Related Searches: 1,2-dichloro-ethane, Ethane,1,2-dichloro-, 1,2-Bis(pentabromophenyl) ethane, ethane, dichloro, View all

Ethane,1,2-dichloro-(CAS No. 107-06-2)

Ethane,1,2-dichloro- C2H4Cl2 (cas 107-06-2) Molecular Structure

107-06-2 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Iupac name】
【CAS Registry number】
1,2-Ethylene dichloride
Dutch liquid
EDC (halocarbon)
Ethylene chloride
Ethylene dichloride
Glycol dichloride
HCC 150
【Molecular Formula】
C2H4Cl2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
98.96 . CODE
【Canonical SMILES】
【MOL File】

Chemical and Physical Properties

Clear liquid with a chloroform-like odor
【Melting Point】
-35 C
【Boiling Point】
83.5 C
【Refractive Index】
【Flash Point】
13 oC
8.7 G/L (20 oC)
Slightly soluble
Clear liquid at ambient temperatures
Colorless liquid [Note: Decomposes slowly, becomes acidic & darkens in color].
Colorless, oily liquid
【Storage temp】
【Spectral properties】
UV absorbance (1 cm cell vs water) @ wavelength 400-300 nm= absorbance of 0.01 ... @ wavelength 230 nm= absorbance of 1.0 /from table/.
Index of refraction: 1.4448 @ 20 deg C/D
Intense mass spectral peaks: 62 m/z (100%), 49 m/z (40%), 64 m/z (32%), 63 m/z (19%)
IR: 20 (Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Grating Collection)
NMR: 7304 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection)
MASS: 216 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York)
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:98.95916 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C2H4Cl2
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:0
Rotatable Bond Count:1
Exact Mass:97.969006
MonoIsotopic Mass:97.969006
Topological Polar Surface Area:0
Heavy Atom Count:4
Formal Charge:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:1
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:3

