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Home> Hot Product Listed 1   > 1,4-Dioxane


CAS No.:123-91-1
Molecular Weight:88.11
Molecular Formula:C4H8O2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
MOL File:123-91-1.mol
Names and Identifiers

Diethylene dioxide Diox1,4-Dioxane

Canonical Smiles
Colorless clear liquid
Melting Point
Boiling Point
Refractive Index
Flash Point
Soluble in water
Colorless liquid or solid (below 53 degrees F).
Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, oxygen, halogens, reducing agents, moisture. Highly flammable - note wide explosive range. May form explosive peroxides in storage (rate of formation increased by heating, evaporation or exposure to light).
Storage temp
Flammables area
Spectral properties
Index of refraction: 1.4175 at 20 deg C/D
IR: 6181 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection)
NMR: 1193 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 19514 (National Institute Standards and Technology)
Intense mass spectral peaks: 58 m/z, 88 m/z
Safety and Handling
Hazard Codes
Risk Statements
Safety Statements

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenic data. Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Mildly toxic by skin contact. Human systemic effects by inhalation: lachrymation, conjunctiva irritation, convulsions, high blood pressure, unspecified respiratory and gastrointestinal system effects. Mutation data reported. An eye and skin irritant. The irritant effects probably provide sufficient warning, in acute exposures, to enable a worker to leave exposure before being seriously affected. Repeated exposure to low concentrations has resulted in human fatalities, the organs chiefly affected being the liver and kidneys.
A very dangerous fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Violent reaction with (H2 + Raney Ni), AgClO4. Can form dangerous peroxides when exposed to air. Potentially explosive reaction with nitric acid + perchloric acid, Raney nickel catalyst (above 210°C). Forms explosive mixtures with decaborane (impact-sensitive), triethynylaluminum (sensitive to heating or drying). Violent reaction with sulfur trioxide. Incompatible with sulfur trioxide. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also GLYCOL ETHERS.
The Hazard Codes of? ?: ?Xn,?? F,? T
The Risk Statements information of?Dioxane (CAS NO.123-91-1):
11:? Highly Flammable?
19:? May form explosive peroxides?
40:? Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect?
41:? Risk of serious damage to eyes?
45:? May cause cancer?
46:? May cause heritable genetic damage?
36/37/38:? Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin?
39/23/24/25:? Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed?
48/20/22:? Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed?
The Safety Statements information:
7:? Keep container tightly closed?
9:? Keep container in a well-ventilated place?
16:? Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking?
23:? Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapor/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer)?
26:? In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice?
45:? In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)?
46:? If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label?
53:? Avoid exposure - obtain special instruction before use?
62:? If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label
24/25:? Avoid contact with skin and eyes?
36/37:? Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves?
RIDADR?: UN 1993 3/PG 2
WGK Germany:? 3

Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
Irritating to eye, skin, and respiratory system.
Cleanup Methods
1) Remove all ignition sources. 2) ventilate area of spill or leak. 3) for small quantities, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in safe place (such as flame hood). Allow ... to completely clear hood ductwork. Burn in suitable location away from combustible materials. Large quantities can be collected and atomized in suitable combustion chamber equipped with appropriate effluent gas cleaning device. Dioxane should not be allowed to enter confined space, such as sewer. ...
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... the plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... the sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured and the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed and labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents.
Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors.
UN 1165
Fire Fighting Procedures
Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. Use water spray, dry chemical. "alcohol resistant" foam, or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.
Fire fighting: Self contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
If material is on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog, solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water and apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Fire Potential
A very dangerous fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Commercial 1,4-dioxane: purity, 99.90 wt% min; acidity (as acetic acid), 100 ppm max; water, 150 ppm max; peroxide, 5 ppm max; non-volatile matter 0.0025 gm/100 ml max; suspended matter, nil
Grade: Reagent, technical, spectrophotometric, scintillation.
DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Health: Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters (1000 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn.
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces.
/GUIDE 127: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (POLAR/WATER-MISCIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Wash skin with soap and water. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adherencing to skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
Exposure Standards and Regulations
Dioxane is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives. /Dioxane/
Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Pure, dry, o- and hydroperoxide-free dioxane rapidly forms hydroperoxide on contact with air.
Decaborane ... forms impact sensitive mixtures with ... dioxane. ...
Since 1:1 addition /of sulfur trioxide-dioxane/ complex sometimes decomposes violently on storing at ambient temp, it should be prepared immediately before use (if refrigerated storage is not possible).
/In the reaction with triethynylaluminium/ the residue from sublimation of the complex with dioxane is explosive, and the complex should not be dried by heating.
Boron trifluoride in aq dioxane was being evaporated with nitric acid treatment (3 portions) for analysis. Final addition of perchloric acid with continued heating led to an explosion while unattended. Ring scission of dioxane to diethylene glycol and formation of diethylene glycol nitrate and/or perchlorate may have been involved.
... Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials.
Dioxane reacts with Raney nickel catalyst almost explosively above 210 deg C
Many "hydrocarbon-metal perchlorate" complexes are explosive, for example, the complexes of ... dioxane.
Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
Because it is miscible with water, prompt washing is an effective way to remove dioxane ... /from/ skin.
... Process should be conducted in enclosed plant, or effective exhaust ventilation should be provided. Before confined space such as tank that has contained dioxane is entered, it should be isolated, drained, purged and tested for ... Vapor, or person entering ... Wear ... Resp protective equipment /SRP: lifelines should be used when working in confined spaces./
Eating and smoking should not be permitted in areas where liquid dioxane is handled, processed, or stored.
Employees who handle liquid dioxane should wash their hands thoroughly before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
Clothing wet with liquid dioxane should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of dioxane from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered or otherwise cleaned to remove the dioxane, the person performing the operation should be informed of dioxane's hazardous properties.
Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid dioxane should be removed immediately and non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated with dioxane should be removed promptly and such clothing should not be reworn until the dioxane is removed from clothing.
If material is not on fire and not involved in a fire : Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to disperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation.
Areas in which exposure to dioxane may occur should be identified by signs or other appropriate means, and access to these areas should be limited to authorized persons.
Where there is any possibility of exposure of an employee's body to liquid dioxane, facilities for quick drenching of the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use.
If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (formerly Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration) or by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Special precautions: Dioxane is hydroscopic and will produce peroxides in the presence of moisture. Dioxane containing peroxides should not be distilled to dryness because of potential explosion of non-volatile peroxides.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food and beverage containers or utensils, and the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, and rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes and wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece and close-fitting at ankles and wrists), gloves, hair covering and overshoes. ... clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves and gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, and disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... operations connected with synth and purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care and vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... and when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, and contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) and label fixed to it, giving date of test and avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically and after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological and cell-culture labs ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer and hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing and, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms and sides and fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, and monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type and amt of carcinogen and efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors and benches, and ... interior of fume hoods and airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres for chem such as nitrosamines. Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple and sensitive. ... /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing and use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency and who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard.
Since odor ... is not irritating, atmospheric concentration high enough to produce anesthesia and organ damage may not provoke alarm.
Protective Equipment and Clothing
Nitrile rubber is preferred material for gloves and other apparel used to protect against skin contact. The high volatility of compound requires that all lab operations ... be carried out in a hood.
Wear full protective clothing and positive pressure self contained breathing apparatus.
Respiratory protection for dioxane: Vapor concn: 200 ppm or less: Any supplied air respirator with a full facepiece, helmet, or hood, or any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece; > 200 ppm or entry and escape from unknown concn: Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode, or a combination respirator which includes a type C supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode; Escape: Any gas mask providing protection against organic vapors, or any escape self-contained breathing apparatus.
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face-shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possibility of skin contact with dioxane. Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof goggles where there is any possibility of liquid dioxane contacting the eyes.
Wear boots, and protective gloves.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece and close-fitting at ankles and wrists), gloves, hair covering and overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves and gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, and disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... Gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possbility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
Respirator Recommendations: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration: (Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode/(Assigned Protection Factor = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus.
Respirator Recommendations: Escape: (Assigned Protection Factor = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister/Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
log Kow= -0.27

NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens. IARC Cancer Review: Group 2B IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 7 , 1987,p. 201.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT ?? IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 11 , 1976,p. 247.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.:?) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) . NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (oral); Clear Evidence: mouse, rat NCITR* ?? National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NCI-CG-TR-80 ,1978. . EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Glycol ether compounds are on the Community Right-To-Know List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Disposal Methods
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U108, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Good candidate for rotary kiln incineration with a temperature range of 820-1,600 deg C with residence times for liquids and gases: seconds; solids: hours. Also, a good candidate for liquid injection incineration with a temperature range of 650-1,600 deg C with residence times of 0.1-2.0 seconds. Also, a good candidate for fluidized bed incineration with a temperature range of 450-980 deg C with residence times for liquids and gases: seconds; solids: longer.
This compound should be susceptible to removal from waste water by air stripping.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds and specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... summary of avail methods and recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Total destruction ... by incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous and organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp and carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to and burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter and misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as sat soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols and thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... and is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness and safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
1,4-Diethylenedioxide may be disposed of by atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber. Recommendable methods: Incineration and discharge to sewer. Not recommendable: Oxidation. Peer-review: Oxidation is too reactive and peroxides may be formed. Small amt can be diluted with much water and discharged to sewer. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC expert consultation (May 1985))
Reach Info
This substance has been officially registered by enterprises.
ECHA (EU chemicals Management Agency) published the completed registration file as follows:
Completed registration file:
Registered as ubmitted Total tonnage band  
FULL JOINT 1000PLUS view >
Registered companies:
Registrant / Supplier details Latest dossier received
BASF SE 2012
Merck KGaA 2013
NetSun EU B.V. 2015
more >

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According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 10, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 10, 2017


1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name 1,4-Dioxane

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names DIOXANE, 1,4-

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. 1,4-Dioxane is used as a solvent for cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose, benzyl cellulose, resins, oils, waxes, some dyes, and other organic and inorganic compounds.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

Company WWW.GuideChem.COM
Address 8F, Block C, No.3 Building, Zijin Plaza, No.701, Gudun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310030, China
Telephone +86-571-89739798
Fax 86(21)54365166

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number +86-571-89739798
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture

Flammable liquids, Category 2

Eye irritation, Category 2

Specific target organ toxicity \u2013 single exposure, Category 3

Carcinogenicity, Category 2

2.2 GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Signal word


Hazard statement(s)

H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapour

H319 Causes serious eye irritation

H335 May cause respiratory irritation

H351 Suspected of causing cancer

Precautionary statement(s)

P210 Keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. No smoking.

P233 Keep container tightly closed.

P240 Ground and bond container and receiving equipment.

P241 Use explosion-proof [electrical/ventilating/lighting/...] equipment.

P242 Use non-sparking tools.

P243 Take action to prevent static discharges.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.

P201 Obtain special instructions before use.

P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.


P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water [or shower].

P370+P378 In case of fire: Use ... to extinguish.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P337+P313 If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.

P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.

P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/\u2026if you feel unwell.

P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/ attention.


P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

P405 Store locked up.


P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3 Other hazards which do not result in classification


3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1 Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
1,4-Dioxane 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1 Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

Fresh air, rest. Refer immediately for medical attention.

In case of skin contact

Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower.

In case of eye contact

Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible).

If swallowed

Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Seek medical attention if you feel unwell.

