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Calcium gluconate(CAS No. 299-28-5)

Calcium gluconate 2(C6H11O7).Ca (cas 299-28-5) Molecular Structure

299-28-5 Structure

Identification and Related Records

【Name】
Calcium gluconate
【CAS Registry number】
299-28-5
【Synonyms】
Calglucon
Calcium Gluconate USP Anhydrous Granular
Calcicol
calcium (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate
Calcicol (TN)
D-Gluconic acid,calcium salt (2:1)
Calcium Gluconate USP (injectable grade) (Anhydrous
Calcium Gluconate BP2005 Anhydrous Granular
【EINECS(EC#)】
206-075-8
【Molecular Formula】
2(C6H11O7).Ca (Products with the same molecular formula)
【Molecular Weight】
430.38
【Inchi】
InChI:1S/2C6H12O7.Ca/c2*7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13;/h2*2-5,7-11H,1H2,(H,12,13);/q;;+2/p-2
【Canonical SMILES】
C(C(C(C(C(C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.C(C(C(C(C(C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.[Ca+2]
【Isomers smiles】
C([C@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.C([C@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@
H](C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.[Ca+2]
【MOL File】
299-28-5.mol

Chemical and Physical Properties

【Appearance】
white crystalline powder or granule
【Melting Point】
195°C
【Boiling Point】
673.6 °C at 760 mmHg
【Flash Point】
375.2 °C
【Alpha】
10.2 o (C=1, H2O 22 oC)
【Water】
3.3 G/100ML
【Solubilities】
Soluble (Insoluble in alcohol, benzene)
【Color/Form】
Crystals, granules, or powder
【Stability】
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
【HS Code】
29181600
【Storage temp】
Store in a cool, dry place. Keep container closed when not in use.
【Spectral properties】
Specific optical rotation: approximately +6 deg at 20 deg C/D
【Computed Properties】
Molecular Weight:430.37268 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:C12H22CaO14
H-Bond Donor:10
H-Bond Acceptor:14
Rotatable Bond Count:8
Exact Mass:430.063547
MonoIsotopic Mass:430.063547
Topological Polar Surface Area:283
Heavy Atom Count:27
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:165
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:8
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:3

Safety and Handling

【Hazard Codes】
Xn
【Risk Statements】
R20/21/22
【Safety Statements 】
S24/25
【Safety】
Hazard Codes:Xn
Risk Statements:20/21/22-36/37/38
20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
Safety Statements:24/25-36-26
24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes
36:Wear suitable protective clothing
26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
WGK Germany:1
HS Code:29181600
【Formulations/Preparations】
Calcium gluconate, USP ... contains 9% calcium ... Available as calcium gluconate tablets, USP, containing 325, 500, 650, or 1000 mg of the salt ... for im and iv injection, calcium gluconate injection, USP, admin as 10% soln (0.45 mEq Ca++/mL).
Grades: technical; USP; FCC; special for ampules.
Due to its limited solubility, calcium gluconate must frequently be suspended in liquid mixtures and tragacanth is useful as a suspending agent.
Calcium gluconate injection:a 10% soln; 9.3 mg of Ca+2/mL ... 10-mL vial
【Exposure Standards and Regulations】
Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: calcium gluconate is included in digestive aid drug products.
Calcium gluconate used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
Calcium gluconate used as a sequestrant in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.
【Other Preventative Measures】
A solution of clindamycin phosphate is physically incompatible with ... calcium gluconate ... .
【Specification】

?The Calcium gluconate, with its cas no 299-28-5, has its IUPAC name of calcium (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate. This is a kind of white crystalline powder or granules with no odour and no taste, and it is insoluble in aboslute ethyl alcohol, chloroform and ethyl ether, and its product categories are various, including biochemistry; ca (calcium) compounds; classes of metal compounds; glucose; sugar acids; sugars; typical metal compounds; food & flavor additives. This chemical is stable and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

The characteristics of this chemical are as below: (1)H-Bond Donor: 10; (2)H-Bond Acceptor: 14; (3)Rotatable Bond Count: 8; (4)Exact Mass: 430.063547; (5)MonoIsotopic Mass: 430.063547; (6)Topological Polar Surface Area: 283; (7)Heavy Atom Count: 27; (8)Formal Charge: 0; (9)Complexity: 165; (10)Isotope Atom Count: 0; (11)Defined Atom StereoCenter Count: 8; (12)Covalently-Bonded Unit: Count 3.

