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Home> Encyclopedia > Hot Product Listed P   > POLYACRYLONITRILE
322-97-4 structure

POLYACRYLONITRILE

Iupac Name:7-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-quinolin-4-one
CAS No.:322-97-4
Molecular Weight:213.16
Molecular Formula:C28H40O7 (isomer)
Names and Identifiers
Synonyms

2-Propenenitrile,homopolymer acl1050 acrylonitrile,polymers acrylonitrilehomopolymer acrylonitrilepolymer biospal1200s Polyacrylonitrile average Mw 150,000 (Typical)

Inchi
InChI=1S/C10H6F3NO/c11-10(12,13)6-1-2-7-8(5-6)14-4-3-9(7)15/h1-5H,(H,14,15)
InChkey
OWPLFJSQLPTCHS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical Smiles
C1=CC2=C(C=C1C(F)(F)F)NC=CC2=O
Properties
Appearance
clear liquid
Density
1.53
Melting Point
266-269 °C(lit.)
Boiling Point
311.2°C at 760 mmHg
Refractive Index
1.629
Flash Point
123°C
Solubility
Water Solubility : Soluble. 7.45 g/100 mL
Color/Form
Clear, colorless liquid
Colorless to pale-yellow liquid
Stability
Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions. However, it may undergo explosive polymerization if uninhibited. The substance polymerizes due to heating, under the influence of light, bases and peroxides. Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion.
HS Code
2933499090
Storage temp
2-8°C
Spectral properties
Index of refraction: 1.3888 @ 25 deg C/D
MAX ABSORPTION (ALCOHOL): 203 NM (LOG E= 3.79); SADTLER REF NUMBER: 386 (IR, PRISM); V15 (NMR)
Safety and Handling
Risk Statements
36/37/38
Safety Statements
26-37/39
Safety

Hazard Codes of Acrylonitrile (CAS NO.107-13-1):?FlammableF,ToxicT,DangerousN
Risk Statements: 45-11-23/24/25-37/38-41-43-51/53-39?
R45:May cause cancer.?
R11:Highly flammable.?
R23/24/25: Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.?
R37/38: Irritating to respiratory system and skin.?
R41: Risk of serious damage to the eyes.?
R43: May cause sensitization by skin contact.?
R51/53: Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.?
R39: Danger of very serious irreversible effects.
Safety Statements: 53-9-16-45-61-36/37?
S53: Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.?
S9: Keep container in a well-ventilated place.?
S16: Keep away from sources of ignition.?
S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)?
S61: Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.?
S36/37: Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
RIDADR: UN 1093 3/PG 1
Acrylonitrile is highly flammable and toxic. It undergoes explosive polymerization. The burning material releases fumes of HYDROGEN CYANIDE and oxides of NITROGEN. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile, but classified it as a Class 2B carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic). Acrylonitrile increases cancer in high dose tests in male and female rats and mice.
?

Toxicity

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LCLo inhalation 600ppm/4H (600ppm) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, Pg. 27, 1942.
child LDLo skin 2015mg/kg (2015mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. Vol. 75, Pg. 1087, 1950.
dog LCLo inhalation 110ppm/4H (110ppm) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITHOUT ANESTHESIA (USUALLY NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE)

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, Pg. 27, 1942.
dog LDLo intravenous 200mg/kg (200mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7, Pg. 367, 1965.
guinea pig LCLo inhalation 575ppm/4H (575ppm) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: LACRIMATION: EYE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: COUGH
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, Pg. 27, 1942.
guinea pig LD50 oral 50mg/kg (50mg/kg) ? Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete. Vol. 16, Pg. 316, 1970.
guinea pig LD50 skin 202mg/kg (202mg/kg) ? Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 30, Pg. 63, 1948.
guinea pig LD50 subcutaneous 130mg/kg (130mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITH APPROPRIATE ANESTHESIA
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-478,
human TCLo inhalation 16ppm/20M (16ppm) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER CHANGES: OLFACTION

SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: CONJUNCTIVE IRRITATION: EYE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Industrial Medicine. Vol. 17, Pg. 199, 1948.
man LCLo inhalation 1gm/m3/1H (1000mg/m3) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Zentralblatt fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. Vol. 16, Pg. 1, 1966.
monkey LC inhalation > 90ppm/4H (90ppm) ? National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-478,
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 46mg/kg (46mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: CORNEAL DAMAGE: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 59, Pg. 589, 1981.
mouse LD50 oral 27mg/kg (27mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Immunology. Vol. 3, Pg. 106, 1959.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 25mg/kg (25mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7, Pg. 367, 1965.
rabbit LCLo inhalation 260ppm/4H (260ppm) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, Pg. 27, 1942.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 69mg/kg (69mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITH APPROPRIATE ANESTHESIA

BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-478,
rabbit LD50 skin 63mg/kg (63mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE"
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0534646,
rat LC50 inhalation 333ppm/4H (333ppm) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: LACRIMATION: EYE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0571605,
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 65mg/kg (65mg/kg) ? Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. Vol. 36, Pg. 58, 1975.
rat LD50 oral 78mg/kg (78mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS
Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Immunology. Vol. 3, Pg. 106, 1959.
rat LD50 skin 148mg/kg (148mg/kg) ? Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(10), Pg. 103, 1976.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 75mg/kg (75mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 102, Pg. 142, 1990.
rat LDLo unreported 200mg/kg (200mg/kg) ENDOCRINE: OTHER CHANGES Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 37, Pg. 133, 1976.

