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Oxygen(CAS No. 7782-44-7)

Oxygen O2 (cas 7782-44-7) Molecular Structure

7782-44-7 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Oxygen
【CAS Registry number】
7782-44-7
【Synonyms】
Dioxygen
Molecular oxygen
Oxygen molecule
【EINECS(EC#)】
231-956-9
【Molecular Formula】
O2 (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
32.00
【Inchi】
InChI=1S/O2/c1-2
【InChIKey】
MYMOFIZGZYHOMD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
【Canonical SMILES】
O=O
【MOL File】
7782-44-7.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
colourless gas
【Density】
1.429(0℃)
【Melting Point】
-218 oC
【Boiling Point】
-183 oC
【Vapour】
3.27E-25mmHg at 25°C
【Flash Point】
none
【Solubilities】

【Color/Form】
Colorless gas
Slightly bluish liquid at -183 deg C
【Stability】
Stable. Vigorously supports combustion. Incompatible with phosphorus, organic materials, many powdered metals.
【Spectral properties】
Index of refraction: liq: 1.2243 at -181 deg C/D
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:31.9988 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:O2
XLogP3-AA:-1.1
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:2
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:31.989829
MonoIsotopic Mass:31.989829
Topological Polar Surface Area:34.1
Heavy Atom Count:2
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:0
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:1
Effective Rotor Count:0
Conformer Sampling RMSD:0.4
CID Conformer Count:1

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
(Gaseous) Moderate fire risk as oxidizing agent; therapeutic overdoses can cause convulsions. (Liquid) May explode on contact with heat or oxidizable materials. Irritant to skin and tissue.
【Risk Statements】
R8
【Safety Statements 】
S17
【HazardClass】
2.2
【Safety】

Human systemic effects by inhalation: cough and other pulmonary changes. Human teratogenic effects by inhalation: developmental abnormalities of the fetal cardiovascular system. Mutation data reported. Not toxic as gas. In liquid form it can cause severe “burns” and tissue damage on contact with the skin due to extreme cold.
Hazard Codes:?OxidizingO,CorrosiveC
Risk Statements: 8-52/53-34
?R8 :Contact with combustible material may cause fire.?
R52/53:Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.?
R34:Causes burns.
Safety Statements: 17-45-36/37/39-26-61?
S17:Keep away from combustible material.?
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)?
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.?
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.?
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.
RIDADR: UN 1072 2.2
RTECS: RS2060000
F: 4.5-31
HazardClass: 2.2

