue, if necessary.
5.12 Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Strong caustics and alkalis; chemically-active metals (such as barium, lithium, sodium, magnesium, titanium, and berylium).
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane, the mono- and di-2,3-epoxypropyl ethers of 1,4-butanediol, and 2,2-bis-4(2',3'-epoxypropoxy)-phenyl-propane can, in presence of catalytic quantities of halide ions, cause dehydrochlorination of trichloroethylene to dichloroacetylene, which causes minor explosions when the mixture is boiled under reflux.
Granular barium in contact with trichloroethylene is susceptible to detonation.
Mixtures of powdered beryllium with trichloroethylene will flash on heavy impact.
Mixtures of lithium shavings and trichloroethylene are impact-sensitive and willexplode, sometimes violently.
Mixtures of powdered magnesium with trichloroethylene will flash on heavy impact.
Mixtures of powdered titanium and trichloroethylene flash or spark under heavy impact.
Trichloroethylene reacts violently with the anhydrous perchloric acid.
Mixtures of dinitrogen tetraoxide with trichloroethylene react violently on heating to 150 deg C.
Mixture of liquid oxygen with dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and chlorinated dye penetrants 1 and 2 exploded violently when initiated with a blasting cap.
In the presence of strong alkali (eg, sodium hydroxide), trichloroethylene can decompose into dichloroacetylene, an explosive, flammable, and highly toxic compound.
Formation of phosgene, a highly toxic gas, was observed when trichloroethylene came into contact with iron, copper, zinc, or aluminum over the temperature range 250 deg C to 600 deg C.
Mixtures of trichloroethylene and oxygen will ignite at temperatures above 25.5 deg C when the trichloroethylene concentration is between 10.3 and 64.5%.
PHOTOREACTIVE LIQUID; WILL NOT ATTACK COMMON METALS EVEN IN PRESENCE OF MOISTURE
An emulsion, formed during extraction of a strongly alkaline liquor with trichloroethylene, decomposed with the evolution of the spontaneously flammable gas, dichloroacetylene. This reaction could also occur if alkaline metal-stripping preparations were used in conjunction with trichloroethylene degreasing preparations, some of which also contain amine inhibitors which could cause the same reaction.
Mixtures of dinitrogen tetraoxide with trichloroethylene are explosive when subjected to shock of 25 g TNT equivalent or less.
Aluminum powder reaction when /exposed/ to trichloroethylene.
Incompatibilities: Strong caustics; when acidic reacts with aluminum; chemical active metals-barium, lithium, sodium, magnesium, titanium.
5.13 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Exposure to trichloroethylene vapor may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.
Liquid: irritating to skin and eyes.
5.14 Specification

The Trichloroethylene, with the cas registry number 79-01-6, is a kind of colorless oily liquid with the similar smell with chloroform. This chemical is slight soluble in water and completely soluble in common organic solvent and it is stable chemically while incompatible with oxidizing agents, aluminium, magnesium, strong bases, reducing agents. Besides, it is light-sensitive and then could react violently with many metals, ozone, potassium nitrate, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide. In addition, its product categories are including refrigerants; Organics; Analytical Chemistry; Standard Solution of Volatile Organic Compounds for Water & Soil Analysis; Standard Solutions (VOC).

The physical properties of this chemical are as follows: (1)ACD/LogP: 2.26; (2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 0; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 2.26; (4)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 2.26; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 30.61; (6)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 30.61; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 402.89; (8)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 402.89; (9)Index of Refraction: 1.489; (10)Molar Refractivity: 25.76 cm3; (11)Molar Volume: 89.1 cm3; (12)Polarizability: 10.21 ×10-24 cm3; (13)Surface Tension: 31 dyne/cm; (14)Density: 1.474 g/cm3; (15)Flash Point: 12.1 °C; (16)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 31.4 kJ/mol; (17)Boiling Point: 87.2 °C at 760 mmHg; (18)Vapour Pressure: 72.4 mmHg at 25°C; (19)Exact Mass: 129.914383; (20)MonoIsotopic Mass: 129.914383; (21)Topological Polar Surface Area: 0; (22)Heavy Atom Count: 5; (23)Formal Charge: 0; (24)Complexity: 42.9.

Use of this chemical: Trichloroethylene could react to produce dichloroethyne, with the following condition: reagent: NaOH; reaction temp.: 260 °C.

As to its usage, it is widely applied in many ways. It could be used in producing indigo and other dye and also could make henchloroacetic acid; It could aslo be used as the metal detergent, dry cleaning agent, agricultural insecticide in the field of industrial solvent; Then it is usually used in many other ways, such as being the noninflammable solvent, analysis reagent, extracting solvent, and also in chemical cleaning, industrial degreasing, and chemical raw materials.