Sensitive
Light Sensitive
Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
ACRYLONITRILE SPILLED ON HUMAN SKIN RESULTS IN ERYTHEMA & BLISTERS.
Prolonged skin contact with liquid acrylonitrile can result in systemic toxicity & the formation of large dermal vesicles after a latent period of several hours. The affected skin area may resemble a second degree, thermal burn.
Acrylonitrile vapor is ... a potent eye, mucous membrane, and skin irritant ... .
Cleanup Methods
Remove solutions containing acrylonitrile by vacuum cleaning to prevent an increase in airborne concentrations.
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, sawdust, or commercial sorbents. Apply "universal" gelling agent to immobilize spill.
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Combustion products include corrosive or toxic vapors.
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Use surface active agent (eg, detergent, soaps, or alcohols) if approved by EPA. Inject "universal" gelling agent to solidify encircled spill and increase effectiveness of booms. Add calcium hypochlorite. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Shut off all possible sources of ignition. Instruct others to keep at a safe distance. ... Cover the spill with a 1:1:1 mixture by weight of sodium carbonate or calcium carbonate, clay cat litter (bentonite) and sand. When the acrylonitrile has been absorbed, scoop the mixture into a plastic container and package for disposal by burning. Ventilate area well to evaporate remaining acrylonitrile and dispel vapor.
If acrylonitrile is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken: 1. Remove all ignition sources. 2. Ventilate area of spill or leak. 3. For small quantities of liquids containing acrylonitrile, absorb on paper towels and place in an appropriate container. 4. Large quantities of liquids containing acrylonitrile may be absorbed in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material and placed in an appropriate container. 5. Liquids containing acrylonitrile may be collected by vacuuming with an appropriate system. If a vacuum system is used, there should be no sources of ignition in the vicinity of the spill, and flashback prevention devices should be provided.
Releases may require isolation or evacuation. Eliminate all ignition sources. Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors, and protect personnel. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
Fire Fighting Procedures
Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. Use water spray, dry chemical, "alcohol resistant" foam, or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance.
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped or safely confined. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Fire fighting phases: use dry chemical, "alcohol foam", or carbon dioxide. ... Do not use water because it causes frothing.
Evacuation: If fire becomes uncontrollable or container is exposed to direct flame - consider evacuation of one-half (1/2) mile radius.
Fire Potential
Highly ignitable and flammable.
Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers.
Formulations/Preparations
USEPA/OPP Pesticide Code 000601; Trade Names: Acritet, component of (with 016501), Ventox, component of (with 016501), Acrylon, component of (with 016501), Carbacryl, component of (with 016501), Acrylofume, component of (with 016501), 020701 and 081501).
Technical grade acrylonitrile with greater than 99% purity.
Acritet = 34% acrylonitrile, 60% CCl4; ventox = acritet; carbacryl: equal volumes of acrylonitrile and CCl4; acrylofume: 39.5% acrylonitrile, 30% CCl4, 30% chloroform, 0.5% chloropicrin.
DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Health: TOXIC; may be fatal if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Inhalation or contact with some of these materials will irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Fire or Explosion: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point. Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Small spills: Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers for later disposal. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
/GUIDE 131P: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Wash skin with soap and water. Keep victim warm and quiet. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Acrylonitrile, inhibited; Acrylonitrile, stabilized/
Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizers, acids and alkalis; bromine; amines. [Note: Unless inhibited (usually with methylhydroquinone) may polymerize spontaneously or when heated or in presence of strong alkali. Attacks copper.]
Explosive polymerization may occur on storage with silver nitrate. Potentially explosive reactions with benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide + pyrrole, tetrahydrocarbozole + benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide. Violent reactions with strong acids (e.g., nitric or sulfuric), strong bases, azoisobutyronitrile, dibenzoyl peroxide, di-tert-butylperoxide, or bromine.
... Very reactive and polymerizes violently in the presence of strong bases. ... May polymerize spontaneously, particularly in the absence of oxygen or on exposure to light.
Incompatible with AgNO3 /silver nitrates/ and amines.
Contact of strong acids (nitric or sulfuric) with acrylonitrile may lead to vigorous reactions. ... Contamination of a drum of acrylonitrile by nitric acid residue in the filling hose led to a slowly accelerating polymerisation reaction which burst the drum after 10 days.
Acrylonitrile polymerises violently in contact with strong bases, whether stabilised or unstabilised. Alkaline hydrolysis of acrylonitrile is exothermic and violent, especially when the temperature is above 60 deg C, the pressure is above atmospheric, and when heating at 60 deg C is prolonged above 10 mins. Polymerisation does not induce a violent reaction at 40-50 deg C at a concentration of 3% of sodium hydroxide in water.
Bromine was being added in portions to acrylonitrile with ice cooling, with intermediate warming to 20 deg C between portions. After half the bromine was added, the temperature increased to 70 deg C; then the flask exploded.
Acrylonitrile containing undissolved solid silver nitrate is liable, on long standing, to polymerise explosively and ignite. This was attributed to the slow deposition of a thermally insulating layer of polymer on the solid nitrate, which gradually gets hotter and catalyses rapid polymcrisation.
Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
WORK AREAS SHOULD BE ... FREE FROM OPEN LIGHTS, FLAMES, & EQUIPMENT THAT IS NOT EXPLOSION-PROOF.
BECAUSE OF TOXIC, AS WELL AS FLAMMABLE, NATURE OF VAPOR, PRECAUTIONS MUST BE TAKEN BY ENCLOSURE OF PLANT & BY MEANS OF EXHAUST VENTILATION TO PREVENT VAPORS ESCAPING INTO WORKPLACE AIR.
SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ...Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
Evacuation: If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from downwind area based on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to disperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid.
... Treatment kits available to medical personnel should contain amyl nitrate, sterile sodium nitrite, sterile sodium thiosulfate, syringes, needles, tourniquet, and a gastric tube.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Workers not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed.
Workers who handle acrylonitrile should wash their faces, hands, and forearms thoroughly with soap and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
Skin that becomes contaminated with acrylonitrile should be promptly washed with soap and water.
Workers should be required to shower following a workshift and prior to putting on street clothes. Clean work clothes should be provided daily.
The storage, preparation, dispensing, or consumption of food or beverages, the storage or application of cosmetics, the storage or smoking of tobacco or other materials, or the storage or use of products for chewing should be prohibited in work areas.
Clothing which is contaminated with acrylonitrile should be removed immediately and placed in sealed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of acrylonitrile from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or cleaned, the person performing the operation should be informed of acrylonitrile's hazardous properties. Reusable clothing and equipment should be checked for residual contamination before reuse or storage.
Chemical protective clothing should be selected after utilizing available performance data, consulting with the manufacturer, and then evaluating the clothing under actual use conditions. Workers should be provided with and required to use chemical protective clothing, gloves, and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent skin contact with acrylonitrile.
Penetrates leather, so contaminated leather shoes and gloves should be destroyed.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
All nitriles should be handled under carefully controlled conditions and only by personnel having a thorough understanding and knowledge of safe handling techniques. Because of the nature of nitrile cmpd and the lack of complete toxicity data on many nitriles, care should be exercised in handling these cmpd to avoid inhalation of the vapors, ingestion, and contact with the skin. /Nitriles/
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard.
Protective Equipment and Clothing
... PERSONAL RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PREFERABLY OF POSITIVE PRESSURE TYPE & IMPERMEABLE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IS NECESSARY WHEN THERE IS POSSIBILITY OF EXPOSURE RESULTING FROM NORMAL BUT NONROUTINE OPERATION SUCH AS PUMP REPLACEMENT. RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING & FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT MUST BE AVAILABLE FOR EMERGENCY USE.
AIR-SUPPLIED MASK, INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL TYPE, WITH APPROVED CANISTER FOR ACRYLONITRILE IN LOW (LESS THAN 2%) CONCENTRATIONS; RUBBER OR PLASTIC GLOVES; COVER GOGGLES OR FACE MASK; RUBBER BOOTS; SLICKER SUIT; SAFETY HELMET.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... Gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
Specification