【PackingGroup 】
O53
【Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations】
Liq: Irritant to skin & tissues.
The inhalation, at 1 atm, of 80% O2 for more than about 12 hr /causes/ ... Irritation of resp tract ...
Contact with liquid will cause frostbite.
... Short-term /oxygen/ exposure ... at very high concentrations is irritating to the respiratory tract /and/ may cause effects on ... lungs and eyes.
【Cleanup Methods】
Notify safety personnel of significant leaks or spills. ... Shut off oxygen source if possible.
To increase the rate of controlled evaporation, spray with large amounts of water (fog may be generated and reduce visibility). /Liquid oxygen/
Eliminate all ignition sources. Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. USe water spray to disperse vapors and protect personnel.
Ventilation. Remove all ignition sources. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. NEVER direct water jet on liquid. /Oxygen, liquefied/
【Transport】
UN 1014/1072
【Fire Fighting Procedures】
LIQ: When fire results from a leak or flow of liq oxygen onto wood, paper, waste or another similar material, the first thing to do is stop flow if possible. For small spills, or after leak or flow of liq oxygen has been stopped, use enough water to put out fire quickly. When fire involves liq oxygen and liq fuels, control it as follows: (a) When liq oxygen leaks or flows into large quantities of fuel, shut off flow of liq oxygen, and put remaining fuel fire out with extinguishing agents suitable for use on class B fires. When fuel leaks or flows into large quantities of liq oxygen, shut off flow of fuel. (b) When fuel and liq oxygen are mixed or mixing but are not yet burning, isolate area from sources of ignition and get out quickly, allowing oxygen to evaporate. When large pools of water-soluble fuel are present, use water to dilute fuel and reduce intensity of fire. This method cannot be used with fuels which do not mix with water. Appropriate extinguishing agents may be used to put out fuel fires after the oxygen has evaporated.
If material involved in fire: Dangerously explosive. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities or water. Do not use water on material itself. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. /Oxygen, refrigerated liquid/
If material involved in fire: Dangerously explosive. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far as distance as possible. /Oxygen, compressed/
Evacuation: If fire becomes uncontrollable or container is exposed to direct flame: consider evacuation of one-third (1/3) mile radius. /Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid/
【Fire Potential】
Gas: moderate fire risk as oxidizing agent.
Oxygen is noncombustible, but actively supports combustion.
Strong oxidizer ... May initiate fire/explosion in combustible materials. /Oxygen, liquid/
Even a slight increase in the oxygen content of air above its usual 21 vol % will greatly increase the rate of oxidation or combustion of many substances.
... Fires at the interface of oxygen regulators and cylinder valves because of incorrect use of /the plastic (usually Nylon) crush gasket of/ CGA 870 seals /was alerted/ ... 12 reports /had been received/ in which regulators used with oxygen cylinders have burned or exploded, in some cases injuring personnel. Some of the incidents occurred during emergency medical use or during routine equipment checks.
... 16 reports of aluminum regulators used with oxygen cylinders burning or exploding /had been received/. These incidents caused severe burns to 11 health care workers and patients. Many of the incidents occurred during emergency medical use or during routine equipment checkout. FDA and The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) believe that the aluminum in these regulators was a major factor in both the ignition and severity of the fires ...
【Formulations/Preparations】
Liq: Purity: 99.5+%.
Grades: low purity; high purity; USP.
Type I, gas, Grades,O2 min: A, 99.0%; B, 99.5%; C, 99.5%; D, 99.5%; E, 99.6%; F, 99.995%. Type II liquid, grades, O2 min: A, 99.0%; B, 99.5%; C, 99.5%; D, 99.5% /Grades with same min have different allowable impurities/
... Mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen /used in short-duration diving/ that have a larger fraction of oxygen than the 0.2095 normally found in atmospheric air ... are called by several names, including ?nitrox,? oxygen-enriched air, and enriched air nitrox.
Oxygen is now manufactured in only 2 grades: grade A, aviator's breathing oxygen, and grade B, for industrial or medical purposes. The only difference ... is the permissible moisture content. In high-altitude flying, there is the risk of freeze-up of any moisture present in an oxygen system ...
【DOT Emergency Guidelines】
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Fire or Explosion: Substance does not burn but will support combustion. Some may react explosively with fuels. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Health: Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. Always wear thermal protective clothing when handling refrigerated/cryogenic liquids. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 500 meters (1/3 mile). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Fire: Use extinguishing agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. Small fires: Dry chemical or CO2. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Damaged cylinders should be handled only by specialists. Fire involving tanks: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ Spill or Leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Allow substance to evaporate. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. CAUTION: When in contact with refrigerated/cryogenic liquids, many materials become brittle and are likely to break without warning. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
/GUIDE 122: GASES - OXIDIZING (INCLUDING REFRIGERATED LIQUIDS)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Clothing frozen to the skin should be thawed before being removed. In case of contact with liquefied gas, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Oxygen; Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)/
【Reactivities and Incompatibilities】
Liq: Heat of water will vigorously vaporize liquid oxygen.
Oxygen leaked into the free space in an acetaldehyde storage tank normally purged with nitrogen. Accelerating exothermic oxidation led to detonation. The self-ignition temperature of acetaldehyde-oxygen mixtures depends on dimensions of the reactor and the partial pressure of peracetic acid accumulated on the walls. Spontaneous ignition temperatures of 71 to 73 deg C were observed.
Oxygen reacts explosively with phosphine, hydrazine, hydrogen sulfide ...
Synthesis gas (CO + H2) at 40 bar containing a low level of hydrogen sulfide was to be freed of the latter impurity by adding the theoretical quantity of oxygen and passing the mixture over a catalyst. Introducing of oxygen (from a supply at 60 bar) via a simple T-piece (instead of through the recommended small bore coaxial injection nozzle to ensure thorough mixing with the gas stream) caused development of an intense inverse flame in the locally very high oxygen concn which burned through the reactor side wall opposite the oxygen inlet and ejected a meter-long flame-jet.
Addition of powdered copper to a 1:2 mixture of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen causes the metal to become incandescent and ignite the explosive mixture ... During an investigation of the spontaneously explosive oxidation of near-stoichiometric gas mixtures /of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen/ in the range /of/ 280 to 360 deg C, extensive self-heating was observed before ignition occurred ...
Interaction /between dimethyl sulfide and oxygen/ is explosive at 210 deg C or above ...
Calcium and other alkaline-earth phosphides incandesce in oxygen at about 300 deg C.
An explosive reaction of ... /oxygen and tetrafluorohydrazine/ is likely in the presence of organic matter ... Spontaneous ignition occurs when ... /hydrazine and liquid oxygen/ are mixed.
Secondary alcohols are readily autoxidized in contact with oxygen or air, forming ketones and hydrogen peroxide. A partly full bottle of 2-propanol exposed to sunlight for a long period became 0.36 M in peroxide and potentially explosive.
Reactivity towards air or oxygen increases from lithium to cesium, and the intensity depends on state of subdivision and on presence or absence of moisture. Lithium normally ignites in air above its mp, while potassium may ignite after exposure to atmosphere, unless it is unusually dry. Rubidium and cesium ignite immediately on exposure. It is reported that sodium and potassium may be distilled unchanged under perfectly dried oxygen ... Finely divided calcium may ignite in air, and the massive metal ignites on heating in air, and burns vigorously at 300 deg C in oxygen. Strontium and barium behave similarly.
Solid calcium ignites spontaneously in moist oxygen.
Nickel carbonyl vapor explodes in air or oxygen at 20 deg C and a partial pressure of 15 mm ...
A mixture of the dry /tetracarbonylnickel/ ... and oxygen will explode on vigorous shaking with mercury (presumably catalysed by mercury or its oxide) ... The /tetracarbonylnickel/ ... on exposure to atmospheric oxygen produces a deposit which becomes peroxidized and may ignite. Mixtures with air or oxygen at low partial and total pressures explode after a variable induction period. Addition of the /tetracarbonylnickel/ ... to a butane-oxygen mixture at 20 to 40 deg C caused explosive reactions in some cases.
Sodium hydride ignites in oxygen at 230 deg C, and finely divided uranium hydride ignites on contact. Lithium hydride, sodium hydride and potassium hydrides react slowly in dry air, while rubidium and cesium hydrides ignite. Reaction is accelerated in moist air, and even finely divided lithium hydride ignites then. Finely divided magnesium hydride, prepared by pyrolysis, ignites immediately in air ... Ignition of diborane and tetraborane(10) in contact with air or oxygen is due to the presence of traces of silicon hydrides. The lower members of the latter class ignite or explode in air or oxygen, especially at reduced pressure. phosphine is also sensitive.
Mixtures of lithium hydride powder and liquid oxygen are detonable explosives of greater power than trinitrotoluene (TNT). /Oxygen, liquid/
Even small amount of oxygen present in phosphine give an explosive mixture, in which autoignition occurs at low pressures.
... /Rhenium/ ignites in oxygen at 300 deg C.
During preparation of perrhenyl chloride by combustion of rhenium nonachloride in an oxygen stream, a violent explosion, possibly involving chlorine oxides, occurred on heating the chloride to 250 deg C. A safe procedure involving heating the chloride to 250 deg C under nitrogen, and then introducing oxygen, is proposed.
Mixtures /of 1,3,5-trioxane/ with liquid oxygen are highly explosive. /Oxygen, liquid/
Many ethers, either of open chain (diethyl or diisopropyl ether) or cyclic type (tetrahydrofuran, dioxane), are readily autoxidized on exposure to air or oxygen in presence of light. The hydroperoxides formed are less volatile than the parent ether and may be concn to a dangerous extent if distillation of peroxidized material is attempted.
In the presence of oxygen or air, ethers form peroxides which may explode spontaneously or when heated ... Ethyl ether forms peroxides which may explode when heated to about 100 deg C ... Isopropyl ether, which had stood on the shelf a long time, exploded when the stuck cap on the bottle was freed ... Isopropyl ether tends to react with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides which may detonate with extreme violence. Several incidents are cited.
Autoxidation of dimethylketene with oxygen in ether at -20 deg C gives the poly(peroxylactone) which as a dry solid is liable to undergo unpredictable and violent detonation.