The production method is below: This making method is called fermentation method. Firsty, make the starch double-enzyme hydrolytic Glucose Liquid as the main medium, calcium carbonate as the neutralizer, and then inoculate the aspergillus niger to ferment; Secondly, make use of the glucose oxidase in aspergillus niger to convert the glucose to calcium gluconate; Thirdly, fermentation broth is filtered adn remove the thallus and residue, and then have the decoloration by activated carbon; Then destainer is neutralized with calcium carbonate, and have the evaporation concentration of the neutralized solution at l00℃; Finally, cool to get the crystal, and then recrystal to get Calcium gluconate.

As to its usage, it is widely applied in many ways. It could be used as the calcium reinforcer, buffer, curing agent and chelant. This chemical has the function of reducing the capillary permeabilty, increase density, maintain nerve and sarcous normal erethism, strengthen cardiac muscle contraction and help sclerotin formation. When store it, keep it in a cool, dry and well-ventilated room.

You should be cautious while dealing with this chemical: Being a kind of harmful chemical, it may cause damage to health, and if by inhalation, in contact with skin or if swallowed, it will have very serious damage. Besides, it is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. So you should take the following instructions while using. Wear suitable protective clothing, and avoid contacting with skin and eyes. If in case of contacting with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. And you could also get more safety information from WGK Germany? 1.??

The following datas could be converted into the molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: C(C(C(C(C(C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.C(C(C(C(C(C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.[Ca+2]
(2)Isomeric SMILES: C([C@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.C([C@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@
H](C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.[Ca+2]
(3)InChI: InChI=1S/2C6H12O7.Ca/c2*7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13;/h2*2-5,7-11H,1H2,
(H,12,13);/q;;+2/p-2/t2*2-,3-,4+,5-;/m11./s1?
(4)InChIKey: NEEHYRZPVYRGPP-IYEMJOQQSA-L?

Below are the toxicity information which have been tested:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
dog LDLo intravenous 1987mg/kg (1987mg/kg) ? Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 47, Pg. 183, 1933.
guinea pig LDLo intravenous 1810mg/kg (1810mg/kg) CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES

GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 191, Pg. 44, 1971.
?
infant LDLo intramuscular 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg) BRAIN AND COVERINGS: MENINGEAL CHANGES

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: "FIBROSIS, FOCAL (PNEUMOCONIOSIS)"
JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 129, Pg. 347, 1945.
infant TDLo intramuscular 143mg/kg (143mg/kg) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE" JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 129, Pg. 347, 1945.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 2200mg/kg (2200mg/kg) ? Journal of Drug Research. Vol. 15(1-2), Pg. 121, 1984.
mouse LD50 intravenous 950mg/kg (950mg/kg) ? Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 4, Pg. 492, 1962.
?
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 2890mg/kg (2890mg/kg) ? Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. Vol. 45, Pg. 47, 1956.
mouse LDLo oral 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg) ? Farmaco, Edizione Pratica. Vol. 26, Pg. 144, 1971.
?
rat LD50 intravenous 950mg/kg (950mg/kg) ? Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 226, 1982.
rat LDLo oral 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg) ? Farmaco, Edizione Pratica. Vol. 26, Pg. 144, 1971.
?

【Report】

?The Calcium gluconate, with its cas no 299-28-5, has its IUPAC name of calcium (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate. This is a kind of white crystalline powder or granules with no odour and no taste, and it is insoluble in aboslute ethyl alcohol, chloroform and ethyl ether, and its product categories are various, including biochemistry; ca (calcium) compounds; classes of metal compounds; glucose; sugar acids; sugars; typical metal compounds; food & flavor additives. This chemical is stable and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

The characteristics of this chemical are as below: (1)H-Bond Donor: 10; (2)H-Bond Acceptor: 14; (3)Rotatable Bond Count: 8; (4)Exact Mass: 430.063547; (5)MonoIsotopic Mass: 430.063547; (6)Topological Polar Surface Area: 283; (7)Heavy Atom Count: 27; (8)Formal Charge: 0; (9)Complexity: 165; (10)Isotope Atom Count: 0; (11)Defined Atom StereoCenter Count: 8; (12)Covalently-Bonded Unit: Count 3.