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
F: Flammable;T: Toxic;
【Risk Statements】
【Safety Statements 】
Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, and tumorigenic data. An experimental transplacental carcinogen. A human poison by ingestion. Poison experimentally by intravenous and subcutaneous routes. Moderately toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion and inhalation: flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage), somnolence, cough, jaundice, nausea or vomiting, hypermotility, diarrhea, ulceration or bleeding from the stomach, fatty liver degeneration, change in cardiac rate, cyanosis, and coma. It may also cause dermatitis, edema of the lungs, toxic effects on the kidneys, and severe corneal effects. A strong narcotic. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. A skin and severe eye irritant, and strong local irritant. Its smell and irritant effects warn of its presence at relatively safe concentrations. Human mutation data reported.Flammable liquid. A dangerous fire hazard if exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. Moderately explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to flame. Violent reaction with Al, N2O4, NH3, dimethylaminopropylamine. Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials and emit vinyl chloride and HCl. To fight fire, use water, foam, CO2, dry chemicals. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cl? and phosgene. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.Analytical?Methods:???For occupational chemical analysis use OSHA: #03 or NIOSH: Hydrocarbons, Halogenated, 1003.
【PackingGroup 】
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Vapors are irritating.
【Cleanup Methods】
Environmental considerations: land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. Apply "universal" gelling agent to immobilize spill. Apply appropriate foam to diminish vapor and fire hazard.
Environmental considerations: water spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag. Barriers to trap material at bottom. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Remove trapped material with suction hoses. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
In/on soil: Construct barriers to contain spill. Remove with pump on vacuum equip. Absorb residue on sorbent material and shovel into covered metal containers. In/on water: Contain by damming or water diversion. Dredge or vacuum pump to remove contaminant, liquids, and bottom sediment. In/on air: Knock down and disperse vapor with water spray.
Steaming followed by washing with water for purging tanks.
Hycar, an absorbent material, may be used for vapor suppression and containment.
After containment, a universal gelling agent may be used to solidify trapped mass. If solubilized, activated carbon (10%) may be applied. Immobilized masses can be removed using dredges or lift.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high-efficiency particulate arrestor (HEPA) or charcoal filters can be used to minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms ... Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal ... The plastic bag should be sealed immediately ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly ... Waste liquids ... should be placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated ... The plastic bag should also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/
Biological degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane under groundwater conditions.
Eliminate all ignition sources. Use appropriate foam to blanket release and suppress vapors. Absorb in noncombustible material for proper disposal.
Environmental considerations: air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Combustion products include corrosive or toxic vapors.
UN 1184
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
Do not extinguish until release can be stopped. Cool fire-exposed containers with water staying clear of tank ends.
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus with full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may spread fire. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
Use dry chemical, foam, carbon dioxide, or water spray. Water may be ineffective. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products.
【Fire Potential】
Flammable liquid ...
Flammable liquid. A dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers.
USEPA/OPP Pesticide Code 042003; Trade Names: ENT-1656; Borer Sol; Brocide; Destruxol Borer-Sol; Dichloremulsion; Dowfume; Dutch Liquid; Dutch Oil; Freon 150.
Granosan: disinfectant composed of 30% carbon tetrachloride and 70% ethylene dichloride.
Grades: Technical, spectrophotometric.
Ethylene dichloride - carbon tetrachloride (Dowfume 75). Principal ingredient: 1,2-Dichloroethane, commercial formulation, 70% active ingredient; & tetrachloromethane, commercial formulation, 30% active ingredient ... .
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Health: TOXIC; may be fatal if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Inhalation or contact with some of these materials will irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Ethylene dichloride/
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Fire or Explosion: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /Ethylene dichloride/
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Ethylene dichloride/
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Ethylene dichloride/
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Ethylene dichloride/
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point. Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Ethylene dichloride/
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Small spills: Absorb with earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers for later disposal. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /Ethylene dichloride/
/GUIDE 131: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS-TOXIC/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Wash skin with soap and water. Keep victim warm and quiet. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Ethylene dichloride/
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Ethylene dichloride is an indirect food additive for use as a component of adhesives.
The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used in the manufacture of animal feeds in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used as a solvent in the extraction processing of animal byproducts for use in animal feeds. (b) The maximum quantity of the additive permitted to remain in or on the extracted byproducts shall not exceed 300 ppm. (c) The extracted animal byproduct is added as a source of protein to a total ration at levels consistent with good feeding practices, but in no event exceeding 13 percent of the total ration.
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Explosion can result when ethylene dichloride, is mixed with liquid ammonia, dimethylaminopropylamine, nitrogen tetroxide, metal powders, organic peroxides reducing agents, & alkali & alkali earth metals. Mixtures with nitric acid are easily detonated by heat, impact, or friction. Mixtures with mercaptans form thioethers & generate heat while mixtures with nitrides generate heat & ammonia forming toxic fumes.
In the presence of UV light, air, moisture, or heat liberates toxic quantities of phosgene, hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetylene, or vinyl chloride.
Incompatibilites: Strong oxidizers & caustics, chemically active metals, such as ... magnesium powder, sodium ... .
Mixtures of /dinitrogen/ tetraoxide with ... 1,2-dichloroethane are explosive when subjected to shock of 25 g TNT equivalent or less.
A virtually unvented aluminum tank containing a 4:1:2 mixture of o-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,2-dichloropropane exploded violently seven days after filling. This was attributed to formation of aluminum chloride which catalyzed ... /corrosive action/ on the aluminum tank.
Although apparently stable on contact, mixtures of potassium (or its alloys) with range of halocarbons are shock-sensitive & may explode with great violence on light impact. Chloroethane, dichloroethane ... are among those investigated.