Biological material in a polythene bag filled with oxygen and being prepared for analytical combustion exploded. Diethyl ether used to anaesthetize the experimental animal from which the sample was derived may have still been present, and ignition from static charge on the plastics bag may have been involved.
The transition of deflagration to detonation in mixtures /of propylene oxide (methyloxirane) and oxygen/ was studied with respect to mixing ratio, pressure and spark energy.
Liquid phase oxidation of 4-methoxytoluene to anisaldehyde at 60 bar/115 deg C in acetic acid containing heavy metal salts is violent, and must be controlled by the rate of addition of oxygen gas.
Flash bulbs containing aluminum foil plus oxygen, when ignited, cause similar bulbs up to 8 inches away to be ignited by radiated heat ... Liquid oxygen gives a detonable mixture when combined with powdered aluminum ... A lecturer was demonstrating the ignition of powdered aluminum mixed with liquid oxygen when the mixture exploded. Seventeen persons were injured. This experiment, which is described in several places as a lecture demonstration, has been carried out successfully hundreds of times but there have been a few explosions when the conditions were just right.
A demonstration of combustion of aluminium powder in oxygen exploded violently, probably owing to presence of unevaporated liquid at ignition. Stoichiometric mixtures of the two are explosives much more powerful than trinitrotoluene (TNT) ... An aluminium filter in a high-capacity liquid oxygen transfer line exploded violently, possibly owing to friction or impact ignition of an aluminium component in contact with an abrasive particle, which would penetrate the protective oxide layer ... Mixtures of liquid oxygen with 48 to 64 wt% of fine aluminium powder are detonable ... A ... liquid oxygen road tanker constructed of aluminium ruptured violently during manoeuvring operations after a delivery, when the contents had been pressured up with gaseous oxygen (evaporated from the liquid) to expel the liquid. The rupture was traced to erosion and thinning of the tank wall adjacent to an internal baffle joint, where aluminium particles, oil and a halocarbon degreasing solvent were trapped in a cavity in the weld. These had reacted with the pressurizing oxygen atmosphere, raising the wall temperature in the vapor space to that where direct reaction of the aluminium container with gaseous oxygen was possible. Some 70 kg of metal was missing in all ... /Oxygen, liquid/
/Aluminium-titanium/ alloys ranging from Al3Ti2 to Al4Ti ... ignite or incandesce on heating in ... oxygen.
Explosive reaction /between aluminum borohydride and oxygen/ occurs at temperatures as low as 20 deg C. Explosive range: 5% to 90% ... Aluminum hydride is spontaneously flammable in oxygen or air.
... Powdered magnesium, titanium or zirconium mixed with liquid oxygen are detonable. A nitrogen-pressurized liquid oxygen dispenser made of titanium alloy failed during nitrogen pressurizing. The vessel failed because of reaction of the titanium alloy with liquid oxygen. Titanium is more reactive towards oxygen than either stainless steel or aluminium, and should therefore not be used for oxygen service, either gas or liquid ... Detonation of mixtures with powdered aluminum, iron, titanium and chromium-nickel alloy powders was studied ... /Oxygen, liquid/
Passage of oxygen through a titanium feed pipe into a titanium autoclave caused a titanium-oxygen fire and explosion at 44 bar. When the surface oxide film is damaged, titanium can ignite at 24 bar under static conditions and at 3.4 bar under dynamic conditions, with oxygen at ambient temperature ... The Drager oxygen-measuring tube contains titanium trichloride as the indicating substance, and a possible hazard in using these tubes to measure oxygen contents above 25 vol% in gas mixtures has been noted. The temperature in the tube can reach 120 deg C during oxidation of titanium trichloride to titanium dichloride oxide, so the test should not be used if cmpd with ignition point below 135 deg C (eg carbon disulfide) are present.
A titanium alloy tank containing liquid oxygen exploded during a laboratory experiment. Contamination might have triggered the reaction. An explosion hazard may exist in the use of titanium with either gaseous or liquid oxygen.
Mixtures /of liquid oxygen with/ liquid carbon monoxide, cyanogen (solidified) and methane are highly explosive. Autoignition in liquid oxygen-hydrogen propellant system has been reviewed. /Liquid oxygen/
The thermal homogeneous chain reaction /among hexafluoropropene, oxygen difluoride and oxygen/ to give mainly octafluoropropane and hexafluoropropylene oxide becomes explosive above a minimum oxygen pressure of 26 mbar. /Oxygen, liquid/
1,1,1-Trichloroethane exploded after heating under oxygen at 54 bar and 100 deg C for 3 hr. Trichloroethylene, remaining in a pipe after cleaning operations, exploded under 27 bar pressure of oxygen at ambient temperature. It was later found possible to explode stoichiometric mixtures. Chlorotrifluoroethylene and bromotrifluoroethylene each react explosively with oxygen at ambient temperature, but controlled oxidation of the former produces an explosive cyclic peroxide, 4,5-dichloro-3,3,4,5,6,6-hexafluoro-1,2-dioxane.
Mixtures of liquid oxygen with dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and 'chlorinated dye penetrants 1 and 2' exploded violently when initiated with a blasting cap. Carbon tetrachloride exploded only mildly, and a partly fluorinated chloroalkane not at all. Trichloroethylene has been used for degreasing metallic parts before use with liquid oxygen, but is not safe. /Oxygen, liquid/
Addition of bromine to a mixture of chlorotrifluoroethylene and oxygen causes an explosion. One of the products of the reaction is chlorotrifluoroethylene peroxide, which explodes when heated.
Second stage ignition during oxidation/combustion of iodomethane in oxygen at 300 to 500 deg C was particularly violent, occasionally causing fracture of the apparatus, and was attributed to formation and decomposition of a periodic species.
Oxidation of ... /phosphorous tribromide/ with gaseous oxygen is not easily controlled and become explosive.
Phosphorus trifluoride does not burn in air, but if it is mixed with oxygen, the gases explode.
/Tetraphosphorus hexaoxide (phosphorus(III) oxide) Interact/ with air or oxygen /rapidly/ and, at slightly elevated temperatures in air or at high concn of oxygen, ignition is very probable, particularly if the oxide is molten (above 33 deg C) or distributed as a thin layer. The solid in contact with oxygen at 50 to 60 deg C ignites and burns very brilliantly. During distillation of phosphorus(III) oxide, air must be rigorously excluded to avoid the possibility of explosion. The later reference states that the carefully purified oxide does not ignite in oxygen, and that the earlier observations were on material containing traces of white phosphorus.
Phosphorus and oxygen ... undergo a vigorous reaction at room temperature.
Liq: may explode on contact with heat or oxidizable materials ...
Liquid oxygen plus ordinary fuels, hydrocarbons, and many other organic cmpd are powerful explosives. /Oxygen, liquid/
Serious explosions have resulted from contact between oil & high-pressure oxygen.
Traces of oil on the ball bearing of a centrifugal pump reacted with liquid oxygen being transferred by the pump. The heat of reaction vaporized the oxygen and the pump burst from pressurization.
Oxygen-saturated wood & asphalt have been known to ... explode when subjected to shock.
During transfer of liquid oxygen from a factory reservoir to a tanker truck, some of the liquid leaked from a coupling to the asphalt surface below. When the trucker dropped a hammer on this surface, a violent explosion formed a crater 20 inches square by 4 inches deep in the asphalt and broke windows nearby. /Oxygen, liquid/
... Mixtures of asphalt and liquid oxygen were shown to be impact-sensitive on the small scale, but on the larger scale a detonator was necessary to initiate mild explosion of liquid oxygen on a layer of asphalt. Oil, rubber or other impurities may have been present on the road surface in the first incident. /Oxygen, liquid/
In a plant manufacturing liquid and gaseous oxygen, spruce wood flooring encased in iron sheeting was charred by an undetected, smoldering fire started by a welding spark. Subsequent leakage of liquid oxygen saturated the charred wood and a violent explosion resulted. /Oxygen, liquid/
In 2 test methods (IP40, IP38) for the oxidative stability of hydrocarbons, samples are heated in a valve-sealed stainless bomb under an oxygen atmosphere, On several occasions minor explosions occurred when valves with Teflon sealing discs (rather than the older metal needle closures) were operated during oxygen purging or venting operations. (This was associated with presence of metal particles and traces of grease being embedded in the Teflon discs). Only stainless needle valves, and a controlled rate of pressure release, are recommended for these tests.
Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) ignited at 1,300 deg F in a 5 psia pure oxygen atmosphere, when used as a 20 AWG wire insulation. Polyolefin insulation ignites at about 1,100 deg F under the same conditions ... The combustion of Teflon in oxygen to give carbonyl fluoride is highly exothermic but a large ignition source is required. The minimum ignition temperature is 465 deg C even under 7500 psi of oxygen gas. The ignition of Teflon tubing at -60 deg C in supercritical oxygen at 900 psi required a hot nickel-chromium wire as an initiator.
Accidental admixture of oxygen gas with unstabilized liquid tetrafluoroethylene produced a polymeric peroxide which was powerfully explosive, and sensitive to heat, impact or friction. Removal of oxygen by treatment with pyrophoric copper to prevent explosion of tetrafluoroethylene has been claimed.
Mixtures /of diborane(6) and oxygen/ at 105 to 165 deg C exploded spontaneously after an induction period dependent on temperature and composition.
Reation of pentaborane/(9)/ with oxygen is often violently explosive ... Pentaborane(11) ignites in air.
Decaborane is spontaneously flammable in oxygen ...
The vapor /of aluminium tetrahydroborate/ is spontaneously flammable in air, and explodes in oxygen, but only in presence of traces of moisture ... The /aluminium/ tetrahydroborate reacts with alkenes and, in presence of oxygen, combustion is initiated even in absence of moisture. Butene explodes after an induction period, while butadiene explodes immediately.
Beryllium borohydride reacts explosively with oxygen or water ... In contact with air or oxygen ... /boron arsenotribromide/ is readily oxidized, and in most cases ignites spontaneously ... Boron decahydride ignites spontaneously when exposed to air or oxygen ... Oxygen and boron trichloride react vigorously on sparking.
/Diboron tetrafluoride/ gas is extremely explosive in presence of oxygen.
... The complex /of arsine-boron tribromide/ ignites on exposure to air or oxygen, even at below 0 deg C. It is violently oxidaized by nitric acid.
Most fibrous fabrics will absorb oxygen when exposed to concn greater than the normal 21% in air, and this is retained for a long time after excess oxygen is no longer present, greatly increasing the possibility of ignition. Hose leakage led to oxygen enrichment inside a vessel in which welding was taking place. A welder lit a cigarette but did not appreciate the significance of its rapid combustion and the unusually long lighter flame. Sparks from welding later ignited clothing, leading to fatal burns. Accidental connection of a pneumatic grinder to an oxygen line instead of a compressed air line led to ignition of the apprentices' clothing when the grinder was started. Accidental connection of a breathing set to an oxygen cylinder rather than to a medical air cylinder caused ignition of the facepiece.
