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Vanadium(CAS No. 7440-62-2)

Vanadium V (cas 7440-62-2) Molecular Structure

7440-62-2 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【CAS Registry number】
Vanadium element
【Molecular Weight】
【Canonical SMILES】
【MOL File】

Chemical and Physical Properties

metallic grey rod or chunks
6.11 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
【Melting Point】
【Boiling Point】
H2O: soluble
H2O: soluble
Light gray or white lustrous powder, fused hard lumps or body-centered cubic crystals
Pure vanadium is a bright white metal; soft and ductile
Gray-white metal; cubic.
Steel gray with a bluish tinge.
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents.
【Spectral properties】
Index of refraction = 3.03
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:50.9415 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:V
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:0
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:50.943964
MonoIsotopic Mass:50.943964
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:1
Formal Charge:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
【Risk Statements】
【Safety Statements 】

An inhalation hazard. Poison by subcutaneous route. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Flammable in dust form from heat, flame, or sparks. Violent reaction with BrF3, Cl2, lithium, nitryl fluoride, oxidants. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of VOx. See also vanadium compounds.
Analytical Methods: 
For occupational chemical analysis use niosh: Elements (ICP), 7300.
Safety Information of Vanadium (CAS NO.7440-62-2):
Hazard Codes: Xi
Risk Statements: 36/38-36/37/38
36: Irritating to the eyes 
37: Irritating to the respiratory system 
38  Irritating to the skin  
Safety Statements: 26-36-45-7
7: Keep container tightly closed
26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice 
36: Wear suitable protective clothing 
45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)

【PackingGroup 】
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Potential symptoms of overexposure to dust or fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, throat... .
Vanadium is a primary irritant to the ... skin.
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
UN 3289 6.1/PG 2
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
If material on fire or involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
【Fire Potential】
Moderate, in the form of dust, when exposed to heat or flame, sparks.
Grade: 99.99% pure (electrolytic process), single crystals
The product grades, which may contain 35-80% (by wt) vanadium, are classified according to their vanadium content. The consumer use & grade desired dictate the choice of reductant.
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: Highly toxic, may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at lease 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
/GUIDE 151: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Powdered vanadium ... react with bromine trifluoride, producing incandescence.
When nitryl fluoride ... at ambient temperature /is passed/ over molybdenum, potassium, sodium, thorium, uranium or zirconium, glowing or white incandescence occurs. Mild warming is needed to initiate similar reactions of ... vanadium ...
Violent reaction with bromine trifluoride, chlorine, lithium, oxidants.
Powdered vanadium explodes with chlorine, even at 0 deg C.
Vanadium dissolves in oxidizing acids (e.g., nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, aqua regia) and in hydrofluoric acid. ...Dissolves very slowly in fused alkalies, producing salts: vanadates... and hydrogen.
The metal precipitates gold, silver and platinum from their salts; reduces mercuric salts to mercurous, ferric salts for ferrous.
Lithium, chlorine trifluoride /Vanadium dust, Vanadium fume/
【Other Preventative Measures】
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing dusts, and fumes from burning material. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Safety showers and eyewash fountains should be located in or near areas where gross exposures to vanadium compounds are likely to occur and should be properly maintained. If vanadium compounds, especially the halide or oxyhalide liquids, come in contact with the skin, the affected area should be flushed promptly with water. The eyes, if splashed or otherwise contaminated with these reactive halides, should be flushed immediately and thoroughly with water at low pressure. The employee should then be taken promptly to the nearest medical facility to determine the need for further treatment. /Vanadium compounds/
In processes assoc with mfr of metallic vanadium, & in sieving of used catalyst during maintenance operations, the escape of dust should be prevented by the enclosure of process & by provision of exhaust ventilation. In boiler cleaning in power stations & on ships, maintenance workers may have to enter the boilers to remove soot & to make repairs. These workers should wear adequate respiratory protective equipment with full face mask & eye protection. /Vanadium, alloys and cmpds/
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. /Vanadium dust/
Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced. /Vanadium dust/
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. /Vanadium compound, NOS/
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
The employer shall use engineering controls if needed to keep the concentration of airborne vanadium at or below the limits specified and shall provide protective clothing and equipment resistant to the penetration of vanadium when necessary to prevent gross skin and eye contact with liquid vanadium solutions. Protective equipment suitable for emergency use shall be located at clearly identified stations outside the work area.
Because vanadium compounds caused irritation of the respiratory tract, /it is recommended/ that protective equipment be worn while processing those compounds and that workers have periodic medical examinations. /Vanadium compounds/
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. /Vanadium dust/
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. /Vanadium dust/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 0.5 mg/cu m: (Assigned protection factor = 10) Any air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection. /(Assigned protection factor = 10) Any supplied-air respirator. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection. /Vanadium dust (as V); Vanadium fume (as V)/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 1.25 mg/cu m: (Assigned protection factor = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./ (Assigned protection factor = 25) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection. /Vanadium dust (as V); Vanadium fume (as V)/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 2.5 mg/cu m: (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-face respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter/ (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and a high-efficiency particulate filter. Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage; may require eye protection./ (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece./ (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. /Vanadium dust (as V); Vanadium fume (as V)/
Respirator Recommendations: Up to 35 mg/cu m: (Assigned protection factor = 2000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Vanadium dust (as V); Vanadium fume (as V)/
Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: (Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure-mode./ (Assigned protection factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus. /Vanadium dust (as V); Vanadium fume (as V)/
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned protection factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter./ Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus. /Vanadium dust (as V); Vanadium fume (as V)/