Although some mixtures of the two components /chlorine & 1,2-dichloroethane/ will burn, even that with 34% of haloalkane leads only to 2-fold pressure increase.
Mixtures /of 1,2-dichloroethane & nitric acid/ are easily detonated by heat, impact or friction.
Strong oxidizers & caustics; chemically-active metals such as aluminum or magnesium powder, sodium & potassium; liquid ammonia (Note: decomposes to vinyl chloride & HCl above 1112 deg F).
【Other Preventative Measures】
If material not on fire and not involved In fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material.
Warning signs should be placed on equipment, storage tanks, containers, and entrances to areas of use.
Employees should wash promptly when skin becomes contaminated. Immediately remove any clothing that becomes wet to avoid flammability hazard.
SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers.
If material /is/ not on fire and not involved in fire keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking, drinking, eating, storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils, & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory. All personnel should remove gloves, if worn, after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used. They should ... wash ... hands, preferably using dispensers of liq detergent, & rinse ... thoroughly. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin, depending on nature of the contaminant. No standard procedure can be recommended, but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory, personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... Clothing should be changed daily but ... discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs ... /also,/ workers should shower immediately. In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. If gowns are of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Operations connected with synth & purification ... should be carried out under well-ventilated hood. Analytical procedures ... should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during ... procedures should be removed. ... Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used ... & when new fume cupboards are installed. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction, so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without ... powder being blown around the hood. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. Air changes should be adequate, so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar-flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures ... provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet, & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak-tight. Horizontal laminar-flow hoods or safety cabinets, where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator, should never be used. ... Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used ... should be tested before work is begun (eg, with fume bomb) & label fixed to it, giving date of test & avg air-flow measured. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell-culture labs. ... Special consideration should be given to route of admin. ... Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln. Admin by topical application, gavage, or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. If chem will be exhaled, animals should be kept under hood during this period. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. ... Unless specifically required, routes of admin other than in the diet should be used. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood, from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun. When mixing diets, special protective clothing &, possibly, respirators may be required. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When ... admin in diet or applied to skin, animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. When volatile carcinogens are given, filter tops should not be used. Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. Cage-cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used, to avoid moving of ... contaminated /cages/. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated, & monitoring methods are necessary. Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended, depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that ... contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt, periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres, surfaces, such as walls, floors & benches, & ... interior of fume hoods & airducts. As well as regular monitoring, check must be carried out after cleaning-up of spillage. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres. ... Methods ... should ... where possible, be simple & sensitive. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred, such as spillage, should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. Design of expt should ... avoid contamination of permanent equipment. ... Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. ... Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. In cleaning labs, procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust, ie, wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high-efficiency particulate filter on exhaust, which are avail commercially, should be used. Sweeping, brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re-used ... If gowns or towels are contaminated, they should not be sent to laundry, but ... decontaminated or burnt, to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used ... should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels. Access ... limited to persons involved in expt. ... A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others (such as firemen) on the handling of carcinogenic substances. /Chemical Carcinogens/
The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Impervious, resistant clothing, gloves, boots, overshoes, and bib-type aprons covering boot tops. Supplied air hoods, or suits in pits or tanks, or where heat stress is likely.
Half mask or quarter mask facepieces operated with negative pressure below ten times the time-weighted average or full facepieces up to 50 times the time-weighted average.
Respirator selection: Upper limit devices recommended by NIOSH: At any detectable concentration: any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece & operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode or any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece & operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other pressure mode; Escape: Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style or front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister or any appropriate escape-type self-contained breathing apparatus.
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available./ ... Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. ... In animal laboratory, personnel should ... wear protective suits (preferably disposable, one-piece & close-fitting at ankles & wrists), gloves, hair covering & overshoes. ... In chemical laboratory, gloves & gowns should always be worn ... however, gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases, & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection. ... Gowns ... /should be/ of distinctive color, this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
For ethylene dichloride breakthrough times less (usually significantly less) than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for natural rubber, neoprene, neoprene/natural rubber, nitrile, polyethylene (PE), chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), and polyvinyl chloride, (PVC).
For ethylene dichloride some data (usually from immersion tests) suggesting breakthrough times greater than one hour are not likely for nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (nitrile/PVC).
For ethylene dichloride breakthrough times greater than one hour reported by (normally) two or more testers for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and viton.
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL at any detectable cocentration. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator with a full face piece and operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canister. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possbility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]