Most materials, especially clothing, burn fiercely in an atmosphere containing more than the usual 21 vol% of oxygen. In presence of petroleum products, fire and explosion can be spontaneous ... The flammability of textiles and other solids was studied under the unusual conditions which occur in deep diving operations. The greatest effect on ease of ignition and linear burning rate was caused by oxygen enrichment; increase in pressure had a similar effect. Ignition and flame spread of fabrics and paper were measured at pressures from 21 bar down to the limiting pressure for ignition to occur. Increase in oxygen concn above 21% in mixtures with nitrogen caused rapid decrease of minimum pressure for ignition. In general, but not invariably, materials ignite less readily but burn faster in helium mixtures on the effect of variables on the rate of burning. At oxygen concn of 41% all materials examined would burn except for glass and polytetrafluoroethylene, which resisted ignition attempts in pure oxygen. Flame retardants become ineffective on cotton in atmospheres containing above 32% oxygen ... /Oxygen enrichment/
Disilane, trisilane, or tetrasilane, when mixed with oxygen or air at ordinary temperatures, ignites or explodes.
Germanium burns with incandescence when heated in oxygen.
Finely divided platinum and some other metals will cause a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to explode at ordinary temperatures ...
Lithium will burn in air, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. The susceptibility of molten lithium surfaces to spontaneous ignition is increased by the presence of lithium oxides or nitrides. These reactions ... are extremely violent at higher temperatures ...
Violent explosions resulted when a spark was discharged in a mixture containing 25 to 70% oxygen difluoride in oxygen over water.
In the form of foam, polyurethane, and also polyvinyl chloride, have exploded when saturated with liquid oxygen.
The reaction of potassium and carbon monoxide forms an explosive carbonyl cmpd, potassium carbonyl, which reacts violently with oxygen.
The reaction fo oxygen and potassium peroxide is violent at pressures of oxygen as low as 10 mm.
Burning selenium in oxygen has resulted in explosion, probably due to the presence of organic matter.
To 'ensure proper ignition' during oxygen-flask analysis, a technician put a single drop of acetone onto the filter paper enclosing the sample, before igniting the tail and insertion into the oxygen-filled flask. An explosion followed which shattered the flask, fortunately enclosed in a mesh screen which retained the fragments. It was calculated that 0.07 mL of acetone would have formed an explosive vapor-air mixture in the flask above the lower explosive limit, so considerably less acetone would have given an explosive mixture in the oxygen atmosphere.
Accidental addition of liquid oxygen to vacuum jars containing acetone residues from trap-cooling use caused a violent explosion ... /Oxygen, liquid/
A combination of faulty equipment and careless working led to an extremely violent explosion during oxy-acetylene cutting work. The oxygen cylinder was nearly empty and the regulator had a cracked diaphragm. The acetylene cylinder was lying on its side and was feeding a mixture of liquid acetone and acetylene gas to the burner head. When the oxygen ran out, the excess pressure line and into the cylinder via the cracked diaphragm. The explosion destroyed the whole plant ... A safe method for demonstrating explosive combustion of acetylene-oxygen mixtures in bubbles is described
The detonation capacity of mixtures of acetylene and liquid oxygen is increased by the presence of organic material (oils) in the oxygen. Hazards of accumulation of oil in air-liquefaction and -fractionation plants are emphasised. /Oxygen, liquid/
Accidental connection of an oxygen cylinder to top-up an ammonia-containing refrigeration system led to explosive destruction of the compressor ... In school demonstrations of the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid over platinum catalysts, substitution of oxygen for air causes fairly vigorous explosions to occur ...
During the synthesis of (15)N-labelled urea by interaction of labelled ammonium nitrate, liquid ammonia and diphenyl carbonate in presence of copper powder, a series of explosions of the refrigerated sealed tubes was encountered. This was almost certainly caused by condensation of traces of oxygen in the tubes cooled to -196 deg C during condensation of ammonia before sealing the tubes. Cooling to -80 deg C would have been adequate and have avoided the hazard. /Oxygen, liquid/
The solid inclusion (clathrate) complex of oxygen with hydroquinone had been prepared twice previously by a published method which involved saturating a solution of hydroquinone in propanol in an autoclave at 70 deg C with oxygen at 20 to 150 bar, followed by slow cooling under oxygen pressure (and most probably without stirring to allow large crystals of the inclusion complex to form). In a third attempt, (to produce smaller crystals free of the 'quinhydrone complex' impurity) a solution was prepared and saturated with oxygen at 80 bar, then heated to 90 deg C (when the partial pressure of oxygen would increased to around 100 bar), then allowed to cool with agitation. After 20 min the bursting disk failed at 450 bar and an explosion damaged the autoclave and premises. Without agitation, the rate of oxidation of the solvent and hydroquinone would be controlled by diffusion of oxygen through the (small) gas liquid interface. With agitation, the rate of oxidation would be expected to increase greatly, and lead to runaway oxidation with very fast increase in temperature and pressure and explosive combustion when the autoignition temperature (371 deg C for propanol in air at 1 bar, less in oxygen) were attained.
The lower limit for spontaneous ignition of mixtures /of carbon disulfide/ with oxygen has been studied ... Shortly after mercury was accidentally introduced into a system containing a soln of anthracene in carbon disulfide under an atmosphere of oxygen, an explosion occurred. Presence of mercury may have catalyzed rapid oxidation of carbon disulfide ...
Mixtures of carbon and liquid oxygen have been used as blasting explosives for some time. Mixtures with carbon black appear unusually sensitive to impact, and a blasting cartridge exploded when dropped ... Carbon containing 3.5% of ... /iron(II)/ oxide explodes on contact with liquid oxygen. /Oxygen, liquid/
Interaction of hydrocarbons with gaseous oxygen may be slow or fast, depending on conditions and substrate, but peroxidic products are always involved, and the rate of formation is highest at a C-H link adjacent to an aromatic ring or a double bond. Predictable conditions for explosion are those relevant to the internal combustion engine (Otto or Diesel types). Unpredicted conditions include the following cases. During studies on autoxidation of 1,1,-diphenylethylene with oxygen at high pressure and low temperature an explosion occurred. Partial oxidation of a gasoline fraction in an autoclave under oxygen, initially at 22 bar and 100 deg C, ran wild and exploded; several smaller reactions had proceeded uneventfully. Previously oxidation reactions of gasoline at 20 bar/105 deg C had exploded, and a severe explosion occurred while admitting oxygen, virtually at 1 bar pressure, to an autoclave containing a glass bottle of gasoline ... An attempt to decarbonize a gasoline motor cycle engine by inserting a lighted match through the spark plug hole into the cylinder, and then blowing in oxygen caused a violent explosion to occur ... Use of oxygen instead fo compressed air to start a diesel engine, or to clear a blocked petrol pipe, led to violent explosions ... Among other cmpd, methyl nitrate, nitromethane, ethyl nitrate and tetrafluorohydrazine function as promoters of spontaneous ignition of mixtures of methane or propane with oxygen and argon.
Mixtures of hydrocarbons with liquid oxygen are highly dangerous explosives, not always requiring external initiation ... /Early examples included lighted candles being/ accidentally knocked ... into a bucket of liquid oxygen in 1903 /and a/ violent explosion /ensued/. Mixtures with liquid methane or benzene are specifically described as explosive ... Mixtures with petroleum and absorbent charcoal have been used experimentally as blasting explosives. Addition of a little aluminium powder to liquid methane-oxygen mixtures increase the explosive power. An explosion in a liquid oxygen evaporator was attributed to the presence of acetylene, arising from unusual plant conditions and higher than usual hydrocarbon concentrations in the atmospheric air taken in for liquefaction ... Experimental work appeared to implicate ozone as a major contributory factor ... During investigation of an explosion in a portable air liquefaction-separation plant, hydrocarbon oil was found in a silica filtration bed. The mechanism of slow heterogeneous accumulation of hydrocarbons dissolved in trace amount in liquid oxygen on the liquid evaporator surfaces is discussed. It was concluded that months of continuous evaporation would be required to attain explosion-hazardous levels in real evaporators. /Oxygen, liquid/
When oxygen was passed through a drying tower containing activated alumina previously used to dry hydrogen, explosions occurred. Nitrogen purging between changing gases would prevent this. During preparation of stoichiometric mixtures in a steel mixing tank (at 17 to 82 bar, with or without 15% argon), several spontaneous explosions occurred during valve manipulation at 30 min after mixing, but not 10 min after mixing. A possible catalytic effect of the surface of the steel tank was eliminated by coating it thinly with silcone grease. There is a marrow range of concn in which the mixture is supersensitive to initiation ...
The hazards arising from presence of oil films in oxygen-handling systems are reviewed, with consideration of cleanliness specifications, film flammability, film migration and hazard mechanisms.
The rate of absorption of oxygen by liquid butenyne increased with time, and eventually a yellow liquid phase separated. After evaporation of excess hydrocarbon, the yellow peroxidic liquid was explosive. Presence of 5% of chloroprene increased the rate of absorption 5 to 6-fold, and of 2% of water decreased the rate by 50%, but residue were explosive in each case ...
Benzoic acid is burned in oxygen as a primary thermochemical standard to calibrate oxygen bomb calorimeters used in the IP12/ASTM D240 standard tests for determination of calorific value of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. If the benzoic acid is powdered (rather than pelleted as IP12 recommends), very rapid combustion occurs and the flame front may burn through the non-metallic (Teflon) seals on valve seats and the bomb may be destroyed. Ignition of a pelleted sample in a bomb with a faulty closure valve led to sudden venting of combustion gases which blew off the insulating cover and thermometer ...
Oxygenation of lithiated dialkylnitrosamines in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at -78 deg C is fast and gives good yields of the N-alkyl-N-(1-hydroperoxyalkyl)nitrosamines. If oxygenation is too prolonged, poor yields and explosive by-products result.
Hazards /of organic analytical samples/ involved in the use of the oxygen flask combustion technique are discussed ... Some explosions occurred after completion of combustion, when the oxygen concn in the flask is still some 75%. Shielding of the flask, minimally with wire gauze seems advisable. Explosion during a blank combustion (of a folded filter paper) was attributed possibly to thermal strains. Similar occurrences had been noted previously. Fitting a simple pressure relief (Bunsen) valve to the flask improves safety aspects, and the oxygen flask method is also to be preferred (for qualitative work) to the more hazardous sodium fusion method.