The production method is below: This making method is called fermentation method. Firsty, make the starch double-enzyme hydrolytic Glucose Liquid as the main medium, calcium carbonate as the neutralizer, and then inoculate the aspergillus niger to ferment; Secondly, make use of the glucose oxidase in aspergillus niger to convert the glucose to calcium gluconate; Thirdly, fermentation broth is filtered adn remove the thallus and residue, and then have the decoloration by activated carbon; Then destainer is neutralized with calcium carbonate, and have the evaporation concentration of the neutralized solution at l00℃; Finally, cool to get the crystal, and then recrystal to get Calcium gluconate.

As to its usage, it is widely applied in many ways. It could be used as the calcium reinforcer, buffer, curing agent and chelant. This chemical has the function of reducing the capillary permeabilty, increase density, maintain nerve and sarcous normal erethism, strengthen cardiac muscle contraction and help sclerotin formation. When store it, keep it in a cool, dry and well-ventilated room.

You should be cautious while dealing with this chemical: Being a kind of harmful chemical, it may cause damage to health, and if by inhalation, in contact with skin or if swallowed, it will have very serious damage. Besides, it is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. So you should take the following instructions while using. Wear suitable protective clothing, and avoid contacting with skin and eyes. If in case of contacting with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. And you could also get more safety information from WGK Germany? 1.??

The following datas could be converted into the molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: C(C(C(C(C(C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.C(C(C(C(C(C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.[Ca+2]
(2)Isomeric SMILES: C([C@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.C([C@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@
H](C(=O)[O-])O)O)O)O)O.[Ca+2]
(3)InChI: InChI=1S/2C6H12O7.Ca/c2*7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13;/h2*2-5,7-11H,1H2,
(H,12,13);/q;;+2/p-2/t2*2-,3-,4+,5-;/m11./s1?
(4)InChIKey: NEEHYRZPVYRGPP-IYEMJOQQSA-L?

Below are the toxicity information which have been tested:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
dog LDLo intravenous 1987mg/kg (1987mg/kg) ? Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 47, Pg. 183, 1933.
guinea pig LDLo intravenous 1810mg/kg (1810mg/kg) CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES

GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 191, Pg. 44, 1971.
?
infant LDLo intramuscular 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg) BRAIN AND COVERINGS: MENINGEAL CHANGES

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: "FIBROSIS, FOCAL (PNEUMOCONIOSIS)"
JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 129, Pg. 347, 1945.
infant TDLo intramuscular 143mg/kg (143mg/kg) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE" JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 129, Pg. 347, 1945.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 2200mg/kg (2200mg/kg) ? Journal of Drug Research. Vol. 15(1-2), Pg. 121, 1984.
mouse LD50 intravenous 950mg/kg (950mg/kg) ? Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 4, Pg. 492, 1962.
?
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 2890mg/kg (2890mg/kg) ? Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. Vol. 45, Pg. 47, 1956.
mouse LDLo oral 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg) ? Farmaco, Edizione Pratica. Vol. 26, Pg. 144, 1971.
?
rat LD50 intravenous 950mg/kg (950mg/kg) ? Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 226, 1982.
rat LDLo oral 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg) ? Farmaco, Edizione Pratica. Vol. 26, Pg. 144, 1971.
?

【Disposal Methods】
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.

Use and Manufacturing

【Use and Manufacturing】
Methods of Manufacturing

Neutralization of gluconic acid with lime or calcium carbonate.
D-Glucose is oxidized to gluconic acid in the presence of calcium carbonate. The oxidation may be effected by certain molds, eg, Aspergillus niger, or by bromine.
U.S. Exports

(1972) ND
(1975) ND
U.S. Imports

(1972) 8.13X10+8 grams (Gluconic acid compounds)
(1975) 3.24X10+6 g (Gluconic acid compounds)
U.S. Production

(1971) 2.97X10+8 grams (sales)
(1975) Probably greater than 4.54X10+5 grams
【Usage】

In sewage purification, in coffee powders to prevent caking.