When you are dealing with this kind of chemical, you should be much more careful and then take some measures to protect yourself. For one thing, it is irritating to eyes and skin. For another thing, it is toxic which has the danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. In addition, it is harmful to aquatic organisms which may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Then it has other hazard. It may cause cancer and will have possible risk of irreversible effects. Therefore, you should wear suitable protective clothing and gloves, and if in case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible). And then avoid exposure - obtain special instruction before use. Lastly, do remember not to release to the environment, and you could refer to special instructions safety data sheet.?????

In addition, you could convert the following datas into the molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: C(=C(Cl)Cl)Cl
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/C2HCl3/c3-1-2(4)5/h1H
(3)InChIKey: XSTXAVWGXDQKEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Below are the toxicity information of this chemical:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LCLo inhalation 32500mg/m3/2H (32500mg/m3) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Archiv fuer Hygiene und Bakteriologie. Vol. 116, Pg. 131, 1936.
cat LDLo oral 5864mg/kg (5864mg/kg) ? "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 5, Pg. 76, 1959.
dog LD50 intraperitoneal 1900mg/kg (1900mg/kg) LIVER: LIVER FUNCTION TESTS IMPAIRED Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 10, Pg. 119, 1967.
?
dog LDLo intravenous 150mg/kg (150mg/kg) ? Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. Vol. 7, Pg. 205, 1934.
dog LDLo subcutaneous 150mg/kg (150mg/kg) ? "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 5, Pg. 76, 1959.
guinea pig LCLo inhalation 37200ppm/40M (37200ppm) ? "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 5, Pg. 76, 1959.
human LDLo oral 7gm/kg (7000mg/kg) ? Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 35, Pg. 295, 1976.
?
human TCLo inhalation 160ppm/83M (160ppm) BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS" American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 23, Pg. 167, 1962.
?
human TCLo inhalation 500ppm/16.1Y- (500ppm) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: CHANGES IN BOTH TUBULES AND GLOMERULI

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: PROTEINURIS
Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 73, Pg. 246, 1999.
?
human TCLo inhalation 812mg/kg (812mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LIVER: "JAUNDICE, OTHER OR UNCLASSIFIED"

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
British Medical Journal. Vol. 2, Pg. 689, 1945.
human TCLo inhalation 6900mg/m3/10M (6900mg/m3) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"
Archiv fuer Hygiene und Bakteriologie. Vol. 116, Pg. 131, 1936.
man LCLo inhalation 2900ppm (2900ppm) ? New Zealand Medical Journal. Vol. 50, Pg. 119, 1951.
?
man TCLo inhalation 110ppm/8H (110ppm) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"
British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 28, Pg. 293, 1971.
?
man TDLo oral 1mL/kg (1mL/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Toxicological Sciences. Vol. 41, Pg. 157, 1998.
man TDLo oral 2143mg/kg (2143mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 602, 1969.
mouse LC50 inhalation 8450ppm/4H (8450ppm) ? Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 9, Pg. 303, 1953.
?
mouse LD50 intravenous 33900ug/kg (33.9mg/kg) ? "Summary Tables of Biological Tests," National Research Council Chemical-Biological Coordination Center. Vol. 6, Pg. 141, 1954.
mouse LD50 oral 2402mg/kg (2402mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A080-636,
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 16gm/kg (16000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SLEEP

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 123, Pg. 224, 1958.
?
rabbit LCLo inhalation 11000ppm (11000ppm) ? FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 48A, Pg. 121, 1970.
rabbit LD50 skin > 20gm/kg (20000mg/kg) ? National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A062-138,
rabbit LDLo oral 7330mg/kg (7330mg/kg) ? "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 5, Pg. 76, 1959.
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 1800mg/kg (1800mg/kg) ? Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. Vol. 7, Pg. 205, 1934.
rat LCLo inhalation 4800ppm/4H (4800ppm) ? AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 4, Pg. 469, 1951.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 1282mg/kg (1282mg/kg) ? Environmental Research. Vol. 40, Pg. 411, 1986.
?
rat LD50 oral 4920mg/kg (4920mg/kg) ? Industrial Health. Vol. 32, Pg. 145, 1994.
?
rat LDLo intratracheal 150mg/kg (150mg/kg) ? National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0520615,

?

