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Home> Hot Product Listed 2   > 2-Furaldehyde

2-Furaldehyde

CAS No.:98-01-1
EINECS(EC#):202-627-7
Molecular Weight:96.08
Molecular Formula:C5H4O2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
MOL File:98-01-1.mol
Properties
Appearance
colourless to reddish-brown oily liquid with almond odour
Density
1.16
Melting Point
-36℃
Boiling Point
167℃
Refractive Index
1.525-1.527
Flash Point
60℃
Water
8.3 g/100 mL
Solubilities
8.3 g/100 mL
Color/Form
very deep brown
Stability
Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and strong acids. Flammable.
Storage temp
2-8°C
Spectral properties
Index of refraction = 1.5261 at 20 deg C/D
Sadtler Reference Number: 113 (IR, Prism); 35 (IR, Grating); max absorption (sulfuric acid): 280 nm (log E = 3.07) (initial)
2-Furaldehyde, 99%, exhibits its two strongest infra red absorption bands at wavelengths of 6.0 and 13.3 microns.
MASS: 68584 (NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral Database 1990 version)
IR: 6172 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
UV: 42 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
1H NMR: 95 (Varian Associates NMR Spectra Catalogue)
Safety and Handling
Hazard Codes
T
Risk Statements
R21;R23/25;R36/37;R40
Safety Statements
S1/2;S26;S36/37/39;S45
HazardClass
6.1
Hazard Note
Irritant
Safety

Confirmed carcinogen. Poison by ingestion, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intramuscular routes. Moderately toxic by inhalation and skin contact. Human mutation data reported. A skin and eye irritant. Mutation data reported. The liquid is dangerous to the eyes. The vapor is irritating to mucous membranes and is a central nervous system poison. However, its low volatility reduces its toxicity effect. Ingestion of furfural has produced cirrhosis of the liver in rats. In industry there is a tendency to minimize the danger of acute effects resulting from exposure to it. This is particularly true because of its low volatility.
Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame or by chemical reaction. An exothermic polymerization of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalies. Keep away from heat and open flames. Mixture with sodium hydrogen carbonate ignites spontaneously. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Hazard Codes: IrritantXiToxicT
Risk Statements: 21-23/25-36/37-40 
R21: Harmful in contact with skin
R23/25: Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R36/37: Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
R40: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
Safety Statements: 26-36/37/39-45-1/2 
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
S36/37/39: Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
S1/2: Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
RIDADR: UN 1199 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: LT7000000
F: 1-8-10
F 1: Sensitive to air and humidity
F 8: Photosensitive
F 9: Keep under nitrogen
F 10: Keep under argon
Hazard Note: Irritant
HazardClass: 6.1
PackingGroup: II
Contact with furfural irritates the skin and respiratory tract and can cause the lungs to fill with fluid.When ingested or inhaled, furfural can cause intoxication, including euphoria, nausea, headache, dizziness, and eventual unconsciousness and death due to respiratory failure. 
Chronic skin exposure can lead to a skin allergy to the substance, as well as an unusual susceptibility to sunburn. 