Many common polymers, polymeric additives and lubricants oxidize so rapidly after impact in liquid oxygen that they are hazardous. Of those tested, only acrylonitrile-butadiene, poly(cyanoethylsiloxane), poly(dimethylsiloxane) and polystyrene exploded after impact of 6.8 to 95 J intensity (5 to 70 ft.lbf). All plasticizers (except dibutyl sebacate) and antioxidants examined were very reactive ... /Oxygen, liquid/
A form rubber sample, being tested for oxidation resistance under oxygen at 34 bar at 90 deg C exploded with extreme violence after 4 days. Use of a Neoprenelined hose in a high-pressure oxygen manifold caused failure and ignition of the burst hose. Possible ignition sources include adiabatic compressive heating, and friction from vibration of metal reinforcing fibers in the high velocity stream of escaping oxygen. Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) ignited at 705 deg C in oxygen at 0.34 bar pressure when used as wire insulation, while polyolefine insulation ignited at 593 deg C under the same conditions.
In an attempt to introduce carboxyl group to improve the adhesive properties of rubber, 6 L of powdered rubber (0.1 to 0.5 mm particle size) in an 8 L flask was treated with ozonized oxygen. The gas stream, containing 5% of ozone was led to the bottom of the flask via a dip tube at the rate of 4 L/min for 2 min, when treatment was discontinued and the flask closed. After 5 min a violent explosion occurred. This was attributed to formation of ozonides, but exothermic interaction of the high surface area rubber with almost pure oxygen under virtually adiabatic conditions may also have been involved.
... Fires /occurred/ in which endotracheal /plastic/ tubes became ignited by surgical lasers or electrocautery in atmospheres enriched by oxygen ...
The plastic caps (or tape) which cover the outlets on refilled oxygen cylinders will burn readily in oxygen and must be completely removed and no bits trapped in the fittings attached to the cylinder outlet.
A 4.9 g sample of the liquid siloxane in a glass dish was put into a bomb calorimeter (on an open bench) containing 5 mL of sodium hydroxide soln to absorb combustion gases. The electric igniter system consisted of a metal wire in contact with a cotton-wool wick which dipped into the siloxane sample. The bomb was sealed, pressured up to 39 to 44 bar with oxygen, and the igniter was fired. A violent explosion blew the lid off the bomb (rated at 190 bar working, 250 bar test), and examination of the deformed bomb indicated that a maximum detonation pressure of around 900 bar had been attained. Detailed examination of the reaction showed a 2 stage mechanism. Hydrolysis of the volatile partially methylated siloxane by the alkaline soln liberated hydrogen which formed an explosive mixture with oxygen. When the igniter was fired, the hydrogen-oxygen explosion atomized the remaining liquid siloxane leading to a very violent secondary explosion. The wick also played a decisive separate role, as the siloxane-soaked cotton also underwent extremely rapid detonative decomposition on ignition. The rate of pressure rise was measured as 10 kbar/sec, with a maximum pressure calculated for a 4.9 g sample of 800 bar. Hexamethyldisiloxane (which can't produce hydrogen by hydrolysis) burned smoothly under the same conditions. It is recommended that no more than 0.5 g samples should be used, with oxygen pressure limited to 20 bar and protective enclosure of the bomb equipment. A more detailed investigation of the combustion of tetramethyldisiloxane in oxygen showed that, even in the absence of hydrogen, combustion was still extremely violent, the rate of pressure increase being inversely proportional to the pressure of oxygen, as expected for a homogeneous gas-phase combustion reaction. The unusually high rate of pressure rise (256 kbar/sec, to max 113 bar for 10 bar oxygen pressure) is indicative of detonation. Under heterogeneous conditions, liquid tetramethyldisiloxane gave a maximum rate of pressure rise of 90 kbar/sec to max 160 kbar with 30 bar oxygen pressure. Pentamethyldisiloxane showed generally similar behavior (maximum rate 38 kbar/sec to max 205 bar for 30 bar oxygen pressure), with an abrupt increase between 25 and 30 bar pressure of oxygen.
Autoxidation of the hydrazone (O2/C6H6/UV) gives the explosive isomeric 1,2-dihydroperoxy-1,2-bis(benzeneazo)cyclohexane, and the same is true for cyclooctatetraene (COT) derivatives ... In a procedure to oxygenate photochemically COT to the 1,4-endoperoxide, highly explosive undefined polymeric peroxides are formed as by-products.
The evaporated residue from sensitized photochemical oxidation of ... /methoxy-1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene/ ignited spontaneously, on several occasions explosions ocurring.
The nature of the reaction and the products in methylal-oxygen mixtures /of dimethoxymethane/ during cool flame or explosive oxidation were studied.
Glycerol is oxidized at an appreciable rate by high-pressure oxygen in the presence of copper alloys to give glyceric acid, oxalic acid and formic acid, which lead to severe corrosion of the alloy. Malfunction of aircraft oxygen gauges operating at 125 bar was attributed to blockage of the brass Bourdon tubes by copper salts of the acids produced by long-term oxidation of residual traces of glycerol-water solutions used for gauge testing.
【Other Preventative Measures】
FDA and NIOSH recommend that plastic crush gaskets /on oxygen cylinders/ never be reused, as they may require additional torque to obtain the necessary seal with each subsequent use. This can deform the gasket, increasing the likelihood that oxygen will leak around the seal and ignite. The following general safety precautions should also be taken to avoid explosions, tank ruptures and fires from oxygen regulators. Always ?crack? cylinder valves (open the valve just enough to allow gas to escape for a very short time) before attaching regulators in order to expel foreign matter from the outlet port of the valve. Always follow the regulator manufacturer's instructions for attaching the regulator to an oxygen cylinder. Always use the sealing gasket specified by the regulator manufacturer. Always inspect the regulator and CGA 870 seal before attaching it to the valve to ensure that the regulator is equipped with only one clean, sealing- type washer (reusable metal-bound rubber seal) or a new crush-type gasket (single use, not reusable, typically Nylon) that is in good condition. Always be certain the valve, regulator and gasket are free from oil or grease. Oil or grease contamination is widely known to contribute to ignition in oxygen systems. Tighten the T-handle firmly by hand, but do not use wrenches or other hand tools that may over-torque the handle. Open the post valve slowly. If gas escapes at the juncture of the regulator and valve, quickly close the valve. Verify the regulator is properly attached and the gasket is properly placed and in good condition. If you have any questions or concerns contact your supplier.
... Do not use oil or grease to lubricate valves on oxygen cylinders. /Liquid oxygen/
If material not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Do not use water on material itself. /Oxygen, refrigerated liquid/
If material is not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames and other sources of ignition away. Attempt to stop leak if without hazard. /Oxygen, compressed/
Personnel protection: ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Approach fire with caution. /Oxygen, compressed; Oxygen, refrigerated liquid/
CAUTION: AVOID SMOKING, FLAMES, ELECTRIC SPARKS- EXPLOSION HAZARD.
... Equipment which may emit or leak oxygen should be used sparingly, and never stored in confined spaces ... /Oxygen enrichment/
NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. NO contact with flammable substances. NO contact with reducing agents ... Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. /Oxygen, liquefied/
FDA and NIOSH recommend that plastic crush gaskets /of oxygen cylinders/ never be reused, as they may require additional torque to obtain the necessary seal with each subsequent use. This can deform the gasket, increasing the likelihood that oxygen will leak around the seal and ignite ... To avoid explosions, tank ruptures and fires from oxygen regulators: Always ?crack? cylinder valves (open the valve just enough to allow gas to escape for a very short time) before attaching regulators in order to expel foreign matter from the outlet port of the valve. Always follow the regulator manufacturer's instructions for attaching the regulator to an oxygen cylinder. Always use the sealing gasket specified by the regulator manufacturer. Always inspect the regulator and CGA 870 seal before attaching it to the valve to ensure that the regulator is equipped with only one clean, sealing-type washer (reusable metal-bound rubber seal) or a new crush-type gasket (single use, not reusable, typically Nylon) that is in good condition. Always be certain the valve, regulator and gasket are free from oil or grease. Oil or grease contamination is widely known to contribute to ignition in oxygen systems. Tighten the T-handle firmly by hand, but do not use wrenches or other hand tools that may over-torque the handle. Open the post valve slowly. If gas escapes at the juncture of the regulator and valve, quickly close the valve. Verify the regulator is properly attached and the gasket is properly placed and in good condition ...
... FDA and NIOSH advise that the following precautions be taken to avoid explosions and fires from oxygen regulators containing aluminum: ... /Replace/ high pressure oxygen regulators which contain any aluminum exposed to high-pressure oxygen ... with regulators made of brass. Consult the manufacturer if ... material /not known/ ... If non-aluminum oxygen regulators are not available /follow guideline of Safe Practices for Handling and Operating Oxygen Equipment/ ...
Safe Practices for Handling and Operating Oxygen Equipment: Storage, Maintenance and Handling--Do not allow smoking around oxygen. Store oxygen in clean, dry locations away from direct sunlight. Do not allow post valves, regulators, gauges, and fittings to come into contact with oils, greases, organic lubricants, rubber or any other combustible substance. Make sure that any cleaning, repair or transfilling of oxygen equipment is performed by qualified, properly trained staff. Do not work on oxygen equipment with ordinary tools. Designate special tools, clean them and store them for Use With Oxygen Equipment Only. Ensure that any components added to the regulator, eg, gauge guards, are installed so that they do not block the regulator vent holes. Use plugs, caps and plastic bags to protect "off duty" equipment from dust and dirt. Particulate migration from the cylinder can be minimized by the installation of a standoff tube (bayonette) at the inlet of the post valve.
Safe Practices for Handling and Operating Oxygen Equipment: Use--Make sure that staff using oxygen equipment are adequately trained in its operation and in oxygen safety and have knowledge of manufacturers instructions for using the equipment. Visually inspect the post valve gasket and regulator inlet prior to installation. If they are not visually clean they should not be used. Momentarily open and close ("Crack") the post valve to blow out debris prior to installing a regulator. Ensure that the regulator is set with the flow knob in the off position before attaching it to the cylinder. Position the equipment so that valve is pointed away from the user and any other persons. Open the cylinder valve slowly and completely to minimize the heat produced and achieve the desired flow conditions within the equipment. Do not look at the regulator pressure gauge until the cylinder valve is fully opened.
【Protective Equipment and Clothing】
Liq: Safety goggles or face shield; insulated gloves; long sleeves; trousers worn outside boots or over high-top shoes to shed spilled liquid.
LIQ: Wear special protective clothing that will not ignite on contact with liq oxygen and that is designed to prevent liq ... from coming in contact with skin.
Wear ... positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
【Specification】