5.15 Toxicity

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
KX4550000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Ethylene, trichloro-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
79-01-6
BEILSTEIN REFERENCE NO. :
1736782
LAST UPDATED :
199803
DATA ITEMS CITED :
165
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C2-H-Cl3
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
131.38
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
GYGU1G

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
DOSE/DURATION :
7 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
2143 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Gastrointestinal - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
DOSE/DURATION :
6900 mg/m3/10M
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Behavioral - hallucinations, distorted perceptions
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
DOSE/DURATION :
160 ppm/83M
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - hallucinations, distorted perceptions
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
DOSE/DURATION :
812 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Gastrointestinal - other changes Liver - jaundice, other or unclassified
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
110 ppm/8H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - effect, not otherwise specified Behavioral - hallucinations, distorted perceptions
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
2900 ppm
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5650 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
4800 ppm/4H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1282 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intratracheal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
150 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
2402 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - ataxia Skin and Appendages - hair
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
8450 ppm/4H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
16 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - sleep Behavioral - ataxia
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
33900 ug/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
1900 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - liver function tests impaired
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
150 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
150 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
5864 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
32500 mg/m3/2H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - spastic paralysis with or without sensory change Behavioral - general anesthetic Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay)
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
7330 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
11000 ppm
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
>20 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1800 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
37200 ppm/40M
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1160 mg/kg/8W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - demyelination
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
84 gm/kg/2W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - changes in bladder weight Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
130 gm/kg/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
24 gm/kg/6W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - phosphatases
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
4380 ppm/4H/2W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - ataxia Behavioral - changes in psychophysiological tests
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
3200 ppm/12H/14W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - recordings from specific areas of CNS Sense Organs and Special Senses (Ear) - change in acuity
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
150 ppm/24H/30D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
2400 ppm/6H/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Ear) - change in acuity
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
50 mg/m3/5H/26W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - recordings from specific areas of CNS Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
300 ppm/24H/12W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Blood - changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) Liver - changes in liver weight Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - lipids including transport
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
60 gm/kg/15W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - other changes Liver - changes in liver weight Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - other proteins
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
48 gm/kg/4W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - dehydrogenases Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - transaminases
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
49080 mg/kg/17W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Blood - changes in bone marrow (not otherwise specified) Immunological Including Allergic - decrease in humoral immune response
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
150 ppm/24H/30D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - phosphatases
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
182 gm/kg/26W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - changes in bladder weight Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
13 gm/kg/5D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
3360 mg/kg/14D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
3941 mg/kg/3D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Endocrine - changes in spleen weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
10000 ppm/1H/12D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory depression Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
3825 mg/m3/8H/6W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
500 ppm/4H/8W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
350 ppm/4H/12W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - recordings from specific areas of CNS
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
100 mg/m3/4H/39W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition Blood - changes in leukocyte (WBC) count Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - other esterases
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
400 ppm/7H/35W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - gerbil
DOSE/DURATION :
150 ppm/24H/30D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes Liver - changes in liver weight Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - phosphatases
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - gerbil
DOSE/DURATION :
320 ppm/24H/90D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - lipids including transport
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
150 ppm/7H/2Y-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors Skin and Appendages - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
455 gm/kg/78W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Liver - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
150 ppm/7H/2Y-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Vascular - tumors Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - hamster
DOSE/DURATION :
100 ppm/6H/77W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Blood - lymphoma, including Hodgkin's disease Liver - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
912 gm/kg/78W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Liver - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TC - Toxic concentration (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
500 ppm/6H/77W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Blood - lymphoma, including Hodgkin's disease
TYPE OF TEST :
TC - Toxic concentration (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
150 ppm/7H/2Y-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors Skin and Appendages - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TD - Toxic dose (other than lowest)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
515 gm/kg/2Y-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Liver - tumors Blood - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
2688 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-22 day(s) after conception lactating female 21 day(s) post-birth
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - behavioral
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
36 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 15 day(s) pre-mating female 1-21 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
1140 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 14 day(s) pre-mating - 21 day(s) post-birth
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
1800 ppm/24H
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-20 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - other developmental abnormalities
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
100 ppm/4H
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-22 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
1800 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-20 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - urogenital system
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
100 ppm/4H
SEX/DURATION :
female 8-21 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
100 ppm/7H
SEX/DURATION :
male 5 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
150 ppm/24H
SEX/DURATION :
male 4 week(s) pre-mating female 4 week(s) pre-mating - 3 week(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System
TYPE OF TEST :
Micronucleus test
TYPE OF TEST :
Unscheduled DNA synthesis
TYPE OF TEST :
Specific locus test
TYPE OF TEST :
DNA damage
TYPE OF TEST :
Unscheduled DNA synthesis
TYPE OF TEST :
Mutation test systems - not otherwise specified
TYPE OF TEST :
Sperm Morphology