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Waste material contaminated with vanadium shall be disposed of in a manner not hazardous to employees. The disposal method must conform with applicable local, state, and federal regulations and must not constitute a hazard to the surrounding population or environment.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for vanadium: Concentration process: chemical precipitation.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Vanadium metal can be prepared either by the reduction of vanadium chloride with hydrogen or magnesium or by the reduction of vanadium oxide with calcium, aluminum, or carbon. The oldest and most commonly used used method for producing vanadium metal on a commercial scale is the reduction of V2O5 with calcium. Recently, a two-step process involving the aluminothermic reduction of vanadium oxide combined with electron-beam melting has been developed. This method makes possible the production of a purer grade of vanadium metal, ie, of the quality required for nuclear reactors.
... Vanadium can be purified by ... iodide refining (van Arkel-deBoer process), electrolytic refining in a fused salt, and electrotransport. Metal of greater than 99.95% purity has been prepared by the iodide refining method. ... An electrolytic process for purifying crude vanadium has been developed at the USA Bureau of Mines. ... Metal crystals or flakes of up to 99.995% purity have been obtained by this method. The highest purity vanadium reported to date has been purified by an electrotransport technique. ... Small amounts of vanadium containing less than 10 ppm of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and having a resistance ratio, R300 K:R4.2 K, of greater than 1100 have been prepared by this technique.
Derivation: (1) Calcium reduction of vanadium pentoxide yields 99.8+% pure ductile vanadium; (2) aluminum, cerium, etc., reduction produces a less pure product; (3) solvent extraction of petroleum ash or ferrophosphorus slag from phosphorus production; (4) electrolytic refining using a molten salt electrolyte containing vanadium chloride.
Vanadium in iron ores is recovered in some cases by roasting & leaching the ground ore in a manner similar to that used for carnotite ore. In other cases the ore is smelted to produce pig iron which contains the vanadium. When the pig iron is converted to steel, the vanadium is recovered in a rich slag containing 5 to 25% vanadium pentoxide. The slag is then processed by a roasting & leaching procedure to extract the vanadium in the form of red cake. The vanadium in phosphate rock is recovered in ferrophosphorus during the production of elemental phosphorus by electric furnace smelting. The ferrophosphorus contains 3-7% vanadium & is processed further by roasting & leaching to recover the vanadium. /Vanadium/
Vanadium powder can be prepared by substituting V2O3 for the V2O5 as the vanadium source. The heat generated during the reduction of the trioxide is considerably less than for the pentoxide, so that only solid products are obtained. The powder is recovered from the product by leaching the slag with dilute acid.
U.S. Exports

(1987) 6.8X10+5 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1988) 7.0X10+5 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1985) 5.0X10+3 lb (ores); 6.4X10+5 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1986) 1.7210+5 lb (ores); 8.2X10+5 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1990) estimated 6.00X10+5 lb; (1989) 8.80X10+5 lb; (1988) 1.02X10+6 lb; (1987) 6.85X10+5 lb; (1986) 8.20X10+5 lb /Ferrovanadium/
(1984) 2.4X10+4 lb (ores); 6.7X10+5 lb /Ferrovanadium/
(1985) 5.0X10+3 lb (ores); 6.4X10+5 lb /Ferrovanadium/
(1986) 1.7210+5 lb (ores); 8.2X10+5 lb /Ferrovanadium/
(2000) 677 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2001) 363 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2002) 529 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2003) 671 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2004) 807 metric tons, estimated /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2000) 172 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2001) 70 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2002) 142 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2003) 397 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2004) 214 metric tons, estimated /Ferrovanadium/
U.S. Imports

(1984) 1.3X10+6 lb (ores, slag, residues); 2.3X10+6 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1985) 6.0X10+5 lb (ores, slag, residues); 1.6X10+6 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1986) 4.0X10+6 lb (ores, slag, residues); 1.1X10+6 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1987) 4.5X10+6 lb (ores, slag, residues); 6.8X10+5 lb (ferrovanadium)
(1988) 4.8X10+6 lb (ores, slag, residues); 6.7X10+5 lb (ferrovanadium)
(2000) 16 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2001) 10 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2002) 98 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2003) 232 metric tons /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2004) 33 metric tons, estimated /Aluminum-vanadium master alloys (gross weight)/
(2000) 2,510 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2001) 2,550 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2002) 2,520 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2003) 1,360 metric tons /Ferrovanadium/
(2004) 3,260 metric tons, estimated /Ferrovanadium/
Consumption Patterns

Increased demand for vanadium products came mostly from the steel industry which had the highest 1st half shipments since 1980. Although all major steel consuming sectors increased purchases, the oil & gas industry reported the biggest change, up more than 120% from the same period in 1987. The extraordinary demand for vanadium created shortages of vanadium raw materials ... (1988).
About 80% of the vanadium now produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive.
Major end-use distribution was as follows: machinery and tools, 34%; transportation, 23%; building and heavy construction, 18%; and other, 25%. (1990)
Major areas of use: steel, 85%; nonferrous alloys, 9%; chemical industry, 4%; and others, 2%. Vanadium compounds, principally the oxidation catalyst vanadium pentoxide, account for only 3% of vanadium consumption.
Consumption showed a modest increase, from 3,300 tons in 1991 to 4,032 tons in 1992.
Metallurgical use, primarily as an alloying agent for iron and steel, accounted for about 90% of the vanadium consumed domestically. Of the other uses for vanadium, the major nonmetallurgical use was in catalysts for the production of maleic anhydride and sulfuric acid.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
- A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
/Vanadium elemental/... and /its/ compounds are absorbed from the respiratory tract, and eliminated through the kidney. Their absorption from the GI tract is poor. They are distributed to internal organs and there are data indicating that vanadium... might accumulate in bone.

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