? Oxygen (CAS NO.7782-44-7), its Synonyms are Hyperoxia ; LOX ; Liquid oxygen ; Molecular oxygen ; Oxigeno ; Oxigeno [Spanish] ; Oxygen ; Oxygen molecule ; Oxygen, liquified ; Oxygen-16 ; Oxygene ; Oxygene [French] ; Oxygenium ; Oxygenium medicinale ; Pure oxygen ; Sauerstoff .

【Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient】
log Kow = 0.65
【Report】

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Remove waste containers or leaking cylinders to exhaust hood or outdoors away from combustibles and allow to discharge at moderate rate. Tag cylinder to indicate defect, close valve and return to supplier. /Liquid and compressed oxygen/
Evaporation: Remove waste containers or leaking cylinders to exhaust hoods or outdoors away from combustibles and allow to discharge @ a moderate rate. Tag cylinder to indicate defect, close valve and return to supplier.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

... Oxygen enrichment from air by pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) ... Compressed air enters the adsorption bed at high pressure. Typical adsorbents are usually based on zeolites. Because zeolite has a higher selectivity for nitrogen, and oxygen is at a lower partial pressure, nitrogen is adsorbed to an appreciably greater extent and oxygen-enriched air is obtained at the outlet. The bed is then blown down to a lower pressure to desorb nitrogen. A purge step may sometimes be used to sweep nitrogen out of the bed before a new cycle begins.
Membrane separation of oxygen is accomplished by a thin polymeric film that allows selective transport of oxygen through it as a result of a driving force, such as differential partial pressure. ... Oxygen dissolves into the membrane at its upstream surface and diffuses across the membrane to the downstream surface, where it volatilizes into the adjacent gas phase. Other gases in air also dissolve into the membrane and diffuse along with oxygen; the most important of these is nitrogen. ... Selectivity of a membrane material for oxygen becomes an important design parameter. The preferred membrane material must have both a high permeability and a high selectivity for oxygen.
Oxygen from cryogenic air separation. .. Cryogenic air separation involves three steps: 1) purification of the incoming air to remove particles, carbon dioxide, and water, 2) refrigeration and economization of refrigeration values contained in the product and waste streams, /and/ 3) separation by distillation.
Obtained on large scale by liquefaction of air
Liquefaction and subsequent controlled fractionation of air; electrolytic decomposition of water; pressure-swing adsorption of air.
... by heating potassium chlorate with manganese dioxide as a catalyst.
Molecular sieves are used to produce high purity oxygen from air or oxygen-rich air employing a pressure-swing absorption process ... absorption of nitrogen from air by molecular sieves and desorption at a lower pressure.
Barium oxide is converted to barium peroxide when heated in air or oxygen to 500 deg C. Further heating to 700 C the peroxide decomposes to barium oxide and pure oxygen (Brin process).
U.S. Exports

