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Home> Hot Product Listed S   > Sodium nitrate

Sodium nitrate

CAS No.:7631-99-4;15621-57-5
EINECS(EC#):231-554-3
Molecular Weight:84.99
Molecular Formula:NaNO3 (Products with the same molecular formula)
Properties
Density
2.26
Melting Point
306℃
Boiling Point
380℃
Water
900 g/L (20℃)
Spectral properties
Index of refraction = 1.587 (trigonal); 1.336 (rhombohedral)
Safety and Handling
Hazard Codes
 O:Oxidizing agent; Xn:Harmful;
Risk Statements
R22;R36/37/38;R8
Safety Statements
S17;S26;S37/39
Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations
The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract.
Cleanup Methods
Sweep spilled substance into plastic or glass containers. Wash away remainder with plenty of water.
SRP: /Laboratory quantities/ For solid: Sweep into a beaker. Dilute with sufficient water. Ad soda ash. Mix and neutralize with 6M-HCl. Drain into the sewer with abundant water. For solution: Cover with soda ash. After mixing, transfer into a beaker containing water. Neutralize with 6M-HCl. Drain into the sewer with abundant water.
Fire Fighting Procedures
Use abundant amount of water in early stages of fire. When large quantities are involved in fire, nitrate may fuse or melt, in such conditions, application of water may result in extensive scattering of molten material.
If material on fire or involved in fire: Flood with water. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
Fire Potential
Not combustible but enhances combustion of other substances ... /Sodium nitrate/ is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials, causing fire and explosion hazard.
Flames up when heated to 540 deg C. ...
Formulations/Preparations
Association of American Plant Food Control Officials defines /sodium nitrate/...as follows: Nitrate of soda (sodium nitrate) is chiefly the sodium salt of nitric acid. It shall contain not less than 16% nitrate nitrogen & 26% sodium.
Purified grade contains at least 99% sodium nitrate.
Grade: Granular, sticks, powder; crude; 99.5%; double refined; recrystallized; CP; technical; reagent; diuretic; FCC.
Chile saltpeter is marketed as both a "granular" product (mainly used as a fertilizer) and a coarse crystalline product. Technical-grade synthetic sodium nitrate is a fine, crystalline white powder with a bulk density of about 1.36 kg/L. It is sold as an untreated product and also as a free-flowing product containing up to 0.1% alkyl aryl sulfonate as an anticaking agent.
/As of 1991/ sodium nitrate /was/ used with other components as an active ingredient to control mammals such as woodchucks, ground squirrels, and coyotes in open fields, non-crop areas, rangelands, lawns and golf courses. The three end-use products, two containing 65% a.i. sodium nitrate and one with 46.2% sodium nitrate, are all used as fumigant gas cartridges designed to be placed in burrows. The sodium nitrate supports the combustion of charcoal in the formulation of each product.
DOT Emergency Guidelines
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire or Explosion: These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Health: Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Fire: Small fires: Use water. Do not use dry chemicals or foams. CO2, or Halon may provide limited control. Large fires: Flood fire area with water from a distance. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not move cargo or vehicle if cargo has been exposed to heat. Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ Spill or Leak: Keep combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers. Small dry spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Small liquid spills: Use a non-combustible material like vermiculite or sand to soak up the product and place into a container for later disposal. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Following product recovery, flush area with water.
/GUIDE 140: OXIDIZERS/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Contaminated clothing may be a fire risk when dry. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
Exposure Standards and Regulations
Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: sodium nitrate is included in orally administered menstrual drug products.
Reactivities and Incompatibilities
Interaction of nitrates when heated with amidosulfates (sulfamates) may become explosively violent owing to liberation of dinitrogen oxide and steam. /Nitrates/
A study of the kinetics in attack of magnesium by molten sodium nitrate indicates that decomposition of the nitrate releases oxygen atoms which oxidize the metal so exothermally that ignition ensues.
Fibrous organic material (jute storage bags) is oxidized in contact with sodium nitrate above 160 deg C and will ignite below 220 deg C. Wood and similar cellulosic materials are rendered highly combustible by nitrate impregnation.
Mixtures of /sodium/ nitrate with powdered aluminum or its oxide (the latter seems unlikely) were reported to be explosive. ... A violent explosion in a copper smelting works was caused mainly by reaction of aluminum with sodium nitrate.
Mixtures /of barium thiocyanate and sodium nitrate/ may explode.
Interaction of sodium nitrate and sodium alone, or dissolved in liquid ammonia, eventually gives a yellow explosive compound.
Oxidizable substances, organic materials.
Mixture with powdered antimony explodes.
Mixture with charcoal ignites on heating.
Mixture /with sodium thiosulfate or sodium phosphinate/ explodes on heating.
Use of mixtures of metal nitrates with acetic anhydride as a nitrating agent may be hazardous, depending on the proportions of reactants and on the cation ... sodium nitrate usually causes violent reactions ...
Mixtures of the nitrate with powdered aluminium or its oxide (the latter seems unlikely) were reported to be explosive, and the performance characteristics of flares containing compressed mixtures of the metal and nitrate have been evaluated. A violent explosion in a copper smelting works was caused mainly by reaction of aluminium with sodium nitrate.
During investigation of pyrotechnic flare formulations, it was found that mixtures of the metal powder /eg aluminium/ and oxidant /eg sodium nitrate/ underwent a low-temp exothermic reaction at 70 to 135 deg C in presence of moisture.
A veterinary preparation containing the oxidant and reducant materials /arsenic trioxide, iron(II) sulfate, and sodium nitrate/ (possibly with some additional combustibles) ignited spontaneously.