clear liquid
Safety Statements:53-45-24-16-7
53:Avoid exposure - obtain special instruction before use
45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)
24:Avoid contact with skin
16:Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking
7:Keep container tightly closed
【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow = 1.48
【Disposal Methods】
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U077, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
Waste must never be discharged into sewers or surface waters. Contaminated porous surfaces (sand, vemiculite, etc) should be disposed of at a waste management facility. Recovered liquids may be reprocessed, incinerated, or treated at a waste management facility.
Potential candidate for liquid injection incineration, with a temp range of 650 to 1,600 deg C and a residence time of 0.1 to 2 seconds. Also a potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration, with a temp range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and a residence time of seconds. Also a potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration, with a temp range of 450 to 980 deg C and a residence time of seconds.
This compound should be susceptible to removal from waste water by air stripping.
Concentrated wastes, such as distillation residues, spent catalysts & complex sludges, are disposed of in special waste incinerators since phosgene is liberated during burning of 1,2-dichloroethane. Solvent wastes from small-scale users are collected & regenerated by commercial reprocessing businesses. Aqueous wastes which contain dichloroethane (process effluents) are aerated until the volatile chlorohydrocarbon is evaporated. Special attention has to be given to the emission limits. Recommendable method: Incineration. Peer-review: Dilute with kerosene or fuel oil due to high chlorine content. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC expert consultation (May 1985))
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen-containing waste. ... Summary of avail methods & recommendations ... /given/ must be treated as guide only. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. The most efficient type ... is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. Some ... are designed to accept ... aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ... to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... are to be destroyed in laboratory. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA (high-efficiency particulate arrestor) filters ... Can be disposed of by incineration. For spent charcoal filters, the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. ... LIQUID WASTE: ... Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that ... ensure complete combustion. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals, cage litter & misc solid wastes ... should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Small quantities of ... some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions ... but no general rules can be given. ... As a general technique ... treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. The time necessary for destruction ... is seldom known ... but 1-2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. ... Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents, such as saturated soln of potassium permanganate in acetone, which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon-carbon double bonds. Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent. /Chemical Carcinogens/
PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating, arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles, such as water, hydroxyl ions, ammonia, thiols & thiosulfate. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly ... & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. To facilitate the complete reaction, it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents. ... No method should be applied ... until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. For example, in case of destruction of alkylating agents, it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. /Chemical Carcinogens/
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 1,2-dichlorothane: Concentration process: Biological treatment.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 1,2-dichloroethane: Concentration process: Activated carbon.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 1,2-dichloroethane: Concentration process: Resin adsorption.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 1,2-dichloroethane: Concentration process: Stripping.
The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 1,2-dichloroethane: Concentration process: Solvent extraction.
Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Center operated a pilot plant at a landfill site to treat groundwater contaminated with volatile organic chemicals during the summer of 1986. The treatment system consisted of a packed air stripping column to treat the wastewater and two sequential granular activated carbon adsorbers to treat the off-gases. Among volatile organic chemicals in the wastewater were 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, toluene, and trichloroethylene. Removal efficiencies varied from 27 to 99.9%. Optimal conditions, resulting in 94% removal of all volatile organic chemicals, were met with a 70:1 air-to-water ratio, a liquid flow rate of 4 l/min, and 1.3 cm Intalox saddles. Concentration of all compounds were below the lower detection limit of 2 ug/l in the effluent of the second granular activated carbon adsorber.
The adsorption capacities and rates of seven principal chlorinated organic compounds for six commercial GACs were investigated. All the adsorption isotherms were expressed by the Freundlich equation and the isotherms for the chloroethylenes such as trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene could be shown by the modified Freundlich equation Q = k' (C/Cs)ln for each GAC. The magnitude of adsorption of the chlorinated organic compounds was in the order of: tetrachloroethylene > trichloroethylene > trans-1 2-dichloroethylene > l,l-dichloroethane > carbon tetrachloride > l,l,l-trichloroethane > chloroform. The value of k for a certain GAC could be predicted from the quantity of pores smaller than 2 mm in diameter. The adsorbed amounts were decreased by 10-20% when humic substances coexisted. The working periods of a fixed bed adsorber before regeneration were predicted by calculating breakthrough curves of various influent concentrations of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene at the space velocities of 5 or 10 hr -l and it was certified that the adsorption method by GAC was feasible for removing these compounds from water.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