(1977) 3.07X10+10 GRAMS
(1979) No Data
(1987) No Data
U.S. Imports

(1977) No Data
(1979) No Data
(1987) No Data
U.S. Production

(1977) 1.47X10+13 G-EXCLUDES PRODN FOR AMMONIA
(1979) 1.71X10+13 G-EXCLUDES PRODN FOR AMMONIA
(1985) 3.79x10+11 cu ft
(1990) 40.48 billion lb
(1991) 39.07 billion lb
(1992) 43.46 billion lb
(1993) 46.52 billion lb
Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule. Year Production Range (pounds) 1986 No Reports 1990 No Reports 1994 No Reports 1998 No Reports 2002 >100 million-500 million
Consumption Patterns

STEEL INDUSTRY USE, 65.4% (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS, 39.6%); OPEN HEARTH, 9.3%; ELECTRIC 9.3%; ELECTRIC FURNACE, 1.7%; OTHER, 14.8%); NONFERROUS METAL INDUSTRY, 12.0%; OXIDIZING AGENT IN CHEM SYNTH, 12.0% (ETHYLENE OXIDE, 4.9%; ACETYLENE, 2.3%; TITANIUM DIOXIDE, 1.7%; PROPYLENE OXIDE, 1.4%; VINYL ACETATE, 1.4%; MISC CHEMS, 0.3%); MISC APPLICATIONS, 10.6% (1977)
Steel manufacturing, 65%; chemicals, 20%; metal fabrication, 4%; non-ferrous metals, 3%; waste water treatment, 3%; pulp and paper, 3%; misc, 2% (1981) pulp and paper, 3%; misc, 2% (1981)