PackingGroup
II
Sensitive
Air Sensitive
Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Vapor may irritate eyes & respiratory system. Liquid irritates skin ...
Furfural is a skin, eye, and mucous membrane irritant. Although the vapor is a potent irritant, the liquid has a relatively low volatility so that inhalation of significant quantities by workers in unlikely. Exposure of workers to air concentrations of from 2-14 ppm cause complaints of eye and throat irritation and headache. The liquid is irritating to the skin, and contact can cause dermatitis.
Cleanup Methods
1. Remove all ignition sources. 2. Ventilate area of spill or leak. 3. For small quantities, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in a safe place ... Allow sufficient time for evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork. Burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials. For large quantities, cover with sodium bisulfite, add a small amt of water & mix. ... After 1 hr, flush with large amt of water & wash site with soap solution.
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder. Add sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3).
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom. Inject "universal" gelling agent to solidify encircled spill and increase effectiveness of booms. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Combustion products include corrosive or toxic vapors.
Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors and protect personnel. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
Transport
UN 1199
Fire Fighting Procedures
Use water spray, dry chemical, "alcohol resistant" form, or carbon dioxide. use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Fire Potential
Flammability of furfural is comparable to that of kerosene or No 1 fuel oil.
Combustible liquid
Formulations/Preparations
GRADE: Technical, refined.
Natural, synthetic, industrial, 98% grades
DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire or Explosion: Flammable/combustible materials. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is recommended for fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Fire: Some of these materials may react violently with water. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Do not get water inside containers. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers ... . Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces.
/GUIDE 132P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS - CORROSIVE/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
Exposure Standards and Regulations
Furfural is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
Reactivities and Incompatibilities
...Can react with oxidizing materials.
An exothermic polymerization of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalies.
Strong acids, oxidizers, strong alkalis [Note: May polymerize on contact with strong acids or strong alkalis].
Several cases of spontaneous ignition after exposure to air of fine coke particles removed from filter strainers on a petroleum refinery furfural extraction unit have been noted. This has been associated with the use of sodium hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) injected into the plant for pH control, which produced a pH of 10.5 locally. This would tend to resinify the aldehyde, but there is also the possibility of a Cannizzaro reaction causing conversion of the aldehyde to furfuryl alcohol and furoic acid. The latter, together with other acidic products of autoxidation of the aldehyde, would tend to resinify the furfuryl alcohol. Pyrolysis GLC showed the presence of a significant proportion of furfuryl alcohol-derived resins in the coke. The latter is now discarded into drums of water, immediately after discharge from the strainers, to prevent further incidents.
In a variation of the usual reaction condition for oxidizing furfuraldehyde to 2-furoic acid with hypochlorite, the aldehyde was added dropwise to a 10% excess fo commercial sodium hypochlorite solution at 20-25 deg C, but without the inclusion of additional sodium hydroxide. When aldehyde addition was almost complete, a violent explosion occurred. Subsequent investigation showed that the pH of the reaction mixture fell progressively with addition of aldehyde, and at pH 8.5 the reaction mixture erupted violently, the temperature increased by 70 deg C and the pH fell to 2 ...
/Furfural/ attacks many plastics.
Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
During the handling or processing of furfural, exhaust ventilation & general ventilation should be provided to keep the atmospheric concn below recommended levels. ... Measures to prevent inhalation hazards will normally be sufficient to prevent the formation of explosive mixtures; the products should be confined as much as practicable, especially when heated, to prevent the escape of vapor, and sources of ignition should be eliminated.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Use water spray to disperse vapors and dilute vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid.
If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (formerly Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) or by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation.
Clothing contaminated with liquid furfural should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of furfural from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or otherwise cleaned to remove the furfural, the person performing the operation should be informed of furfural's hazardous properties. Nonimpervious clothing which becomes contaminated with liquid furfural should be removed immediately and not reworn until the furfural is removed from the clothing.
Employees who handle liquid furfural should wash their hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
Keep away from heat and open flame.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers.
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
Protective Equipment and Clothing
Persons required to handle furfural ... should wear personal protective equipment to avoid skin contact, including eye & face protection & hand protection. Where brief exposure to high atmospheric concn is possible workers should wear respiratory protective equipment.
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face-shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possibility of skin contact with furfural. Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof goggles where there is any possibility of liquid furfural contacting the eyes.
Breakthrough times greater than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for butyl rubber (butyl) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Some data suggesting breakthrough times of approximately an hour or more for natural rubber (Nat.rub) and neoprene (neop). Breakthrough times less (usually significantly less) than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for nitrile rubber (nitrile). No data for neoprene istyrene-butadiene rubber (Neop/SBR), nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (nitrile/PVC), polyurethane (PU), viton, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), and polyethylene (PE).
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Respirator Recommendations : Up to 100 ppm: (Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s)./(Assigned Protection Factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s). Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece./(Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
Respirator Recommendations : Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations : Up to 50 ppm: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s). Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./(Assigned Protection Factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection.
Respirator Recommendations : Escape: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister/Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow= 0.41
Report

NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage); Clear Evidence: mouse NCITR*    National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NTP-TR-382,90, . , Some Evidence: rat NCITR*    National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NTP-TR-382 ,1990. . EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Disposal Methods
[40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/2005)] Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U125, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U125, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Furfural is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. /From table/
Group I Containers: Combustible containers from organic or metallo-organic pesticides (except organic mercury, lead, cadmium, or arsenic compounds) should be disposed of in pesticide incinerators or in specified landfill sites. /Organic or metallo-organic pesticides/
Group II Containers: Non-combustible containers from organic or metallo-organic pesticides (except organic mercury, lead, cadmium, or arsenic compounds) must first be triple-rinsed. Containers that are in good condition may be returned to the manufacturer or formulator of the pesticide product, or to a drum reconditioner for reuse with the same type of pesticide product, if such reuse is legal under Department of Transportation regulations (eg 49 CFR 173.28). Containers that are not to be reused should be punctured ... and transported to a scrap metal facility for recycling, disposal or burial in a designated landfill. /Organic or metallo-organic pesticides/
Adsorption & landfill: Furfural may be disposed of: For small quantities, by adsorbing it in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material and disposing it in a suitable combustion chamber. For large quantities, by mixing with a flammable liquid (such as acetone) and atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber. Recommendable method: Incineration. Not recommendable method: Evaporation.
Reach Info
This substance has been officially registered by enterprises.
ECHA (EU chemicals Management Agency) published the completed registration file as follows:
Completed registration file:
Registered as ubmitted Total tonnage band  
FULL JOINT 10000_100000 view >
Registered companies:
Registrant / Supplier details Latest dossier received
Euro PET Ltd 2016
International Furan Chemicals 2016
Lenzing AG 2016
more >
MSDS

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SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name furfural

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names 2-furancarboxaldehyde

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Food additives -> Flavoring Agents
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company XiXisys.com
Address XiXisys.com
Telephone XiXisys.com
Fax XiXisys.com

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 3

Acute toxicity - Dermal, Category 4

Skin irritation, Category 2

Eye irritation, Category 2

Acute toxicity - Inhalation, Category 3

Specific target organ toxicity \u2013 single exposure, Category 3

Carcinogenicity, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H301 Toxic if swallowed

H312 Harmful in contact with skin

H315 Causes skin irritation

H319 Causes serious eye irritation

H331 Toxic if inhaled

H335 May cause respiratory irritation

H351 Suspected of causing cancer

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

Response

P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P330 Rinse mouth.

P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P332+P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P337+P313 If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P311 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026

P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.

Storage

P405 Store locked up.

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
furfural furfural 98-01-1 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention. See Notes.

In case of skin contact

Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Seek medical attention if you feel unwell.

In case of eye contact

First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention.

If swallowed

Rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention .

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

Vapor may irritate eyes and respiratory system. Liquid irritates skin and may cause dermatitis. (USCG, 1999)

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Aggressive airway management may be necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Anticipate seizures and treat if necessary ... . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... . Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... . For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... . Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 m1/kg up to 200 ml of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. Administer activated charcoal ... . /Aldehydes and Related Compounds/

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Use water spray, dry chemical, "alcohol resistant" form, or carbon dioxide. use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating vapors are generated when heated (USCG, 1999)

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and particulates adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Collect leaking liquid in sealable containers. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

1. Remove all ignition sources. 2. Ventilate area of spill or leak. 3. For small quantities, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in a safe place ... Allow sufficient time for evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork. Burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials. For large quantities, cover with sodium bisulfite, add a small amt of water & mix. ... After 1 hr, flush with large amt of water & wash site with soap solution.

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Separated from strong bases, strong acids, strong oxidants and food and feedstuffs. Keep in the dark. Well closed. Ventilation along the floor. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.Keep in air tight container and protect from light

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

After reviewing available literature, NIOSH provided comments to OSHA on August 1, 1988, regarding the "Proposed Rule on Air Contaminants" (29 CFR 1910, Docket No. H-020). In these comments, NIOSH questioned whether the PELs proposed for furfural (TWA 2 ppm (skin)) were adequate to protect workers from recognized health hazards.