1,2-Dichloroethane is produced by the vapor- or liquid-phase chlorination of ethylene. Most liquid-phase processes use ferric chloride as the catalyst. ...
Action of chlorine on ethylene, with subsequent distillation with metallic catalyst; also by reaction of acetylene and hydrochloric acid.
Made from ethylene and chlorine; also from acetylene and HCl
... Industrially produced by chlorination of ethylene ... using chlorine (direct chlorination) or hydrogen chloride (oxychlorination) as a chlorinating agent
Commercial production is by the chlorination of ethylene, either directly with chlorine or by oxychlorination using hydrogen chloride and oxygen.
U.S. Exports

(1985) 4.42X10+11 g
(1999) 2.597 billion lbs; (2000) 2.493 billion lbs
U.S. Imports

(1985) 6.36X10+9 g
(1999) 340 million lbs; (2000) 329 million lbs
U.S. Production

(1980) 5.03X10+12 G
(1981) 9,973,553,000 lb
(1983) 11,506,143,000 lb
(1990) 13.85 billion lb
(1991) 13.72 billion lb
(1992) 15.15 billion lb
(1993) 17.95 billion lb
6,220,003 kg (1991)
13th-highest-volume chemical produced in the US (1995).
Consumption Patterns

Demand: 13.9x10+9 lb (1991); 14.3X10+9 lb (1992); 16.5X10+9 lb (1996) (forecast); includes exports of 1.45x10+9 lb (1991) but not imports estimated at 11X10+6 lb
Vinyl chloride monomer, 88%; exports, 10%, other including chlorinated solvents and ethyleneamines, 2%.
... 85% of total ...production used for production of vinyl chloride, 10% used in the production of chlorinated solvents... The rest goes into various processes mainly for the synthesis of ethylenediamines.
Demand: (1999) 15.089 billion lbs; (2000) 15.632 billion lbs; (2004) 17.938 billion lbs
Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), 94 percent; ethyleneamines, 3 percent; 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1 percent; vinylidene chloride, 1 percent; miscellaneous, including trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, 1 percent.
【Sampling Procedures】
Ethylene dichloride was collected /from air/ on silica gel, and extracted with isopropyl alcohol ... .
NIOSH Method 1003. Matrix: air; Sampler: Solid sorbent tube (coconut shell charcoal, 100 mg/50 mg); Flow rate: 0.01 to 0.2 l/min; Minimun vol: 0.5 l @ 100 ppm, Max vol: 15 l; Sample stability: Not determined; Shipment: Routine.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
Inhalation of vapors causes nausea, drunkenness, depression. Contact of liquid with eyes may produce corneal injury. Prolonged contact with skin may cause a burn.
【Therapeutic Uses】
As a general anesthetic instead of chloroform, especially in ophthalmic surgery. /Former use/
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
The effect of the pretreatment of male Sprague-Dawley rats with phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole & disulfiram on the inhalation kinetics of 1,2-dichloroethane was studied by the gas uptake method. ... The rate curves in all the pretreatment regimens showed saturable dependence on 1,2-dichloroethane concn. These saturable dependencies (Michaelis-Menten) appeared to be associated with enzymatic metab. In general, a two-compartment, steady-state pharmacokinetic model described the uptake data. Data were transformed by Hanes plots to calculate the inhalational Km, the ambient 1,2-dichloroethane concn at which uptake proceeded at half maximum rate, & Vmax, the maximum rate of uptake (ie, maximum rate of metab). Although phenobarbital & butylated hydroxyanisole pretreatments did not affect the Km of 1,2-dichloroethane, phenobarbital pretreatment increased the Vmax while disulfiram pretreatment decreased both the Km & Vmax. [Igwe OJ et al; Arch Toxicol 59 (3): 127-34 (1986)] PubMed Abstract
The levels of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-EDC), & its metabolites 2-chloroethanol, monochloroacetic acid, & 2-chloroacetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography in the organs of human cadavers in cases of acute poisoning. The highest 1,2-dichloroethane levels were observed in the stomach & omentum; lower levels in the kidney, spleen, brain, heart, large & small intestines, & blood, & no detectable amounts in the liver. 2-Chloroethanol & monochloroacetic acid, minor metabolites of 1,2-dichloroethane, were detected in small amounts in the myocardium, brain, stomach, & small intestine. 2-Chloroacetaldehyde, because it is a reactive intermediate in the biotransformation of 1,2-dichloroethane was not detectable in the organs. The administration of acetylcysteine to acutely intoxicated humans showed no positive clinical effect. ...
Urinary excretion of thiodiglycolic acid and thioethers after 1 2-dichloroethane dosing was studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were admin 0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, 1.01, 2.02, 4.04 or 8.08 uM/kg (14)C labeled 1,2-dichloroethane orally. Urine samples were collected for 24 hours and analyzed for thiodiglycolic acid and thioethers before and after alkaline hydrolysis by gas chromatography and the Ellman reagent/absorption spectrophotometry (thioether assay), respectively. The amounts of 1,2-dichloroethane derived radioactivity excreted decreased as a logarithmic function of increasing 1,2-dichloroethane dose ranging from 62.1% of the dose for 0.12 and 0.25 umol/kg 1,2-dichloroethane to 7.4% of the 8.08 umol/kg dose. The concentratlons of urinary thiodiglycolic acid were well correlated with 1,2-dichloroethane dose up to 2.02 umol/kg. When expressed as a percentage of the dose urinary excretion of thiodiglycolic acid was not dependent on the dose over the range 0.12 to l.0l umol/kg 1,2-dichloroethane and amounted to 21.8% of the dose. Before alkaline hydrolysis no thioethers could be detected. After alkaline hydrolysis, urinary excretion of thioethers by rats dosed with 0.12 and 0.25 umol/kg did not differ significantly from the control value. Between 0.25 and 4.04 umol/kg 1,2-dichloroethane, thioether excretion increased linearly with dose. The highest thioether/thiodiglycolic ratio 0.17 occurred ln rats given 8.08 umol/kg 1,2-dichloroethane. Urinary thiodiglycolic acid concentrations were not altered by alkaline hydrolysis. The /results suggest/ that urinary thiodiglycolic acid excretion correlates well with the oral dose of 1,2-dichloroethane in rats. Urinary thiodiglycolic acid excretion may be a useful marker of 1,2-dichloroethane exposure. Thiodiglycolic acid is hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions. The thioether assay is not appropriate for estimating urinary thiodiglycolic acid excretion.