4.2 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

No significant irritation from brief exposure of skin; prolonged or repeated exposure may cause a rash or burn and absorption of toxic amounts leading to serious injury of liver and kidney. Chemical has poor warning properties; illness may be delayed. Moderately irritating to eyes; overexposure may cause corneal injury. (USCG, 1999)

4.3 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

Exposures of the eye... must be flushed immediately with water. Likewise, any clothing that becomes contaminated with dioxane should be removed and contaminated skin irrigated with soap and water.

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1 Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. Use water spray, dry chemical. "alcohol resistant" foam, or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.

5.2 Specific hazards arising from the chemical

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic vapors are generated when heated. Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. (USCG, 1999)

5.3 Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1 Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2 Environmental precautions

Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapours adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Collect leaking liquid in sealable air tight containers. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Do NOT wash away into sewer.

6.3 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

1) Remove all ignition sources. 2) ventilate area of spill or leak. 3) for small quantities, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in safe place (such as flame hood). Allow ... to completely clear hood ductwork. Burn in suitable location away from combustible materials. Large quantities can be collected and atomized in suitable combustion chamber equipped with appropriate effluent gas cleaning device. Dioxane should not be allowed to enter confined space, such as sewer. ...

7.Handling and storage

7.1 Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Fireproof. Separated from strong oxidants, strong acids and incompatible materials. Cool. Dry. Well closed. Keep in the dark. Store only if stabilized. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location. Store away from heat, oxidizing materials, and sunlight. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Inside storage should be in a standard flammable liquids storage warehouse, room, or cabinet.

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1 Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

NIOSH considers dioxane to be a potential occupational carcinogen.

NIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concentration.

Recommended Exposure Limit: 30 Minute Ceiling value: 1 ppm (3.6 mg/cu m).

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2 Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3 Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state Colorless clear liquid
Colour Colorless liquid or solid (below 53 degrees F)
Odour Faint pleasant odor
Melting point/ freezing point -37\u00b0C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 100-102\u00b0C(lit.)
Flammability Class IB Flammable Liquid: Fl.P. below 22.78\u00b0C and BP at or above 37.78\u00b0C.Highly flammable. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit LOWER: 2.0%; UPPER: 22%
Flash point 12\u00b0C
Auto-ignition temperature 180\u00b0C
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity 0.0120 centipoise at 25\u00b0C
Solubility In water:SOLUBLE
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) log Kow = -0.27
Vapour pressure 27 mm Hg ( 20 \u00b0C)
Density and/or relative density 1.034g/mLat 25\u00b0C(lit.)
Relative vapour density 3 (vs air)
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1 Reactivity

no data available

10.2 Chemical stability

Stable under recommended storage conditions. Test for peroxide formation before distillation or evaporation. Test for peroxide formation or discard after 1 year. Stable under recommended storage conditions.

10.3 Possibility of hazardous reactions

A very dangerous fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame.The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible.DIOXANE is a flammable liquid; when exposed to air it undergoes autooxidation with formation of peroxides. In the distillation process peroxides will concentrate causing violent explosion. The addition complex with sulfur trioxide (1:1) sometimes decomposes violently on storing at room temperature [Sisler, H. H. et al., Inorg. Synth., 1947, 2, p. 174]. Evaporation of boron trifluoride in aqueous dioxane with nitric acid led to an explosion upon addition of perchloric acid [MCA Guide, 1972, p. 312]. Explosive reaction with Raney nickel catalyst above 210\u00b0 C {Mozingo R., Org. Synth., 1955, Coll. Vol. 3, p. 182].

10.4 Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5 Incompatible materials

Pure, dry, o- and hydroperoxide-free dioxane rapidly forms hydroperoxide on contact with air.

10.6 Hazardous decomposition products

When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: LD50 Guinea pig oral 3150 mg/kg
  • Inhalation: LC50 Mouse inhalation 37 g/cu m/2 hr
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available


NTP: Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen

Reproductive toxicity

No information is available on the reproductive and developmental effects of 1,4-dioxane in humans. No evidence of gross, skeletal, or visceral malformations was found in the offspring of rats exposed via gavage (experimentally placing the chemical in the stomach). Embryotoxicity was observed only at the highest dose.