clear liquid
Safety Statements:53-9-16-45-61-36/37
53:Avoid exposure - obtain special instruction before use
9:Keep container in a well-ventilated place
16:Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking
45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)
61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet
36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves
Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow= 0.25
Disposal Methods
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U009, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Acrylonitrile is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. Nitrogen oxides removed from effluent gas by scrubbers and/or thermal devices.
Recovering: Incineration with provision for nitrogen oxides removal from effluent gases by scrubbers or afterburners. Recovery of acrylonitrile from acrylonitrile process effluent is an alternative to disposal. Recommendable method: Incineration. Not recommendable methods: Landfill, evaporation.
A good candidate for rotary kiln incineration, with a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and a residence time of seconds. A good candidate for fluidized bed incineration, with a temp range of 450 to 980 deg C and a residence time of seconds. A good candidate for liquid injection incineration, with a temp range of 650 to 1,600 deg C and a residence time of 0.1 to 2 seconds.
/Incineration using/ ... a two stage combustion process to dispose of /acrylonitrile which/, when oxidized (one stage process), produces a flue gas containing excessive amounts of nitrogen oxides . It consists of a reduction furnace in which a high temperature reducing environment (less than stoichiometric air) converts the nitrogen oxides present into nitrogen, quench section which cools the water gas by directly contacting it with cool recycle gas, an incinerator which converts the hydrogen to water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, heat recovery boiler which produces steam in cooling the flue gas and an unlined vent stack. Recycle gas cooling in lieu of air, steam, or water is an integral part of this process to minimize nitrogen oxides formation and maximize heat recovery.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for acrylonitrile: Concentration process: Activated carbon.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for acrylonitrile: Concentration process: Solvent exraction.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for acrylonitrile: Concentration process: Stripping.
The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for acrylonitrile: Concentration process: Biological treatment.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
MSDS

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin irritation, Category 2

Eye irritation, Category 2

Specific target organ toxicity – single exposure, Category 3

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)
Signal word

Warning

Hazard statement(s)

H315 Causes skin irritation

H319 Causes serious eye irritation

H335 May cause respiratory irritation

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

Response

P302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/...

P321 Specific treatment (see ... on this label).

P332+P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P337+P313 If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…if you feel unwell.

Storage

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P405 Store locked up.

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

Computational chemical data
  • Molecular Weight:213.16g/mol
  • Molecular Formula:C28H40O7
  • Compound Is Canonicalized:True
  • XLogP3-AA:1.5
  • Exact Mass:213.04
  • Monoisotopic Mass:213.04
  • Complexity:298
  • Rotatable Bond Count:0
  • Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:1
  • Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:5
  • Topological Polar Surface Area:29.1A^2
  • Heavy Atom Count:15
  • Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
  • Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
  • Isotope Atom Count:0
  • Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
  • CACTVS Substructure Key Fingerprint: AAADcYByIYAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAwQAAAAAAAAACBAAAAHwAQAAAADAzBmBQwwILAAACI AqRWQACCAAAlAgAIiIEIZMgIIDrAlZGEIYhgkABIyccYiMCOQAAAQAACAACAAACAAAQAAAAAAAAA AA==
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