Dichloroethane is readily absorbed from the GI & respiratory tracts. Blood 1,2-dichloroethane levels plateau in the rat at 8.3 ug/ml after a 2-3 hr exposure at 150 ppm. Steady-state blood concns in the rat increased exponentially as the exposure concn increased; after 6 hr of exposure at 50, 150, & 250 ppm, blood 1,2-dichloroethane levels were 14, 8.3, & 31.3 ug/ml, respectively. During a 6 hr, 150 ppm exposure, the rats were calculated to have absorbed 113 mg 1,2-dichloroethane/kg, or about 70% of the 1,2-dichloroethane they would have inhaled if the minute ventilation was 0.76 liter/min/kg bw. 1,2-Dichloroethane was rapidly cleared form the blood ... even following oral doses (
The rate of dermal absorption of 1,2-dichloroethane by mice was 479.3 +or- 38.3 nmol/min/sq cm following covered application of 0.5 ml of the undiluted solvent, while the rate of absorption of 1,2-dichloroethane in 0.9% NaCl in vitro in excised skin of rats was 169 +or- 0.44 nmoles/min/sq cm. Dermal absorption of 1,2-dichloroethane in aqueous soln (1000 mg/l) was found to be similar in human & rat epidermis in vitro within 1 hr of occluded application (20.3 ug/sq cm/hr versus 33.1 ug/sq cm/hr), whereas when the substance was applied neat (uncovered), absorption within the first 15 min was approx 4-10 fold greater in the rat epidermis than in the human epidermis. In addition, absorption increased with applied dose in the rat epidermis, whereas absorption was not dependent upon dose in the human epidermis.
1,2-Dichloroethane has been detected in the breast milk of women occupationally exposed via inhalation & dermal contact.
The rate of elimination following oral (gavage) admin or inhalation was such that 1,2-dichloroethane was not detected in the blood a few hr after exposure & only small amounts were detected in tissues (liver, kidney, lung, spleen, forestomach, stomach & carcass) 48 hr after exposure ... . The rate of elimination from blood & tissues appeared to depend on the exposure level; the higher the exposure level, the lower the elimination rate of 1,2-dichloroethane, after both oral & inhalation exposure. Elimination from the liver was reported to be biphasic, a higher elimination rate occurring just after the peak levels of 1,2-dichloroethane were reached. Elimination from other organs was monophasic. Following inhalation up to an exposure level of 1012 mg/cu m, elimination was slowest in adipose tissue & most rapid in the lung.
The % of admin radioactivity excreted in the urine over a 24 hr period in rats decreased with increasing single doses (0.25-8.08 mmol 1,2-dichloroethane/kg bw) admin by gavage in mineral oil. The authors attributed these results to saturation of metabolism rather than kidney damage, as there were no variations in biochemical parameters of nephrotoxicity between the controls & groups exposed to doses up to 4.04 mmol/kg bw. Urinary thiodiglycolic acid increased as a linear function of the dose of 1,2-dichloroethane until at least 1.01 mmol/kg bw; it accounted for 63% of the total metabolites in urine at this dose.
Although 1,2-dichloroethane is eliminated more slowly from adipose tissue than from blood or other tissues (lung and liver) following exposure, it is unlikely to bioaccumulate, as no significant difference was observed between levels in blood or tissues following single or repeated (10 days) oral doses of 50 mg/kg body weight in rats.
1,2-Dichloroethane is well absorbed through the lungs following inhalation exposure, the GI tract following oral exposure, and the skin following dermal exposure in humans. In animal studies, equilibrium blood concn of 1,2-dichloroethane were obtained 2-3 hr after inhalation exposure, 15-60 min after oral exposure, and 1-2 hr after aqueous dermal exposure. Absorption probably occurs by passive diffusion for all three routes of exposure. Upon absorption, 1,2-dichloroethane is widely distributed within the body. Experiments in animals exposed orally or by inhalation showed that the highest concn of 1,2-dichloroethane (7-17 times that of the blood) were found in adipose tissue. The liver and lung contained lower equilibrium levels of 1,2-dichloroethane than the blood.
Excretion of 1,2-dichloroethane and metabolites is rapid; in animal studies, excretion was essentially complete 48 hr after acute exposure. Following inhalation exposure to labeled 1,2-dichloroethane, excretion of 1,2-dichloroethane was primarily in the form of metabolites (thiodiglycolic acid and thiodiglycolic acid sulfoxide) in the urine (84%), and as carbon dioxide (CO2) in the exhaled air (7%). Following oral exposure to labeled 1,2-dichloroethane, the amt of radioactivity excreted by these routes was reduced, and a large percentage of the dose (29%) was excreted as unchanged 1,2-dichloroethane in the exhaled air. The incr exhalation of unchanged 1,2-dichloroethane may reflect the saturation of biotransformation enzymes.