The induction periods for the reaction of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures (43:57 wt) heated at 195, 234 or 260 deg C are 44, 2 and 0.5 hr, respectively. Further study of sodium nitrate/bitumenized waste systems held at these temp showed an initial weak exotherm around 260 deg C and a larger exotherm (0.96 to 1.21 kJ/g) accompanied by 50% wt loss around 430 deg C.
Deflagration occurs /when boron phosphide/ in contact with molten alkali metal nitrates /eg sodium nitrate/.
Combustion of the /calcium-silicon/ alloy in admixture with sodium nitrate is mentioned in an explosive context ...
Solid crude sodium nitrate packed in jute bags sometimes ignited the latter in storage. Normally ignition did not occur below 240 deg C, but in cases where magnesium chloride (up to 16%) was present, ignition occurred at 130 deg C. This was attributed to formation of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, which hydrolyses above its mp (90 deg C) liberating nitric acid. the latter was thought to have caused ignition of the jute bags under unusual conditions of temp and friction.
A rotary drum had been used previously to dry metal components which had been heat-treated in /sodium/ nitrate-/sodium/ nitrite molten salt baths, washed, then tumble dried with ground maize husks to absorb adhering water. When the drum was taken out of service, it was not cleaned out. After some 10 mo it was recommissioned, but while being heated up to operating temp, an explosion occurred which ejected flame jets for several meters. This was attributed to presence of considerable contamination of the maize husks by metal nitrate-nitrite residues, and ignition on heating of such material was confirmed experimentally.
Contact of powdered charcoal with the molten /sodium/ nitrate, or of the solid /sodium/ nitrate with glowing charcoal, causes vigorous combustion of the carbon ... Charcoal powder-nitrate mixtures burn briskly at 200 deg C.
/Sodium nitrate/ may lead to explosive decomposition of the /peroxyformic acid (methaneperoxoic acid)/.
When the /sodium nitrate/ salt-/trifluoroacetic/ acid nitration mixture was applied to phenol, a potential hazardous rapid exothermic reaction occurred producing tar.
Accidental mixing of /sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium sulfide/ caused a violent explosion.
Reaction of ammonium hexanitrocerate and cyclopentadienylsodium under inert conditions gives tri(cyclopentadienyl)cerium and sodium nitrate, removed by filtration before evaporation of solvent. When the filtration step was omitted, and the evaporated solid mixture was heated to 75 deg C, a violent explosion occurred. This may have involved complexes of the type Ce(NO3)Cp2.NaNO3, but a direct redox reaction between the reactive CeCp3 and the oxidant is also possible.
When organic matter is destroyed for residue analysis by heating with equimolar potassium nitrate-sodium nitrate mixture to 390 deg C, a 20-fold excess of nitrate must be used. If over 10% of organic matter is present, pyrotechnic reaction occur which could be explosive. Subsequent to an explosion while a citric acid-sodium nitrate mixture was being heated at below 500 deg C, experiments on the effect of heating various organic materials with metal nitrates showed the tendency for explosion to increase from magnesium through calcium to sodium nitrate. This is in the order of mp of the nitrates, and explosion may occur when the nitrates melt and make intimate contact with the organic matter. Pretreatment with nitric acid may reduce the explosion risk.
A mixture of ... /barium rhodanide and sodium nitrate/ may cause an explosion.
Addition of cyanides to a molten /sodium/ nitrate bath (or vice versa) will result in an explosion.
A mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hypophosphite constitutes a powerful explosive.
The familiar black powder explosion begins with the reaction, sulfur-plus-sodium-nitrate, which produces the energy to initiate the carbon-plus-sodium nitrate explosion.
Other Preventative Measures
SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers.
Personnel protection: ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. ... Approach fire with caution.
NO contact with combustibles and reducing agents ... PREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST ... Local exhaust or breathing protection ... Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating ... Rinse contaminated clothes (fire hazard) with plenty of water. Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available.
Approximately 14 million households in the United States use private wells to supply their drinking water (Bureau of the Census 1993). In agricultural areas, nitrogen-based fertilizers are a major source of contamination for shallow groundwater aquifers that provide drinking water. A recent United States Geological Survey study showed that >8,200 wells nationwide were contaminated with nitrate levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standard of 10 parts per million (ppm). ... Because of the risks for potential adverse health effects, persons who use drinking water that contains nitrate levels >10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) should have alternative sources of water or appropriate treatment of existing supplies. Information regarding testing of well water can be obtained from city or county health departments. Other sources of nitrate contamination are organic animal wastes and contamination from septic sewer systems, especially in wells
Protective Equipment and Clothing
The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract.
Disposal Methods
SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational exposure or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal, aquatic, and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations.
Reach Info
This substance has been officially registered by enterprises.
ECHA (EU chemicals Management Agency) published the completed registration file as follows:
Completed registration file:
Registered as ubmitted Total tonnage band  
FULL JOINT 10000_100000 view >
Registered companies:
Registrant / Supplier details Latest dossier received
"Alwernia" Spółka Akcyjna 2017
Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals BV 2013
BASF Construction Solutions GmbH 2012
more >
Computational chemical data

Molecular Weight:84.99467 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula:NNaO3
H-Bond Donor:0
H-Bond Acceptor:3
Rotatable Bond Count:0
Exact Mass:84.977588
MonoIsotopic Mass:84.977588
Topological Polar Surface Area:62.9
Heavy Atom Count:5
Formal Charge:0
Complexity:18.8
Isotope Atom Count:0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:2