Biomedical Effects and Toxicity

【Therapeutic Uses】
Some studies have shown that calcium supplementation begun in the second trimester may be effective in lowering blood pressure in pregnancy women with pregnancy-induced hypertension or pre-eclampsia, both of which may possibly be associated with increased calcium demand of the fetus during the last trimester. /Calcium supplements/
Oral calcium salts are used as dietary supplemental therapy for person who may not get enough calcium in their regular diet. Due to increased needs, children and pregnancy women are at greatest risk. Pre- and postmenopausal women; adolescents, especially girls and the elderly may not receive adequate calcium in their diets. ... Calcium supplements are used as part of the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with an inadequate calcium intake. The use of calcium citrate may reduce the risk of kidney stones in susceptible patients. The use of water-soluble salts of calcium (ie, citrate, gluconate, and lactate) may be preferable to acid-soluble salts (ie, carbonate and phosphate) for patients with reduced stomach acid or patients taking acid-inhibiting medication, such as the histamine H2-receptor antagonists. /Calcium supplements; Included in US product labeling/
Oral calcium supplements provide a source of calcium ion for treating calcium depletion occurring in conditions such as chronic hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, rickets, chronic renal failure, and hypocalcemia secondary to the administration of anticonvulsant medications. When chronic hypocalcemia is due to vitamin D deficiency oral calcium salts may be administered concomitantly with vitamin D analogs. /Calcium supplements; Included in US product labeling/
Calcium chloride and parenteral calcium gluconate are used to decrease or reverse the cardiac depressant effects of hyperkalemia on electrocardiographic (ECG) function. /Calcium supplements; Included in US product labeling/
Orally administered calcium gluconate or calcium lactate increases the urinary excretion of radioactive strontium and calcium. Intravenous calcium gluconate can /also/ be used, ... .
Parenteral calcium chloride, calcium glubionate, (or calcium gluconate /NOT included in US product labeling/) may be used also as an adjunct in cardiac resuscitation, particularly after open heart surgery, to strengthen myocardial contractions, such as following defibrillation or when there is an inadequate response to catecholamines. /Calcium supplements; Included in US product labeling/
Calcium acetate, parenteral calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, calcium glubionate, and calcium gluceptate are used in conditions that require an increase in calcium ions for electrolyte adjustment. /Calcium supplements; Included in US product labeling/
Parenteral calcium salts (ie, chloride, glubionate, gluceptate, and gluconate) are indicated in the treatment of hypocalcemia in conditions that require a rapid increase in serum calcium-ion concentration, such as in neonatal hypocalcemia due to "hungry bones" syndrome (remineralization hypocalcemia) following surgery for hyperparathyroidis, vitamin D deficiency; and alkalosis. Calcium salts have been used as adjunctive therapy for insect bites or stings, such as Black Widow Spider bites, and sensitivity reactions, especially when characterized by urticaria; and as an aid in the management of acute symptoms of lead colic. Parenteral calcuim gluconate and calcium gluceptate are also used for the prevention of hypocalcemia during exchange transfusions. /Calcium suppplements; Included in US product labeling/
EXPTL USE: ... Animal experiments show that calcium is both prophylactic and antidotal in poisoning by DDT. ... Calcium may act to stabilize the surface membrane of nerve axons and thus help to correct the biochemical lesion.
MEDICATION (VET): Calcium ... gluconate and /calcium/ borogluconate are considerably less toxic than the lactate and chloride ... they have replaced.
A source of calcium ion in treatment of hypocalcemic tetany or hyperkalemia. ... Less irritating than calcium chloride and may be given orally or by im or iv injection. However, im injection may cause appearance of abscesses. Calcium gluconate is usually considered ... the calcium salt of choice for iv use.
Oral absorption is more complete the smaller the dose ... better to divide daily dose into units of 1 g or less.
Calcium salts have ... been used parenterally as adjuncts to relieve muscle cramps in treatment of insect bites or stings (e.g. black widow spider) or to decrease capillary permeability in sensitivity reactions characterized by urticaria or angioneurotic edema and in allergic conditions ... . /Calcium salts/