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1 Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: LC50; Species: Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill sunfish); Conditions: freshwater, static bioassay, 23\u00b0C, mild aeration applied after 24 hr; Concentration: 10,000 ppm for 96 hr
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: EC50; Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea); Concentration: 4,700 mg/L for 24 hr (nominal concentration); Effect: immobility /Conditions of bioassay not specified in source examined/ /from table
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2 Persistence and degradability

AEROBIC: 1,4-Dioxane, present at 100 mg/L, reached 0% of its theoretical BOD in 2 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L in the Japanese MITI test which classified the compound as not readily biodegradable(1). Using OECD Guideline 301F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test) with a non-adapted activated sludge inoculum, 1,4-dioxane degraded <10% over a 29-day incubation period at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L(2). Using OECD Guideline 310 (Ready Biodegradability, CO2 in sealed vessels) with a non-adapted activated sludge inoculum, 1,4-dioxane (at 37.1 mg/L) had <5% degradation (via CO2 evolution) over a 60-day incubation period which classified the compound as poorly biodegradable(2). Other screening studies have found 1,4-dioxane to be resistant to biodegradation(3-6). 1,4-Dioxane (100 mg/L) was not biodegraded within 120 days using microcosms prepared with 20 grams of Nodeway soil and 200 mL of basal salt medium, and was considered recalcitrant in the environment(7). Possibly due to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies based on results of wastewater treatment monitoring data(8). To evaluate the biodegradation potential of 1,4-dioxane in natural environments, a total of 20 environmental samples including river water, activated sludge, soil from the drainage area of a chemical factory and garden soil were subjected to a 1,4-dioxane degradation test(9); 14 of the 20 samples were not able to degrade 1,4-dioxane(9); however, soil samples from the drainage area of a chemical factory were able to degrade 1,4-dioxane (at 100 mg/L) to <0.8 mg/L within 33 days, presumably due to adaptation(9).

12.3 Bioaccumulative potential

Using OECD Guideline 305C (Bioaccumulation: Test for the Degree of Bioconcentration in Fish) with 1 and 10 ppm concentrations 1,4-dioxane, BCF values of 0.2-0.7 were measured using carp (Cyprinus carpio) which were exposed over a 6-week period(1). According to a classification scheme(2), these BCF values suggest the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC).

12.4 Mobility in soil

Using a soil adsorption coefficient (Kd) of 0.17 for 1,4-dioxane measured in a grey clay soil (45% clay, 43% silt, 10% sand) obtained from a landfill site in Ontario, Canada(1), a Koc value of 29 can be derived(SRC) using the soil's organic carbon content of 0.58%(1). A measured Koc value of 17 has also been reported for 1,4-dioxane(2). According to a classification scheme(3), these Koc values suggest that 1,4-dioxane is expected to have very high mobility in soil(SRC).

12.5 Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1 Disposal methods


The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1 UN Number

ADR/RID: UN1165 IMDG: UN1165 IATA: UN1165

14.2 UN Proper Shipping Name


14.3 Transport hazard class(es)


14.4 Packing group, if applicable


14.5 Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: no IMDG: no IATA: no

14.6 Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7 Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
1,4-Dioxane 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 10, 2017
Revision Date Aug 10, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%


  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website:
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website:
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website:
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website:
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website:
  • ChemIDplus, website:
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website:
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website:
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website:

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.

Precursor and Product
Computational chemical data

Molecular Weight:88.10512 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C4H8O2
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:88.05243
MonoIsotopic Mass:88.05243
Topological Polar Surface Area:18.5
Heavy Atom Count:6
Formal Charge:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Feature 3D Acceptor Count:2
Feature 3D Ring Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:1.2
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1

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