Environmental Fate and Exposure Potential

【Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary】
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), a Koc value of 33(2) indicates that 1,2-dichloroethane is expected to have very high mobility in soil(SRC). Volatilization of 1,2-dichloroethane from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process(SRC) given a estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.18X10-3 atm-cu m/mole(3). The potential for volatilization of 1,2-dichloroethane from dry soil surfaces may exist(SRC) based upon a vapor pressure of 78.9 mm Hg(4). Biodegradation is not expected to be an important environmental fate process in soil as indicated by a variety of biodegradation tests(SRC); the percent BOD produced in aerobic systems using sewage seed or activated sludge in 5-10 days was 0-7%(5-7).
AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme(1), Koc value of 33(2) indicates that 1,2-dichloroethane is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). Volatilization from water surfaces is expected(3) based upon a Henry's Law constant of 1.18X10-3 atm-cu m/mole(4). Using this Henry's Law constant and an estimation method(3), volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 4 hrs and 4 days, respectively(SRC). Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since 1,2-dichloroethane lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions(5). According to a classification scheme(6), a BCF of 2(7), suggests bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Biodegradation is not expected to be an important environmental fate process in water(SRC). The percent BOD produced in aerobic systems using sewage seed or activated sludge in 5-10 days was 0-7%(8-10).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), 1,2-dichloroethane, which has a vapor pressure of 78.9 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase 1,2-dichloroethane is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 63 days(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 2.48X10-13 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(3). Indirect evidence for photooxidation of 1,2-dichloroethane comes from the observation that monitoring levels are highest during the night and early morning(4).

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