MEDICATION (VET): Source of calcium in treatment of various acute and chronic hypocalcemic conditions ... in milk fever (parturient paresis) of cattle and hypocalcemic conditions of cows, ewes, does, mares, parturient eclampsia of bitch, and transport tetany of cows and ewes, given parenterally. ... Also ... orally when indicated.
MEDICATION (VET): Iv, im, sc ... for poultry, as dietary supplement during periods of subnormal eggshell texture not due to specific diseases. In dogs with iron and arsenicals for nonspecific dermatitis. Indicated in respiratory paralysis or neuromuscular blocks following antibiotics, etc.
MEDICATION (VET): In new world monkeys, prophylaxis and therapy of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism.
The complication of neuromuscular blockade secondary to neomycin absorption is treated by means including respiratory assistance and calcium gluconate administration (IV).
In concentrated hydrofluoric acid skin burns, calcium binds to the fluoride ion, preventing further skin penetration. Calcium may reverse the neuromuscular paralysis associated with hyperkalemia and hypermagnesemia as well as the muscle spasms occurring after widow spider (Latrodectus) envenomation. /Calcium/
Calcium gluconate is used as a treatment for acute hypotension.
Calcium gluconate injection (a 10% soln; 9.3 mg of Ca+2/mL) is a readily available source of calcium, and the iv admin of this salt is the treatment of choice for severe hypocalcemic tetany ... Acute admin of calcium may be life-saving in patients with extreme hyperkalemia. Calcium gluconate (10 to 30 mL of a 10% soln) can reverse some of the cardiotoxic effects of hyperkalemia while other efforts are under way to lower plasma concn of K+.
Calcium gluconate admin iv is recommended for relief of /the abdominal pain from lead colic/ and usually is more effective than morphine.
A 15-month-old boy ingested iron tablets and was treated with 60 mL oral 66% sodium phosphate and sodium biphosphate which resulted in phosphate poisoning. This was treated with 5 g calcium gluconate, 10% dextrose iv fluids, and general supportive measures.
A 19-year-old female patient showed adverse hemodynamic and ECG effects upon self-poisoning with 3.2 g of verapamil and was successfully resuscitated by iv calcium gluconate.
EXPL THER (VET): Sodium fluoroacetate (SFAC) or Compound 1080 is a potent rodenticide, largely used after 1946 for rodent and home pest control. The toxic effects of SFAC are caused by fluorocitrate action, a toxic metabolite, which has a competitive action with aconitase enzyme, leading to citrate accumulation and resulting in interference in energy production by Krebs cycle blockade. In the present study, domestic cats were intoxicated with oral doses of fluoroacetate (0.45 mg/kg). The intoxicated animals presented emesis, diarrhea with abdominal pain posture and an abdominal palpation, tachypnea, bilateral midriasis, hypothermia, hyperexcitability and convulsions. Blood gas analysis indicated decreased pH and bicarbonate levels. Serum ionized calcium was also decreased. ECG showed non-specific changes in ventricular repolarization and ventricular arrhythmias. The survival rate was 75% in the treated group with calcium gluconate and sodium succinate and 37.5% in the nontreated group. [Collicchio-Zuanaze RC et al; Hum Exp Toxicol 25 (4): 175-82 (2006)]
【Biomedical Effects and Toxicity】
Approximately one-fifth to one-third of orally administered calcium is absorbed in the small intestine, depending on presence of vitamin D metabolites, pH in lumen, and on dietary factors, such as calcium binding to fiber or phytates. Calcium absorption is increased when a calcium deficiency is present or when a patient is on a low-calcium diet. In patients with achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria, calcium absorption, especially with the carbonate salt, may be reduced. /Calcium supplements/
Elimination: Renal (20%) - The amount excreted in the urine varies with degree of calcium absorption and whether there is excessive bone loss or failure of renal conservation. Fecal (80%) - Consists mainly of nonabsorbed calcium, with only a small amount of endogenous fecal calcium excreted. /Calcium supplements/

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Gluconicacid, magnesium salt (2:1), D- (8CI);Magnesium gluconate (7CI);Almora;GYN;Glucomag;Glucosium;Menesia;Magnesium Gluconate USP/FCC;

Zinc gluconate

(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate; zinc(+2) cation;Zinc,bis(D-gluconato-kO1,kO2)-,(T-4)-;Zinc Gluconate USP Granular;Rubozinc;Zinc glucona...

hydroquinidine gluconate

hydroquinidine gluconate

Hydroxyquinidine gluconate

Hydroxyquinidine gluconate