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Pharmacological Action】
Inhalation of 100% Oxygen can cause nausea, dizziness, irritation of lungs, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, and collapse. Liquid may cause frostbite of eyes and skin.
【Therapeutic Uses】
Supplemental oxygen is indicated when normal oxygenation is impaired because of pulmonarry injury, which may result from aspiration (chemical pneumonitis) or inhalation of toxic gases. The PO2 shoud be maintained at 70-80 mm Hg or higher if possible.
Supplemental oxyugen usually is given empirically to patients with altered mental status or suspected hypoxemia.
Oxygen (100%) is indicated for patients with carbon monoxide poisoning, to increase the conversion of carboxyhemoglobin and carboxymyoblobin to hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to increase oxygen saturation of the plasma and subsequent delivery to tissues.
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) (100%) oxygen delivered to the patient in a pressurized chamber at 2-3 atm of pressure) may be beneficial for patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. It can hasten the reversal of CO binding to hemoglobin and intracellular myoglobin, can provide oxygen independent of hemoglobin, and may have protective actions in reducing postischemic brain damage.
Hyperbaric oxygen may be beneficial for patients with severe carbon monoxide poisoning, although the clinical evidence is mixed. Potential indications include history of loss of consciousnesss; metabolic acidosis, age over 50 years, pregancy, carboxyhemoglobin level greater than 25%, and cerbellar dysfunction (e.g., ataxia).
Hyperbaric oxygen has also been advocated for treatment of poisoning by carbon tettrachlorde, cyanide, and hydrogen sulfide and for severe methemoglobinemia, but the experimental and clinical evidence is scanty.
Medicinal gas to relieve hypoxia; at hyperbaric pressures in cardiac or other surgery, anaerobic infections, carbon monoxide poisoning; in cryotherapy (liq form).
Hyperbaric O2 therapy is a medical treatment in which the entire patient is enclosed in a pressure chamber while breathing 100% O2 at elevated ambient pressures. Hyperbaric O2 therapy has been effective in treating decompression sickness and air or gas embolism by mechanically decreasing the size of air bubbles, and increasing dissolved O2 levels in the blood. It is also a treatment of choice in carbon monoxide poisoning and smoke inhalation. Other approved indications for adjunctive hyperbaric O2 therapy include acute traumatic ischemia (crush injuries depriving tissues of O2), large blood loss (anemia), intracranial abscess, osteomyelitis, enhancement of healing in selected problem wounds, gas gangrene, radiation tissue damage, and thermal burns. This therapy has also been used in preparation and preservation of skin grafts or flaps in compromised tissue.
... A hyperbaric chamber is ... the preferred method of treatment in severe carbon monoxide poisoning ... Hyperbaric chambers may be either of the large walk-in type or small, monoplace chambers that are pressurized with compressed air, and the patient breathes oxygen by mask for reasons of fire safety ... The rationale for hyperbaric treatment is ... 1. Carbon monoxide is apparently displaced from cytochrome A3 oxidase by a surfeit of oxygen, and electron transport is restored. Lipid peroxidation in the brain is halted. 2. If the patient is given oxygen to breathe at 3 ATA, the half-time for carbon monoxide elimination from the blood is reduced to 23 min. 3. As soon as the patient breathes oxygen at 3 ATA, 6.4 vol% of completely available oxygen are physically dissolved in the plasma -- enough to support metabolism even in the complete absence of functioning hemoglobin. The arteriovenous difference in the cerebral blood flow is only 6.1 vol%. Thus, the patient's problem with oxygenating the brain and other tissues is immediately over reaching 3 ATA. 4. Intracranial pressure secondary to cerebral edema is reduced to the order of 50% within 1 min of the commencement of oxygen breathing.
Hypoxemia generally implies a failure of the respiratory system to oxygenate arterial blood ... Low inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2), is a cause of hypoxemia only at high altitude or in the event of equipment failure, such as a gas blender malfunction of a mislabeled compressed-gas tank. An increase in the barrier to diffusion of oxygen within the lung is rarely a cause of hypoxemia in a resting subject, except in end-stage parenchymal lung disease. Both of these problems may be alleviated with admin of supplemental oxygen, the former by definition and the latter by increasing the gradient driving diffusion. Hypoventilation causes hypoxemia by reducing the alveolar PO2 in proportion to the build-up of CO2 in the alveoli. In essence, during hypoventilation there is decreased delivery of oxygen to the alveoli while its removal by the blood remains the same, causing its alveolar concn to fall. The opposite occurs with carbon dioxide ... This cause of hypoxemia is readily prevented by admin of even small amt of supplemental oxygen ... Optimal gas exchange occurs when blood flow (Q) and ventilation (V) are quantitatively matched. However, regional variations in V/Q matching typically exist within the lung particularly in the presence of lung disease ... High V/Q ratio lung regions have a relatively reduced blood flow, eventually becoming pure dead space region at the extreme--contributing nothing to the oxygenation of the blood while decreasing the efficiency of CO2 removal ... At the extreme of low V/Q ratios, there is no ventilation to a perfused region and pure shunt results, and the blood leaving the region has the same low PO2 and high PCO2 as mixed venous blood ... Adding supplemental oxygen will generally make up for the fall in PAO2 (alveolar partial pressure of O2) in low V/Q units and thus improve arterial oxygenation. However, since there is no ventilation of units with pure shunt, supplemental oxygen will not be effective in reversing the hypoxemia from this cause ... Even moderate amt of pure shunt will cause significant hypoxemia despite oxygen therapy ...
... Inhaled oxygen tension that exceeds 300 kPa (3 atm) rarely is used /in hyperbaric chambers/ ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has two components: increased hydrostatic pressure and increased oxygen pressure. Both factors are necessary for the treatment of decompression sickness and air embolism. The hydrostatic pressure reduces bubble volume, and the absence of inspired nitrogen increases the gradient for elimination of nitrogen and reduces hypoxia in downstream tissues ... Even a small increase in PO2 in previously ischemic areas may enhance the bactericidal activity of leukocytes and increase angiogenesis. Thus repetitive, brief exposure to hyperbaric oxygen is a useful adjunct in the treatment of chronic refractory osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, or crush injury or for the recovery of compromised skin, tissue grafts, or flaps ... Increased oxygen tension can itself be bacteriostatic; the spread of infection with Clostridium perfringens and production of toxin by the bacteria are slowed when oxygen tensions exceed 33 kPa (250 mm Hg), justifying the early use of hyperbaric oxygen in clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) ... In carbon monoxide poisoning, hemoglobin and myoglobin become unavailable for oxygen binding because of the high affinity of CO for these proteins. A high PO2 facilitates competition of oxygen with CO for binding sites ... Hyperbaric oxygen decreases the incidence of neurological sequelae after CO intoxication; this effect may be independent of the ability of hyperbaric oxygen to speed the elimination of CO. However, a recent randomized study suggests that hyperbaric oxygen is not beneficial in carbon monoxide poisoning and may even be harmful. The occasional use of hyperbaric oxygen in cyanide poisoning has a similar rationale. Hyperbaric oxygen also may be useful in severe, short-term anemia, since sufficient oxygen can be dissolved in the plasma at 3 atm to meet metabolic needs. However, such treatment must be limited, because oxygen toxicity is dependent on increased PO2, not on the oxygen content of the blood. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy also has been used in ... multiple sclerosis, traumatic spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular accidents, bone grafts and fractures, and leprosy. However, data from well-controlled clinical trials are not sufficient to justify these uses, and the costs of hyperbaric therapy remain very high.
In certain situations, such as bowel distension from obstruction or ileus, intravascular air embolism, or pneumothorax, it is desirable to reduce the volume of ... air-filled spaces. Since nitrogen is relatively insoluble, inhalation of high concn of oxygen (and thus low concn of nitrogen) rapidly lowers total body partial pressure of nitrogen and provide a substantial gradient for the removal of nitrogen from gas spaces. Admin of oxygen for air embolism is additionally beneficial, because it also helps to relieve the localized hypoxia distal to the embolic vascular obstruction. In the case of decompression sickness or bends, lowering of inert gas tension in blood and tissues by oxygen inhalation prior to or during a barometric decompression can reduce th degree of supersaturation that occurs after decompression so that bubbles do not form ...
In patients with chronic congestive heart failure, increased inspired O2 (30 or 50%) had a beneficial effect on exercise performance. A significant increase was determined for arterial O2 saturation and significant decreases in minute volume, cardiac output, and subjective scores for fatigue and breathlessness.
It is used to oxygenate perfusates for tissues being held in readiness for transplantation & to oxygenate blood during cardiopulmonary bypass.
/MEDICATION: Vet/ In hypoxia and in conjunciton with volatile anesthetics.
/MEDICATION: Vet/ Patients with severe left-sided congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema can become hypoxic, in part as a result of the increased diffusion distance for alveolar oxygen to enter the blood into the pulmonay capillaries. By administering oxygen to these patients, diffusion into the blood is facilitated. The percent inspired oxygen is generally icnresed to 40-50% (room air is 21%). In patients with severe congestive heart failure, 100% oxygen may be needed in the acute treatment phase. Oxygen can be administered via an oxygen cage, tight-fitting maks, or nasal cannula. Stress should be minimized durign oxygen administration.
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
During inhalation of normal air the arterial blood leaves lungs about 95% saturated with oxygen, and with a subject standing at rest, the venous blood returns to lungs about 60 to 70% saturated. During 1 min approx 360 cc of oxygen are used up. After forced deep inspiration normal lung vol is about 5 to 5.5 L, 1 L which is O2 ...
Arterial blood carries O2 in 2 forms. Most is normally bound to hemoglobin ... A smaller amt is free in soln. The amount of O2 carried ... depends on partial pressure of oxygen. When fully saturated with O2, each g of hemoglobin binds 1.3 vol % of O2. At 37 deg C, 0.003 vol % O2 is dissolved in blood/torr of partial pressure of O2.
Fetal hemoglobin has more affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin under similar conditions of pH & temp. If incompletely oxygen-saturated fetal & maternal blood are allowed to equilibrate across a membrane, partial pressure of O2 will be identical on both sides of membrane, but O2 content of fetal blood ... /will be/ higher ...
Oxygen enters the body primarily through the lungs, but may also be taken up by mucous membranes of the GI tract, the middle ear, and the paranasal sinuses. It diffuses from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries, dissolves in the blood plasma, enters the red blood cells, and binds to hemoglobin. The red cells transport bound O2 to tissues throughout the body via the circulatory system. In tissues where the partial pressure of O2 is lower than that of the blood, the O2 diffuses out of the red cells, through the capillaries and plasma, and into the cells. As the O2 plasma concentration diminishes, it is replaced by that contained in the red cells. The red blood cells are then circulated back to the lungs in a continuous recycling process ...

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