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
DNA adduct
TEST SYSTEM :
Mammal - species unspecified Lymphocyte
REFERENCE :
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977- Volume(issue)/page/year: 11,243,1982 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIN TLV-Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-STEL 537 mg/m3 (100 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 269 mg/m3 (50 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 20,545,1979 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 63,75,1995 IARC Cancer Review:Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 63,75,1995 IARC Cancer Review:Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 20,545,1979 IARC Cancer Review:Group 3 IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979- Volume(issue)/page/year: 7,364,1987 IARC Cancer Review:Group 2A IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 63,75,1995 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76- Volume(issue)/page/year: 2,671,1977 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CLPTAT Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (St. Louis). (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63146) V.1- 1960- Volume(issue)/page/year: 8,91,1967 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW JJOMDZ JOM, Journal of Occupational Medicine. (American Occupational Medicine Assoc., 150 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606) V.10- 1968- Volume(issue)/page/year: 16,194,1974 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW JJOMDZ JOM, Journal of Occupational Medicine. (American Occupational Medicine Assoc., 150 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606) V.10- 1968- Volume(issue)/page/year: 17,603,1975 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR. Volume(issue)/page/year: 2,67,1973 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW BNYMAM Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (New York Academy of Medicine, 2 E. 103rd St., New York, NY 10029) Ser 2: V.1- 1925- Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,413,1978 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1981- Volume(issue)/page/year: 13,747,1989 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC. Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,417,1981 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,263,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 100 ppm;CL 200;Pk 300/5M/2H CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 50 ppm (270 mg/m3);STEL 200 ppm (1080 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 50 ppm (269 mg/m3);STEL 200 ppm (1070 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 30 ppm (160 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 30 ppm (160 mg/m3);STEL 45 ppm (240 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 75 ppm (405 mg/m3);STEL 200 ppm (1080 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY:TWA 50 ppm (270 mg/m3);Carcinogen JAN 1993 OEL-HUNGARY:TWA 10 mg/m3;STEL 40 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:TWA 50 ppm (270 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 35 ppm (190 mg/m3);STEL 100 ppm JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-POLAND:TWA 50 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:TWA 50 ppm;STEL 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 10 ppm (50 mg/m3);STEL 25 ppm (140 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-THAILAND:TWA 100 ppm;STEL 200 ppm JAN 1993 OEL-TURKEY:TWA 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 100 ppm (535 mg/m3);STEL 150 ppm;Skin JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE-air:10H CA TWA 25 ppm;CL 2 ppm/1H REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO WASTE ANESTHETIC GASES AND VAPORS-air:CL 2 ppm/1H REFERENCE : MMWR** MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333) V.25(10)- 1976- for RTECS citation, only V.34(Suppl 1S), 1985 is used. Volume(issue)/page/year: 37(S-7),28,1988 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 73790 No. of Facilities: 37699 (estimated) No. of Industries: 251 No. of Occupations: 141 No. of Employees: 446588 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 73790 No. of Facilities: 23225 (estimated) No. of Industries: 192 No. of Occupations: 143 No. of Employees: 401373 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 175316 (estimated)
5. MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin irritation, Category 2

Eye irritation, Category 2

Specific target organ toxicity \u2013 single exposure, Category 3

Germ cell mutagenicity, Category 2

Carcinogenicity, Category 1B

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term (Chronic) - Category Chronic 3

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H315 Causes skin irritation

H319 Causes serious eye irritation

H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness

H341 Suspected of causing genetic defects

H350 May cause cancer

H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

P273 Avoid release to the environment.

Response

P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P332+P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P337+P313 If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.

Storage

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P405 Store locked up.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

9. Other Information
9.0 Usage
Trichloroethylene is used as solvent for paints, dyes, waxes, oils, fats and resins, as an additive in polymerization reactions, as a reactant to prepare various halohydrocarbons (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and other chemicals, as a coolant for cutting tantalum and acts as good heat transfer medium. It is used in fire extinguisher fluids and in the recovery of oils and greases.
9.1 Usage
Trichloroethylene is used as household cleaner, with trichloroethane it is used in most typewriter correction fluid. It is also used in wool-fabric scouring, as extractant for spice oleoresins. Intermediate in the production of pentachloroethane
9.2 Usage
Trichloroethylene is used in spectrophotometry and environmental testing.
10. Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:131.38g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:C2HCl3
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:
  • Exact Mass:129.914383
  • Monoisotopic Mass:129.914383
  • Complexity:42.9
  • Rotatable Bond Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:0
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:0
  • Heavy Atom Count:5
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
11. Question & Answer
  • I'm sorry. I mislead you. Temperature changes, and the boiling points of the liquid have nothing to do with this problem as I erroneously commented. The correct approach is to simply apply Raoult's law . For some temperature T, let p i ∗ = " style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="M...
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