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state colourless to reddish-brown oily liquid with almond odour
Colour Colorless, oily liquid ... Turns yellow to brown on exposure to air and light and resinifies
Odour Peculiar odor, somewhat resembling the odor of benzaldehyde
Melting point/ freezing point -37\u00b0C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 160\u00b0C
Flammability Class IIIA Combustible Liquid: Fl.P. at or above 60\u00b0C and below 93.33\u00b0C.Flammable.
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit Lower flammable limit: 2.1% by volume; Upper flammable limit: 19.3% by volume
Flash point 59\u00b0C(lit.)
Auto-ignition temperature 392.78\u00b0C (USCG, 1999)
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity 1.587 mPa-s at 25\u00b0C
Solubility In water:8.3 g/100 mL
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) log Kow= 0.41
Vapour pressure 13.5 mm Hg ( 55 \u00b0C)
Density and/or relative density 1.16
Relative vapour density 3.31 (vs air)
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

Turns yellow to brown on exposure to air and light and resinifies

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

Flammability of furfural is comparable to that of kerosene or No 1 fuel oil.FURFURAL reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate. It also can react with strong oxidizers. An exothermic resinification of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalis. It forms condensation products with many types of compounds, including phenol, amines and urea. .

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

...Can react with oxidizing materials.

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: LD50 Rats oral 127 mg/kg
  • Inhalation: LC50 Rat inhalation 756 mg/cu m (189 ppm) /1 hour
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of furfural. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of furfural. Overall evaluation: Furfural is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: LC50 Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) 32 mg/L/24 hr; static /formulated product
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: LC50 Daphnia magna (Water flea) 36 mg/L/24 hr; static /formulated product
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

AEROBIC: Furfural, present at 100 mg/L, reached 93.5% of its theoretical BOD in 2 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L and the Japanese MITI test(1). In river die-away studies using water taken from the Great Miami, Little Miami, and Ohio Rivers, 1.0 ppm of furfural was completely degraded within 3 days under aerobic conditions(2). The rate of degradation at a higher initial furfural concentration was found to be dependent upon the degree of acclimation, and fully acclimated seeds were round to degrade 25 ppm furfural within 5-12 days(2). At initial concentrations of 1.7-20 and 440 ppm, furfural underwent 46% and 17% theoretical BOD, respectively, in 5 days using a sewage sludge seed under aerobic conditions(3). Furfural at an initial concentration of 300 mg/L, in solution with phenol and N-methyl-2-pyrolidine, was found to undergo 98% removal in a flow-through laboratory bioreactor using an activated sludge inoculum under aerobic conditions(4). At an initial feed concentration of 1,000 mg/L, degradation was also found to occur(4). Furfural at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L COD underwent 96.3% removal in less than 120 hours using a thickened adapted activated sludge under aerobic conditions (5). Furfural was shown to support the aerobic growth of organisms obtained from soil and grown on phenol(6).

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

An estimated BCF of 3.2 was calculated for furfural(SRC), using a log Kow of 0.41(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC).

12.4 Mobility in soil

The Koc of furfural is estimated as 40(SRC), using a log Kow of 0.41(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this estimated Koc value suggests that furfural is expected to have very high mobility in soil.

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: UN1199 IMDG: UN1199 IATA: UN1199

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: FURALDEHYDES
IMDG: FURALDEHYDES
IATA: FURALDEHYDES

14.3 Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: 6.1 IMDG: 6.1 IATA: 6.1

14.4 Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: II IMDG: II IATA: II

14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: no IMDG: no IATA: no

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
furfural furfural 98-01-1 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 12, 2017
Revision Date Aug 12, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.

Precursor and Product
Computational chemical data

Molecular Weight:96.08406 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C5H4O2
XLogP3:0.4
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:1
Exact Mass:96.021129
MonoIsotopic Mass:96.021129
Topological Polar Surface Area:30.2
Heavy Atom Count:7
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:70.5
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:2
Feature 3D Ring Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:1
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:2